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By  F.   W.  Teepk"  and  A.   Davis  Smith 

The  attitude  of  Jefferson  County  toward  American  manufacturing  has 
;suddenly  assumed  a  determining  influence.  Its  wonderful  resources,  and 
their  possibilities,  even  now  command  general  recognition  in  that  division 
•of  the  world's  manufacturing  industry  wherein  wages  are  highest,  labor 
-most  dignified,  and  profits  most  certain. 

The  execution  of  the  plan  of  this  volume  required  record  to  be  made 
■of  a  circumstantial  variety  of  conditions  which,  initiating  in  Jefferson 
■County,  have  laid  the  foundations  of  a  wonderful  industrial  transformation 
perva>^..ig  the  entire  State,  and  sensibly  felt  far  beyond  the  bounda- 
ries of  Alabama.  The  several  features  of  the  history  these  pages  attempt 
are:  A  technical  treatise,  made  popular,  regarding  the  proof  of  the 
mineral  wealth  of  the  county ;  the  success  of  rail  transportation  in  giving 
■commercial  value  to  the  products  of  mines  and  manufactures ;  the  indus- 
trial, financial,  and  social  character  of  the  population. 

The  essay  of  Professor  Henry  McCalley  is  a  most  satisfying  explana- 
tion of  the  incalculable  natural  resources  confined  in  this  county.  The 
enterprise  brought  to  bear  upon  them  is  fully  discovered  in  the  history  of 
the  great  land  corporations  and  the  manufactories.  The  elevated  char- 
acter   of  the  community  may  be  traced  in    the    political    and  municipal 


government ;  in  tlie  schools  and  churches  ;  the  press  ;  pohtical,  industrial, 
and  religious,  and  social  organizations  so  numerous  and  zealous. 

The  biographical  feature  is  replete  with  historical  data  of  no  common 
interest.  Each  separate  sketch  was  obtained  by  special  request  of  the 
publishers.  A  glance  over  the  whole  number  will  prove  that  Jefferson 
County  development  and  the  foundation  and  growth  of  Birmingham  are 
the  proud  achievements,  first,  of  Alabamians,  and  of  Southern  men  next. 
No  very  rich  individual  came  here  as  a  pioneer.  Very  few  individuals 
approached  in  fortune  the  designation  of  "rich  men"  among  those  who 
have  given  fame  to  the  wealth  of  Jefferson  County.  All  the  leaders  are 
recorded  as  of  an  active  religious  faith. 

The  steel  engravings  are  of  the  best  style  known  to  the  art,  and  in 
ever)'  instance  were  made  expressly  for  the  places  they  here  fill. 

The  volume  is  a  Birmingham  product.  It  was  wholly  prepared  and 
put  to  press  in  this  city,  and  the  publishers,  sharing  the  pride  which 
doubtless  all  public-spirited  citizens  must  feel  in  its  successful  appearance, 
intend  it  to  be  the  forerunner  of  others  whose  office  it  shall  be  to  proclaim 
and  promote  the  fame  and  prosperity  so  honorably  erected  here. 

The  Publishers. 

Birmingham,  April,  1887. 



Adams  Private  Bank I'lil 

Alabama  Xational  Bank.  The   LTi:! 

Al.lrich,  T.  H I'S 

Alum 42 

Anderson,  F.  Y ]l!0 

Anticlinal  Valley 25 

Appalachian is,  20,  25 

Banks  of  Birmingham 246 

Bar,  Roll  of 93 

Bar,  Members  of 56 

Barker,  M.  P 151 

Baylor,  W.  K 84,  S5 

Beard,  Rev.  T.  J 218 

Bench  and  Bar 77 

Berney  National  Bank,  The 257 

Birmingham,  Situation  of 54 

Birmingham  National  Bank,  The . .  261 

Brown  Ore,  Analy.sis  of 49 

Brown,  Rev.  Hardie 236 

Brown,  John S5 

Browne,  Very  Rev.  J.  J 211 

Bugbee,  Francis S6 

Cahaba  Coal  Field- 
Area  of 36 

Analysis  of 39 

Capacity  of 38 

Dip  of 39 

General  Character  of 37 

!Montevallo  Group 38 

Transportatiofi  of 39 

Canals  and  Railroads,  Early   54 

Caldwell,  Dr.  H,  M ....   1.55,  1 71 

Cantly,  John 62 

Chazy  Rock 44 

Churches,  The 208,  245 

First  Baptist.   226 

Colored  Baptist 242 

The  Advent 212 

St.  Paul's  Catholic 208 

The  Christian 240 

Churches — Continued. 

Congregation  Emanuel .   242 

First  Methodist  E.,  South 235 

St.  John's  Methodist  E.,  South. .   237 

Second  Methodist  E.,  South 240 

North  Methodist  E 239 

Colored  M^hodist. .». 245 

First  Presbyterian    220 

Second  Presbyterian 224 

Cumberland  Presbyterian 226 

Clay — Fire,  Iron,  Stone 41 

Climate 18 

Clinton  Group 44,  45 

City  Bank,  The 250 

City  Government 189,  195 

Coal  Fields 20 

Coal  Measures. . .  . , 18,  20 

Coal  INIines,  Early. 61 

Coal  and  Ore  Mines 594 

Coal,  Analysis  of 34,  35 

Coal,  Quality  and  Quantity  of 20 

Coal,  Primitive  Mining 48 

Coalburg 144 

Coke,  Production  and  Analysis. . .  .33,  34 

Copperas 42 

Corporations,  Miscellaneous — 

Alabama  Real  Estate  and  Loan.   271 

North  Highlands 271 

North  Birmingham  Building  . . .  271 

Alabama  Co-operative 272 

Birmingham  Corrugating 272 

Birmingham  Investment 273 

Rogers  Printing 273 

Ullman  Hardware 273 

Watts  Coal  and  Iron 273 

Birmingham    Paint,   Glass    and 

"Wall  Paper 274 

Land  and  Investment   274 

Alabama  A.sphalt,  Alining,  etc.    .   274 

Three  Rivers  Ciial  and  Iron 275 

First  National  Coal  and  Iron.. .  .   275 


Corporations — Continued. 

Peacock  Coal,  Iron,  and  Improve- 
ment   275 

Nortli  Alabama  Colored  Land .  .   275 

Birmingham  Abstract 27(5 

Birmingham  Construction 276 

People's    Homestead,   Building, 

and  Loan 276 

Central  Trust 277 

Co-operative  Manufacturing  and 

Building 2(7 

Industrial  Protective 277 

Birmingham  Land  and  Loan 277 

Birmiugham    Real    Estate    and 

Investment 278 

Colored  Mutual  Investment 278 

Birmingham  Land,  Tanning,  and 

Manufacturing 287 

Alabama  Wagon  and  Carriage .  .  287 
Kreble  Engine  Manufacturing..  290 
Birmingham    Iron    Bridge    and 

Forge 290 

Birmingham  Furnace  and  ^Man- 

ufacturing 290 

Red  Mountain  Mining  and  Man- 
ufacturing   290 

Crops,  Field 21 

County  Officers 56,  73,  74,  75,  76 

Courthouse 55 

Cullinan,  Colony  of  John  G 135 

Cox,  G.  S ". 91 

Davis,  Dr.  Ralph 109 

Da^•is,  Dr.  Daniel      98 

Deason,  G.  T 109 

DeBardeleben,  H.  F 187 

Douglass,  Howard 28 

Drainage 21 

Earle,  Dr.  Samuel  8     98 

Edwards,  Dr.  J.  S 100 

Elyton  Land  Company 148,  184 

Ensley,  Enoch 590 

Ernest,  William  S 91,  124 

Exchange,  Cotton  and  Produce 295 

Farmers,  Early 59 

Farm  Products 128 

Farrar,  T.  W 86 

Faults 19 

First  National  Bank,  The 250 

First  Settlers 54,  60,  61 

Flatwoods 4a 

Forests 21 

Forrest,  J.  F 87 

Fossils 23 

Furnace,  First 63 

Furnaces — 

Ahce 592 

Eureka .591 

Mary  Pratt            593 

Williamson 593 

Woodward 591 

Projected 594 

Garland,  Dr 125 

Geological  History 18 

Grace,  B.  E 66 

Green,  Colonel 61 

Hagood,  Dr.  Zachariah 100 

Handley,  Rev.  L.  S 222 

Hawkins,  Dr.  Nathaniel 109 

Hay,  Dr.  Jones 103 

Hazlehurst,  G.  H 141 

Henley,  R.  H 91,  187 

Hewitt,  Captain 61 

Hewitt,  G.  W 88- 

Hillman,  T.  T 580 

Hotels 309- 

Hubbard,  David 120 

Indians  54,  57,  5& 

Iron  Stone 41 

Iron  Ores,  Area  of 48,  49 

Iron  Ores,  Analysis  of 45,  46,  47 

Iron  Ores,  Black  Band 41 

Industries 18 

Insurance  Companies — 

Birmingham  ;    Iron    and    Oak  ; 
Royal • 274 

Jefferson  County 

Early  History  of 5S 

General  Description  of 17 

Jonesboro 58 

Jolly,  J.  J 92 

Judges — 

Chancery 84 

Circuit  80 

City  Court 83 


Judges — C'ontiuued. 

Criminal 322 

Probate 85 

Kent,  Dr.  J.  E 109 

Keller,  Dr.  James 97 

Kelley,  Moses 8.5 

King,  Dr.  Peyton . .     97 

Knox  Dolomite 44,  47 

Knox  Shale 48 

Land  Companies,  Suljurban — 

Avondale 261 

Smithfield 262 

North  Birmingham 262 

East  Lake 264 

East  Birmingham 265 

Birmingham — Ensley 265 

Glendale ." 266 

Belt  Road 266 

Mutual .266 

Walker . .   267 

South  Side 267 

Village  Creek 267 

East  End 268 

Ensley 268 

Cahaba  Valle}- 269 

East   End   Land   and   Improve- 
ment            . .  269 

Clifton 269 

College  Hill 270 

Bessemer 270 

Bradfield 271 

Highland  Lake 271 

Central     ....  . .  271 

Land  Grants 127 

Latitude 20 

Legislators 72,  73 

Lindsay,  W.  W . . . .  ....     87 

Linn,  Charles     248 

Little  Basin 24,  25 

Longitude 20 

Lower  Silurian 45 

Mails,  Early 56 

Manufactories 279,  291 

Church's   Machinery  and    Fine 

Tool " 279 

Southern  Bridge.  ..   .         279 

Birmingham  Agricultural  Iniijle- 

ment 279 

Birmingham  Iron  'Works 2S0 

•Manufactories — Continued. 

Wharton  Flouring  Mills 280 

Avondale  Ice  Factory 280 

Birmingham  Ice  Factory 280 

Jefferson  Pressed  Brick . .  280 

Birmingham  Bridge  and  Bolt. . .  280 
■  Smitli's  Sons  Gin  and  Machine..   281 

Alabama  Iron  Works ....  281 

Southern  Foundry  and  Manufac- 
turing   282 

Baxter  Stove 282 

Brewer's  Sash,  Door,  and  Blind 

Factory 282 

Avondale  Iron 285 

Excelsior  Foundry  and  INIachine  28.> 

Avondale  Stove 285 

Birmingham  Chain 286 

Birmingham  Axe  and  Tool 286 

Thompson  Brick     286 

Avondale  Lumber  and  Milling..  286 
Alabama  Gas,  Fuel,  and  Manu- 
facturing     287 

Birmingham  Soaj) 287 

Enterprise  Manufacturing  Com- 
pany       290 

Caldwell  Printing  Works 291 

Mineral  Water  Manufacturing. .  291 

McCalla,  R.  C 142 

]\IcCaa,  Eugene         91 

Marre,  A 153 

Marshall,  Dr.  F.  M 108 

Martin,  Alburto 88 

Medical  Profession 97 

INIedical  Society 109 

^lerchants.  Early  .  .    55 

Milner,  John  T.." 138 

Milner,  Willis  J 174 

Millstone,  Grit    25,  26 

Miners,  Nationality  of 40 

Mineral  Interests,  Early 63 

Milner's  Report 132 

Moore,  W.  W 91 

Moore,  Gov.  A.  B 131 

Morris,  Josiah.. 162 

Morrow,  J.  C 88 

Mudd,  W.  S 88 

Mussel  Shoals 121, 13.S 

National  Bank,  The ...  249 

Natural  Divisions 22 

New  Castle -  -  144 


Pearson,  R.  H ill 

Peck,  E.  W 62,  S6,  S7 

Pennsylvania  Coal,  Quantity  of .    . . .     28 

Peters,  Thomas 145 

Phelan,  Ellis 98 

Physical  Features 26 

Physicians 56,  117 

Pierce,  Rev.  J.  D 238 

Pioneer  Iron-Makers 580 

Places  of  Amusement 309 

Plateau  and  Basin  Area 24 

Population 18 

Porter,  M.  T 86,  88 

Powell,  James  K 165 

Production 22 

Press,  The 196,  207 

Jones'  Valley  Times 196 

Central  Alabamian 196 

Elyton  Herald 196 

Birmingham  Sun 197 

Jefferson  Independent 197 

Daily  Sun 197 

Iron  Age 197 

Chronicle 199 

Alabama  Christian  Advocate 200 

Kew  South 200 

Labor  Union 201 

Planters'  Journal 202 

Land  and  Rail 203 

Furnace  and  Factory 203 

Alabama   Jledioal  and  Surgical 

Journal . .  203 

Evening  News 204 

Purser,  Hev.  D.I 231 

Railroads 18 

Railroads,  Building 120 

Railroads,  Convention  to  Promote..  123 

Railroad,  Queen  &  Crescent 129 

Riiilroad,  Alabama  Central 130 

Eailroads,  Later 595 

Rainfall 20 

Kandolph,  Nimrod  D .    .  103 

Eaw  Material 17 

lied  Mountain 45 

Rolling  Mills 594 

Eock  Mountain 24, 25 

Rodes,  Gen.  R.  E 126 

Kobiuson,  Dr.  J.  B 100 

Saltpetre 42 

Savings  Bank,  Jefferson  County 254 

Schools,  Public 245 

Section,  General 29.  30,  31,  32,  44 

Sequatchee  Valley .    .     25 

Sherrod,  Benjamin 121 

Silurian  Rocks 45 

Sloss,  J.  W 185 

Sloss  Steel  and  Iron  Co 593 

Smith,  Dr.  J.  R 103 

Societies,  Secret  and  Social 

Knights  of  Pythias 301 

Cyrene  Commandery 301 

Birmingham  Fraternal  Lodge,  F. 

&  A.  M .       302 

Birmingham  Encampment,  I.  O. 

O.F 302 

JMiueral  City  Lodge 302 

Knights  of  Honor 303 

Evening  Star  Lodge  Knights  and 

Ladies  of  Honor 303 

L'nited  Charities 303 

Young  iSIen's  Christian  Associa- 
tion     304 

Press  Club 305 

Women's  Christian  Temiierauce 

Union 306 

Yard-Masters'    IMutual     Benefit 

Association 306 

Order  Railway  Conductors 307 

-Alabama  Club 307 

German  Society 308 

G.  A.  R.  George  A.  Custer  Post..  308 

Knights  of  Labor 308 

Brotherhood  of  Locomotive  En- 
gineers   576 

Soils 21 

Stones 41 

Strata,  Dip  of 24 

Strata,  Sub-Carboniferous 33 

Temperature 20 

Three-per-cent.  Fund 64 

Timber 42 

Topography 20 

Towns  and  Villages 595 

Tuomey,   Michael 42,  123 

Transportation,  City 296,  301 

Trenton  Rocks 44 

Troy,  Daniel  S 179 


Upheavals : 

Upper  Silurian .  . . . 


Valley,  Anticlinal. 
Vann,  Dr.  J.  B.... 
Vegetable  Matter.. 
Volunteers,  Early. 



Walker,  Peter S,5 

Walker,  Jr.,  W.  A SS 

Walker,  T.  A SS 

"Warrior  Coal  Field 2;! 

Composition  of ....     '1\ 

Workable  Seams  of.   ... 

Thickness  of 

Value  of  

Capacity  of 

Complications  of 

Warrior  Coal  Field — Ciintinueil. 

Clean  Coal 33 

Character  of 33 

Numlx'r  of.   .      27 

How  Used 36 

How  Mined 35 

How  Reached 3.5 

Area  of . .  25 

Warrior  River,  Flcnv  of 2t),  36 

Water  Divide 20 

Waterworks 183 

Webb,  /.  B 57 

AVholesale  Houses 292,  295 

Wilson,  W.  L 85 

Wilson,  P.  N 88 

White  Child,  First  Born 54 

Younj;,  H.  A .    91 

hidex  to  Portraits. 


Berry,  Wm.  E .:..  501 

^  Berney,  William 256 

J  Boddie,  Jolm  B 425 

_,  Boland,  R.  W 452 

•Caldwell,  H.  M   171 

-*  Cameron,  W.  J 251 

-^  Davin,  Walter  W 474 

-Davis,  J.  D.  S H6 

.Davis,  W.  E.  B 394 

Eastman,  E 429 

^  Grace,  Baylis  E  52 

"Handley,  Wm.  A 437 

^  Hawkins,  James  E   347 

-  Hillman,  T.  T 581 

"  Hudgins,  T.  L 417 

•Johns,  L.  W 560 

-  Jordan,  M.  H  106 

Kelley,  George  C 283 

Lane,  A.  O  78 

--  Luckie,  J.  B  385 

Martin,  Alburto 89 

-^  Milner,  John  T 137 

JMilner,  Willis  J 175-'^ 

MfAdory,  Chambers .509   ^ 

McCary,  Clyde  J  .  .    513' .\ 

Mudd,"  Wm".  S 82^' 

Pearson,  Robert  H 330  "- 

Phillips,  J.  H 244 

Porter,  Mitchell  T 319    , 

Purser,  D.  1 230   ^ 

Read,  John  W 260'  . 

Roberts,  Willis 205 

Roden,  B.  F 297   , 

Russell,  James  M ^ 367   j 

Smith,  Joseph  R 102  v 

Smith,  R.D 433- 

Stevens,  Jr. ,  E.  G 455  ^ 

Tabor,  B.  H 360 

Taliaferro,  E.  T   339  , 

Terry,  John  T 333  \ 

Thomson,  John  M 505 

Underwood,  W.  T 448  , 

Walker,  AVra.  A 68     -^ 

Walker,  Jr.,  AVm.  A 326  .. 

AVestbrook,  J.  C 5ia 

Williamson,  C.  P 445-  .. 

Index  to  Biographies. 


Abernethy,  B.  G 399 

Abernethy,  J.  C 398 

Allen,  B.  M 376 

Allen,  James  A 469 

Allen,  Henry    531 

Altman,  J.J ■ .  ■  363 

Ashford,  T.  T 494 

Ansley,  W.  W 549 

Ball,  Geo.  C 461 

Bains,  G.  W 492 

Bankhead,  J.  H 442 

Bass,  J.  W 555 

Barelift,  H.  H 494 

Barclift,  L.  M.,  Jr 494 

Berney,  Wm 419 

Bethea,  W.  M 365 

Beggs,  H.  T 477 

Berry,  W.  E 500 

Berry,  R.  A 401 

Beitman,  Joseph 467 

Billups,  J.  M.,  Jr 416 

Boddie,  John  B 424 

Boggan,  M.  ]M 496 

Boland,  K.  W 453 

Bradley,  R.  C 405 

Brewer,  W.  P 454 

Bridges,  E.  L 461 

Brooks,  W.  :^I 342 

Brown,  H.  U 372 

Brownlee,  E.  G 522 

Buchanan,  3.\ 499 

Burwell,  O.  S 539 

Burwell  T.  0 477 

Burgin,  W.  M 406 

Byrne,  Patrick 459 

Cameron,  W.  J 420 

Campbell,  E.  K 375 

Campbell,  G.  W 488 

Carter,  J.  R 411 

Chew.W.L 400 

Cheek,  Amos 498 

Chenoweth,  W.  A 491 

Clarke,  H.  0 527 

Clarkson,  E.  L 354 

Cobbs,  Thomas 317 

Cobbs,  J.  B 421 

Cochrane,  H.  P 397 

Copeland,  W.  B 485 

Copeland,  H.  J 525 

Copeland,  B.  G 39{> 

Cowin,  Tom 553 

Cox,  James  A 401 

Crawford,  W.  W 548 

Crawford,  Toombs 552 

Crowe  P.  P 556 

Cruikshank^G.  M 412 

Cunningham,  R.  M 573 

Darby,  S.  J 373 

Davis,  Elias 380 

Davis,  Daniel 378  - 

Davis,  J.  D.  S 391 

Davis,  W.  E.  B 395 

Davin,  Walter  W 475 

Davis  &  Worcester 467 

Dawson,  W.  W 464 

Dill,  H.  H 572 

Dozier,  J.  C 388 

DuBose,  J.  W 413 

Earle,  J.  B 482 

Earle,  P.  H 483 

Eastman,  E 428 

Edmonds,  E.  N 416 

ElHs,  C.  C 519 

Emmons,  S.  W 479 

Enslen,  C.  F ...  422 

Enslen,  E.  F 422. 

Index  to  Biographies. 

Erswell,  Edward 484 

Eubank,  Alfred o36 

Eubank,  George oliH 

Evans,  F.  V 4(17 

Francis,  C.  H 4.S5 

Francis,  J.  B 4!)1 

Fulton,  E.  K :!(14 

Fulwiler,  R.  W 550 

Garrett,  J.  J 353 

Gayle,  J.  P 5l>7 

Gillespy,  J.  S 400 

Gillespie,  J.  M 374 

Gilmer,  W.  B 5l'6 

Glailden,  F.  C ■    552 

Going,  J.  A 500 

Greene,  S.  E 322 

Green,  N.  T 5J8 

Grace,  D.  B 414 

Grady,  J.  F 4ii7 

Gregg,  M.  ,J ;;75 

Gould,  William 556 

Hagood,  R.  H 521 

Handley,  W.  A 4;?5 

Hanby,  S.  M 5^0 

Hand,  D.  M 53,3 

Hargreaves,  H.  W 570 

Hawkins,  J.  E ;;46 

Hawkins,  A.  X 49S 

Harding,  W.  P.  G 547 

Harris,  G.  H 57I 

Harris,  G.  W 497 

Heflin,  J.  T 314 

Henley,  A.  T liOl 

Henley,  J.  C 41S 

Hewett,  G.  W Sl>4 

Hickman,  W.  P 402 

Higgins,  W.  H 533 

Higdon,  E.  L 478 

Hochstadter,  I.  R 554 

Hochstadter,  A.  F 408 

Hopkins,  .T.  B 489 

Hood,  AVm 4S(5 

Horton,  W.  M 5:57 

Houston,  W.  A 5(i8 

Huey,  J.  M 500 

Hughes,  B.  M 388 

Hughes,  C.  T 535 

Hudgins,  T.  L 417 

Hudson,  M.  G 528 

Ingram,  C.  J.  K.. .  . 
Irion,  F.  M 


.letters,  Thomas 534 

Jemison,  Robert 427 

Jemison,  J.  S 3()4 

Johns,  L.  \V 5(il 

Johnston,  W.  H 389 

Jones,  J.  C 574 

Jones,  E.  R 4i)3 

Jordan,  M.  H 381 

Kelloy,  George  C 450 

Kettig,  W.  H 47() 

Lacey,  E.  P   ..  .  , 

Laird,  S.  E 

Lane,  A.  0 

Ledbetter,  J.  A. . 
Ledbetter  S.  L.. 
Lighton,  S.  H . . . 

Linn,  E.  W 

Lindsay,  W.  M. . 

Long,  J.  C 

Lowe,  R.  J 

Luckie,  J.  B.  . . . 

Lyons,  T.  B 

Lynch,  J.  E 


. .  400 
. .  459 
. .  421 
.  .  480 
. .  554 

.  3G9 
. .  384 

.  423 
. .  493 

INIalone,  W.  N 472 

Martin,  J.  M  349 

Martin,   Alburto 322 

Marshal,  J.  B 533 

Marable,  D.  T 551 

Mercer,  Harry 487 

Merrill,  C.  A 537 

Miles,  G.  G 512 

IMcAdory,  Chambers 508 

McAdory,  R.  A 350 

McCary,  J.  H 478 

McCary,  C.  J 511 

McCarthy,  F.  W 400 

McClary,  J.  B 507 

McCune,  J  .H 550 

IMcEachin,   A.  B 370 

McKinney,  H.  M 409 

McLester,  Joseph 400 

Index  to   Biooi-aphies. 


Moore,  Moore  <&  Handley 4.S0 

Moore,  J.  G ■"'70 

Morehead,  F.  C 415 

Morrow,  J.  C     315 

Morrow,  G.  M 396 

Mountjoy,  C.  A             :!70 

Mudd,  W.  S \'A\ 

Mudd,  J.  P 432 

Nabers,  \V.  F ,.  .    . .  539 

Naff,  W.  H '..  499 

Naff,  J.  M 575 

Nicholson,  Evan   541 

O'Brien,  Frank  P 542 

Oliver,  Wm.  G                                  .  5'-'3 

Olmstead,  E.  1) 4S7 

Owen,  R.  W 523 

Fatty,  H.   M   , 372 

Peanson,  R.  IT 331 

Peebles,  J.  PI 492 

Perry,   H.  A\'     479 

Ferryman  &  Dearborn     529 

Phelan,  John 540 

Phillips,  J.  II 410 

Porter,  M.  T   318 

Porter,  M.  A    363 

Porter,  ^\  X    547 

Price,  Isaac 5G1 

Read,  John  W 420 

Reese,  C.  H 4()(! 

Rancher,  C.  i? 52() 

Richards,  E.  A .  523 

Rogers,  P.  J   5G9 

Roberts,  Charles . .  416 

Roden,  B.  F 441 

Roden,  J.  B 483 

Rowlett,  Jr.,  Daniel 525 

Russell,  James  M 366 

Raps,  George 553 

Schillinger,   Philip ^ 462 

Schwab   Jonas 496 

Sears,  J.  W 387 

Senn,  Chas.  A 305 

Shackleford,  J.  D 496 

Shahan,  John 480 

Sharpe,   II.  A 321 

Shaw,  Willis   476 

Shepherd,  CD 521 

Sheppard,  F.  (J 5.33 

Shideler,  \V.  L 465 

Sidel,  Edouanl 530 

Sisson,  ( '.   W   458 

Slade,  C.  E     548 

Smith,  Joseph  R 378 

Smith,  D.  D 369 

Smith,  T.  S 489 

Smith,  H.  D ...  519 

Smith,  P.  R ,     491 

Smith,  R.   D 431 

Smith,  AV.  C 516 

Solomon  &.  Levi . .  . .  554 

Stevens,  Jr.,  E.  G  4,54 

Stillman,  J.JI..      .      516 

Stiles,  J.  P :^77 

Sterrett,  R.  H 351 

Stone,  Harry..      .     552 

Strange,  J.  I) 373 

Sutclirt'e,  Armstrong  &  Willett 531 

Tabor,   B.  H 361 

Taliaferro,  E.  T 338 

Tarrant,  A.J 403 

Terry,  John  T 332 

Terry,  Jr.,  John   T 524 

Thompson,  T.  G 490 

Thompson,  N.  F .  .   504 

Thom.son,  P.  K 524 

Thomson,  John  M 503 

Thornton,  T.  F 497 

Throckmorton,  M.  B .432 

Tillman,   J.  P 3()1 

Tomlinson,  J.  W . .   371 

Torrey,  Samuel 488 

Truss,  S.  R ...  403 

TjHer,  A.  A .544 

Tvler,  G.  W .375 

Underwood,  \\'ni.  T 
Underwood,  O.  W .. 

VanHoose,  J.  ]M   .  .  . 
Vanlloose,  J.  A.... 

Yaughan,  A\'m 

Veitch,  John     . 




Index  to  Biographies. 

W;Mle.  A.C 533 

Walker,  Win.   A .vSS 

Walker,  Jr.,  Wm.  A 3l'8 

Walker,  E.  W ..527 

AVard,  W.  C 3o.t 

Ward,  G.  R 543 

Ware,  J.  A 529 

Warren,  Edward 507 

Watkins,  J.  L 412 

Watlington,  H.  L 37{) 

Weatherly,   James 362 

Webb,  James  E 357 

AVeil,  M.  &  Bro 497 

Westbrook,  J.  C 519 

Whelan,  Charles 390 

^Whilden,  B.  D 487 

Wilda,  R.  AV.  A 546 

Wilson,  Rev.  W.  L 515 

Wilson,  J.  W 493 

Wilson,  J.  E 493 

Wilson,  H.  F 525 

Wilson,  P.  B .  515 

Wilson,  A.  O 545 

Williamson,  C.  P 444 

AViun,  H.  J 398 

Withington,  M.  E 492 

Wood,  C.  W 464 

Wood,  W.  H   540 

Wooldridge,  W.  H 457  " 

Yancey,  AVm.   E 495 

Jeffersop  ^oupty. 

Je^^eyjori  C^only* 


HENRY   McCALLEY,  A.  M.,  C.  &  M.  E. 

Chemist  and  Assistant  State  Geologist. 


General   Description  and   Remarks. 

Jefferson  County  is  one  of  the  central  counties  of  Alabama,  and  is 
the  banner  county  of  the  South  in  such  as  will  make  it  permanently  rich 
and  prosperous,  and  in  such  as  is  of  the  greatest  interest  and  importance 
to  mankind.  Its  topography  is  pleasing  and  striking,  its  geology  is 
interesting  and  instructive,  and  its  natural  resources  are  varied  and 

It  is  of  a  rectangular  shape,  and  is  about  thirty-eight  miles  long, 
from  north-east  to  south-west,  by  some  twenty-five  miles  wide  from 
north-west  to  south-east,  thus  embracing  about  960  square  miles.  It  is 
preeminently  a  manufacturing  county,  and  is  destined,  from  the  very 
nature  of  things,  to  take  a  front  rank  in  the  variety  and  value  of  its 
manufactured  goods  and  in  its  railroad  facilities.  It  presents,  as  its  chief 
advantages  and  inducements  to  the  manufacturers  of  iron,  cotton,  glass, 
wooden,   and  other    goods,    cheap    raw  materials,   cheap   power,   cheap 

Jefferson   County. 

transportation,  cheap  homes,  cheap  fuel,  cheap  food,  and  a  healthy  and 
invigorating  climate,  comparatively  free  from  all  the  rigors  of  a  Northern 
winter  and  the  scorching  sun  of  a  Southern  summer.  Its  industries  are 
rapidly  advancing  and  multiplying,  and  its  properties  are  rapidly  increas- 
ing in  value.  This  rapid  increase  is  confined  to  no  particular  branch  of 
its  industries  and  to  no  single  element  of  its  prosperity,  but  they  all 
appear  to  have  the  motto,  "Onward  and  Upward,"  and  everywhere  there 
is  to  be  seen  push,  activity,  enterprise,  and  progress.  The  increase  in  its 
taxable  property,  as  returned  by  the  assessor,  was  nearly  $3,000,000  for 
the  year  1885,  ^"^  it  will  be  much  more  for  the  year  1886.  This  almost 
unparalleled  increase  is  due  principally  to  the  great  prosperity  of  its 
present  or  established  industries  and  to  the  introduction  of  its  numerous 
new  ones.  In  the  building  of  new  railroads,  it  is  especially  on  a  big 
boom.  Besides  being  traversed  by  three  great  trunk  railroad  lines,  it  will 
soon  be  penetrated  to  its  very  heart's  core  by  four  others  that  are  now 
being  built,  and  very  likely  by  still  three  others  that  have  been  survej'ed 
and  will  most  probably  be  built.  When  all  of  its  projected  railroads 
shall  have  been  built,  its  capital  city,  Birmingham,  will  be  the  greatest 
railroad  center  of  the  South. 

Its  population  is  also  growing  rapidly.  By  the  census  of  1880  it 
had  a  population  of  only  23,272  (whites,  18,219;  colored,  5,053),  and 
now  Birmingham  alone  has  some  30,000,  and  the  county  must  have  near 
60,000,  though  the  tide  of  immigration  has  just  set  in.  Of  these  many 
new-comers  there  have  been  seen  but  very  few  discofitents  and  drones. 
They  are  principally  skilled  laborers  of  intelligence,  integrity,  industry, 
and  enterprise,  and  to  them  it  should  be  said :  If,  with  well-directed 
energy,  you  will  but  bend  yourselves  with  patience  and  perseverance  to 
the  tasks  set  before  you,  you  will  inevitably  succeed,  and  will  be  assured 
as  to  your  reward,  plenty,  and  prosperity. 

Geological   History. 

This  county  was  once  throughout  but  a  part  of  a  vast  sandy  plain 
that  gently  sloped  to  the  S.-W.-S.,  and  had  not  a  single  elevation  or 
depression  of  any  kind  to  relieve  the  monotony  of  the  scenery.  This 
monotonous  sandy  plain  covered,  at  the  least,  one-half  of  the  northern 
half  of  the  State  and  formed  the  then  Coal  Measures  of  Alabama. 
Things  were  thus  when  the  eastern  part  of  the  United  States  was 
subjected  to  such  a  disturbance,  or  revolution,  as  it  has  never  felt  before 
or  since.     This  revolution    has   been   characterized    as  the   Appalachian 

Its    Topogyaplty,    Geology,  and  NaUtral  Resoitrces.  19 

revolution,  and  during  it  there  was  thrown  up,  in  a  general  north-east 
and  south-west  direction,  and  somewhat  parallel  to  the  Atlantic  coast 
from  Canada  to  Central  Alabama,  a  series  of  mountains  that  have 
received  the  name  of  the  Appalachian  chain.  In  the  upheaval  of  some 
of  these  mountains,  the  strata  were  too  stiff  to  bend  in  the  sharp  folds 
into  which  they  were  pressed,  and  so  they  were  cracked  along  the  lines 
of  greatest  strain,  usually  the  tops  of  the  mountains.  These  cracks 
furnished  ready-made  channels  for  the  denuding  streams  that  have 
washed  these  mountains  down  into  anticlinal  valleys  with  elevated  rims. 
In  some  instances,  in  this  folding  or  mountain-making  process,  the  strata 
were  so  stiff  as  to  bend  but  very  little,  if  any  at  all,  and  hence,  in  these 
cases,  they  were  not  only  cracked,  but  on  one  side  of  the  crack  were 
pushed  up  over  the  corresponding  strata  on  the  other  side,  producing 
what  is  known  as  faults.  These  faults  are  common  throughout  the 
Appalachian  chain  of  mountains,  and  sometimes  are  miles  in  length,  andl 
have  vertical  displacements  of  the  strata  of  thousands  of  feet.  These 
upheavals  or  mountains,  with  their  subsequent  denudation,  changed  the 
topographical  features  and  geological  structure  of  the  country  traversed 
by  them  from  one  of  sameness  to  one  of  variety  and  interest.  They 
gave  the  general  directions  to  the  main  streams  of  the  country  near  them, 
and  oftentimes  threw  up  and  left  grand  natural  boundaries  between  the 
different  geological  formations.  In  this  county,  as  elsewhere,  they  form 
one  of  the  most  remarkable  instances  on  record  c  le  adaptation  of  the 
earth's  surface  to  man's  wants.  For,  had  the  county  remained  as  it 
originally  was,  one  monotonous  sandy  plain,  or  had  its  rocks  or  geological 
strata  retained  their  original  horizontal  positions,  much  of  our  best  and 
now  easily  available  coal  would  have  been  buried  so  deep  below  the 
surface  that  it  never  would  have  been  reached  by  the  hand  of  man,  and 
the  existence  of  our  most  valuable  and  vast  deposits  of  iron  ores  and 
limestones  never  would  have  been  even  suspected.  If  they  had  have 
been  suspected,  they  never  would  have  done  us  any  good,  as  they  were  a 
mile  or  so  below  the  surface.  The  revealing  and  making  available  to  us 
of  this  great  hidden  wealth  of  coal,  iron,  and  limestone,  rendered  especially 
valuable  from  the  manner  in  which  they  were  thrown  together  in  close 
juxtaposition,  are  not  the  only  beneficial  effects  that  we  have  received 
from  these  upheavals  and  denudations.  They  made  and  left  us  valleys  of 
great  fertility,  that  form,  through  our  most  important  mineral  section, 
the  great  commercial  highways  between  the  North-east  and  the  South- 
west, with  firm  natural  roadbeds,  for  hundreds  of  miles,  even  up  to  the 
mouths  of  our  mines.     These  great  results  vvere  brought  about  by  the 

Jefferson   Coji7ity. 

simplest  possible  means,  though  in  a  most  effectual  and  interesting  way, 
namely:  By  the  mere  pushing  up  of  the  valuable  strata,  and  the  washing 
off  of  their  heavy  cover,  along  narrow  strips  of  land.  These  narrow 
strips  of  land,  washed  out  into  anticlinal  valleys,  divide  the  Coal  Measures 
of  Alabama  into  three  more  or  less  distinct  parts,  that  were  named  by 
Prof.  Tuomey,  in  1849,  the  Warrior,  Cahaba,  and  Coosa  Coal  Fields, 
respectively,  from  the  names  of  the  rivers  which  drain  them.  These 
coal  fields  show  that  they  are  not  separate  coal  basins,  strictly  speaking, 
in  that  they  do  not  occur  in  circular  or  oval  forms,  but  in  long  and  trough- 
shaped  areas  with  elevated  rims  that  are  the  results  of  uplifting  forces. 
In  the  washing  out  of  the  anticlinal  valleys  that  separate  these  coal  fields 
the  Coal  Measures  of  Alabama  have  lost  several  thousand  square  miles 
of  their  original  extent,  and  so  Alabama  now  ranks  only  eighth  of  the 
States  of  the  Union  in  the  acreage  of  its  Coal  Measures ;  it,  however,  is 
one  of  the  very  first  in  the  quantity  and  quality  of  its  coal.  One  of  the 
cracked  and  washed-out  mountains  of  the  Appalachian  region  was 
pushed  up  across  this  county,  and  a  second  one  was  in  line  to  cross  this 
county,  but  died  out  just  as  it  reached  the  county.  The  one  that  crosses 
this  county  is  the  elevated  valley,  with  raised  limits,  in  which  Birmingham 
is  situated.  The  elevation  of  this  valley  is  shown  from  the  fact  that  its 
floor  is  higher  than  the  mountainous  country  on  each  side  of  the  valley 
or  is  a  water  divide  for  about  100  miles  in  Alabama.  It  is  the  divide 
between  the  waters  of  the  Warrior  and  Cahaba  Rivers,  and  hence 
separates  the  Warrior  and  Cahaba  Coal  Fields. 

Topography,  Etc. 

The  topographical  features  of  this  county  are  varied  and  picturesque, 
as  well  as  pleasing  and  striking,  and  consist  principally  in  the  surface 
configuration,  produced  by  upheavals,  denudation,  and  the  geological 

This  county  lies  between  33°  15'  and  33°  45'  N.  latitude  and  between 
9°  24'  and  10°  10'  W.  longitude  from  Washington.  Its  altitudes  vary 
from  about  260  feet  to  900  feet  above  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  and  its  atmos- 
phere is  clear,  pure,  dry,  and  crisp,  without  any  dampness  or  heaviness. 
Its  climate  is  comparatively  mild ;  its  mean  winter  temperature,  for 
December,  January,  and  February,  being  about  42°  F.  ;  its  mean  summer 
temperature,  for  June,  July,  and  August,  being  about  ']'j°  F.,  and  its  mean 
annual  temperature  being  about  58°  F.  It  has  a  winter  rainfall,  with 
melted  snow,   for   December,  Januarj-,  and  February,    of  about  fourteen 

Its   Topography,   Geology,  and  Natural  Resources.  2 1 

inches;  a  summer  rainfall,  for  June,  July,  and  August,  of  also  about 
fourteen  inches,  and  an  annual  rainfall,  with  melted  snow,  of  about  fifty- 
five  inches. 

Water  and  Drainage. — This  county  is  well  watered  with  springs  and 
streams  of  perpetual  flow,  and  is  so  drained  that  there  are  but  few 
marshes  and  malarial  regions  within  its  bounds.  It  has,  extending  along 
its  whole  length,  near,  and  somewhat  parallel,  to  its  two  edges,  two  swiftly 
running  rivers,  and  crossing  its  interior,  at  intervals  of  every  few  miles, 
are  large  creeks  with  rapid  currents.  These  large  creeks  rise  on  the 
divide,  or  in  the  anticlinal  valley,  between  the  rivers  and  near  the  south- 
east edge,  in  beautiful  and  bold  everlasting  limestone  springs,  and,  with 
but  one  exception,  flow  in  a  general  north-west  direction,  across  almost 
the  entire  width  of  the  county,  and  empty  into  the  great  drainage  channel 
of  the  county,  the  Warrior  River. 

Grozvth. — This  county  is  still,  for  the  most  part,  covered  with  its 
native  forest,  which  includes  a  vast  amount  and  a  great  variety  of  valuable 
timber.  Its  large  growth  consists,  in  the  order  of  their  abundance,  of 
oaks,  pines,  gums,  hickories,  dogwoods,  cedars,  chestnut,  poplar,  cypress, 
etc.  The  oaks  are  principally  post  oaks  and  black  jacks,  with  a  consid- 
erable mixture  of  red,  Spanish,  white,  and  chestnut  oaks.  The  pines  are 
of  both  the  short  and  long  leaf  varieties,  though  chiefly  of  the  former. 
The  gums  are  of  the  sweet  and  sour  kind,  and  the  hickories  are  of  the 
several  species.  The  dogwoods  are  of  the  comparatively  low  grounds, 
while  the  cedars  cover  the  limestone  ridges,  knolls,  and  glades.  The 
chestnut,  poplar,  and  cypress  were  once  abundant,  but  are  now  quite 

Soils. — The  soils  or  lands  over  the  greater  part  of  this  county  have 
heretofore  been  held  in  bad  repute,  and  have  been  neglected  as  farming 
lands  simply  because  they  were  naturally  poor  for  the  great  staples  of 
the  "Old  South,"  cotton  and  corn.  Within  the  last  few  years,  however, 
since  phosphatic  guano  and  other  fertilizers  have  come  into  common  use, 
these  lands  have  grown  very  much  in  appreciation,  until  now  those  which 
were  formerly  considered  the  most  worthless  or  poorest  are  being  looked 
upon  and  sought  after  as  the  most  valuable  and  reliable  for  even  cotton 
and  corn.  Cotton  and  corn,  however,  are  not  the  crops  for  these  lands, 
or  for  the  "  Hill  Country  of  Alabama,"  and  the  sooner  our  people  find  it 
out  the  better  it  will  be  for  them  and  for  the  State.  These  lands,  as  well 
as  the  climate,  are  peculiarly  adapted  to  the  raising  of  fruits  and  veg- 
etables, crops  with  which  the  markets  of  the  world  are  seldom,  if  ever, 
glutted  ;  and  to  the  nurseryman,  vineyardist,  and   horticulturist,   whom 

Jefferso7i   County. 

the  county  invites  to  come  and  supply  its  large  and  rapidly-increasing 
demands  for  a  greater  variety  of  home-raised,  fresh,  and  wholesome  food 
products,  these  lands  are  all  that  could  be  desired.  Nature  intended 
them  for  gardens,  orchards,  vineyards,  and  pastures,  and  just  in  the  same 
proportion  as  the  farming  class  recognize  this  fact  or  law,  and  act  upon 
it,  or  put  their  means,  brains,  and  hands  to  the  raising  of  vegetables, 
fruits,  and  grasses,  will  they  prosper,  and  will  this  beautiful  and  healthy 
mountainous  region  blossom  and  bear  fruit. 

Production. — By  the  census  of  1880,  only  one-eighth  of  this  county, 
or  about  72,000  acres,  was  in  cultivation.  Of  these  72,000  acres,  14,220 
were  in  cotton,  with  a  yield  of  5,333  bales  of  400  pounds  each;  30,928 
were  in  Indian  corn,  with  a  yield  of  429,660  bushels ;  4,708  were  in  oats, 
with  a  yield  of  60,038  bushels;  55  were  in  tobacco,  with  a  yield  of 
17,649  pounds,  and  504  were  in  potatoes,  with  a  yield  of  44,091  bushels. 

N.\TUKAL   Divisions. 

The  topographical  features,  as  well  as  the  geological  structure,  of  this 
county  were,  as  has  been  seen,  very  much  effected  by  the  upheav^als  and 
denudation  of  the  Appalachian  region,  or  by  the  anticlinal  valley  which 
crosses  this  county  and  divides  it  into  three  very  unequal  and  distinct 
parts.  These  parts  are  separated  from  each  other  by  the  raised  rims  to 
the  anticlinal  valley,  and  therefore  consist  of  the  anticlinal  valley  itself 
and  the  portions  of  the  county  respectively  to  the  north-west  and  south- 
east of  this  valley.  The  two  outside  portions  are  of  one  and  the  same 
geological  formation,  as  was  the  whole  county  previous  to  the  mountain- 
making  epoch  of  the  Appalachian  revolution,  namely,  the  Coal  Measures ; 
but  the  middle  or  anticlinal  valley  portion  is  of  pushed-up  older  and  lower 
rocks,  geologically  speaking,  or  contains  representatives  of  all  of  the 
geological  formations  that  occur  in  Alabama  between  the  Carboniferous 
and  Lower  Silurian,  inclusive.  As  these  parts,  or  natural  divisions,  of  the 
county  are  entirely  different,  as  to  their  topographical  features  and 
geological  structure,  they  will  be  considered  separately,  and  will  be 
designated,  commencing  with  the  most  north-western  or  largest  one, 
as  Part  I,  II,  and  III. 

Its   Topography ,   Geology,  and  Natitral  Resources. 

PART   I. 

Of  the  Warrior  Coal  Field. 

Its  Coal  Measures  and  its  Coal :  Stnicture  and  Unequaled  Thickness,  General 
Section,   Extraordinary  Ouatttity,  Quality,  and   Value  of  its  Coals — The 

Warrior  Field  in  Jefferson  County  :  The  Nature,  Quantity,  and  Quality 
of  its  Coals,  with  Analyses  a?id  Tests  ;  their  Adaptation  to  Cheap  Mvdng 
and  Cheap    Tratisportation ;  the  Number  of  Coal  Mines  and  their  Coal 

Output ;  the  Uses  of  this  Coal. 

The  Warrior  Coal  Field  embraces  all  of  the  Coal  Measures  in 
Alabama  north-west  of  the  Alabama  Great  Southern  Railroad,  or  all  of 
those  drained  by  the  Warrior  and  Tennessee  Rivers.  This  area  has  been 
estimated  at  7,810  square  miles,  or,  as  nearly  two-thirds  as  much  as  the 
coal  area  of  Great  Britain.  It  is  to  the  north-west  of  the  principal  axis 
of  the  Appalachian  revolution,  and  the  original  horizontal  position  of  its 
strata,  away  from  its  uplifted  edges,  was  not  very  much  effected  by  the 
upheavals  of  that  revolution,  and  its  topographical  features,  away  from 
these  uplifted  edges,  have  not  the  same  intimate  connection  with  the 
geological  structure  that  those  areas  have  which  are  more  in  the  direct 
line  of  action  of  the  above  named  revolution. 

This  coal  field,  as  a  whole,  is  a  trough-shaped  area,  extending  length- 
wise from  north-east  to  south-west,  and  is  much  broken,  especially  along 
the  water  courses.  It  consists,  as  do  all  of  our  coal  fields,  of  a  series  of 
sandstones,  conglomerates,  shales,  slates,  clays,  and  coal  seams,  with, 
locally  at  least,  a  few  thin  seams  of  impure  limestone.  Its  measures  are 
characterized  by  the  greatest  abundance  of  fossils,  which  are  well 
preserved,  and  are  found  principally  in  the  shales  overlying  the  coal 
seams.  Among  these  fossils  there  are  some  stems  of  very  large  plants  that 
belong  to  the  genera  Sigillaria,  Lipidodendron,  and  Calamites.  These 
fossil  trunks  of  trees  are  usually  of  light  carbonaceous  sandstones, 
frequently  distinctly  marked,  and  sometimes  as  much  as  three  feet  in 
diameter.  They  are  occasionally  found  standing  perpendicularly  upon 
the  coal  seams  and  extending  up  into  the  roofs  or  covers,  leaving  little 
doubt  but  that  they  grew  as  they  were  found.  This  position  of  the  fossil 
coal  plants  in  place,  taken  in  connection  with  the  richness  of  the  coal 
seams  in  well-preserved  fossils,  would  seem  to  indicate  that  the  vast 
amount  of  vegetable  matter  of  which  these  coal  seams  were  formed, 
grew  and  accumulated  over  the  very  areas  now  covered  by  the  coal  seams. 

24  Jefferson   Coimty. 

The  general  dip  of  its  strata  is  a  few  degrees  to  the  S. -\V.-S. ,  but 
as  this  dip  is  something  less  than  the  general  inclination  of  the  surface, 
the  measures  continue  to  thicken  to  the  south-west  until  they  become 
covered  up  by  a  newer  formation.  This  regular  and  small  angle  of  dip 
of  its  strata  is  characteristic  of  the  Warrior  Field  when  compared  with  the 
other  two  coal  fields  of  Alabama.  To  give  to  this  area  a  trough  or  basin 
shape,  the  strata  of  the  south-east  side  have  an  additional  dip  to  the 
north-west,  from  the  elevated  south-east  rim,  and  those  of  the  north-^\  est 
side  have  a  dip  to  the  south-east.  The  strata  of  these  two  sides  are  also 
in  long,  flat  waves  from  north-west  to  south-east,  while  those  of  the  center 
of  the  trough  are  in  similar  waves  from  north-east  to  south-west. 

This  field  has  been  conveniently  and  appropriately  divided  into  a 
plateau  and  basin  area,  without  any  distinct  line  of  demarcation  between 
the  two,  the  one  gradually  merging  into  the  other. 

The  plateau  is  composed  principally  of  the  hard,  weather-resisting 
conglomerates  and  sandstones  near  the  base  of  the  measures,  und 
comprises  the  elevated  north-eastern  part  of  the  field  and  a  portion 
of  the  south-eastern  rim.  It  is  divided  into  two  parts  by  Brown's  Valley, 
which  is  the  extension  into  Alabama  of  the  great  Sequatchie  Vallc\-  of 

The  basin  takes  in  the  lower  or  south-west  end,  and  the  greater  half 
of  the  field.  It  is,  as  a  general  thing,  more  broken  than  the  plateau,  for 
the  reason  that  it  is  composed  principally  of  softer  rocks  which  have 
suffered  more  from  denudation.  Its  upper  or  north-eastern  end  is  made 
forked  by  the  extending  down  into  it,  between  Big  and  Little  Warrior 
Rivers,  almost  to  their  fork,  the  prolongation  of  Brown's  Valley  as  an 
unbroken  anticlinal  ridge.  It  is  made  up,  above  drainage  level,  for  the 
most  part,  of  shales  and  sandstones  piled  up  to  a  great  thickness  of 
successive  strata  upon  the  hard  conglomerates  and  sandstones  of  the 
plateau.  This  basin  is  very  rich  in  workable  seams  of  coal,  which 
increase  in  number  to  the  south-west  until  the  Coal  Measures  become 
entirely  covered  up  at  Tuscaloosa. 

Little  Basin. — There  is  cut  off,  by  a  combined  fold  and  vault,  from 
the  south-east  edge  of  the  Warrior  Field,  a  strip  of  land,  about  twelve 
miles  long  by  over  three  in  width,  that  has  received  the  name  of  the 
Little  Basin.  It  is  a  complete  tray-shape  depression,  rounding  in  a  general 
north-east  and  south-west  direction,  or  with  the  bordering  anticlinal 
valley.  Its  upper  or  north-east  end  is,  however,  concave,  and  its  south- 
east rim.  Rock  Mountain,  the  uplifted  edge  of  the  Warrior  Coal  Field, 
composed  of  the  hard  conglomerates  and  sandstones  of  the  plateau,  is 

Its    Topography,    Geology,  mid  Natural  Resoiirces.  25 

much  taller  than  its  north-west  border,  formed  by  an  anticlinal  fold  with 
a  fault  along  it.  Along  this  fault  there  has  been  a  great  vertical 
displacement  of  the  strata  by  an  upheaval  of  the  south-east  or  Little 
Basin  side. 

The  Warrior  Coal  Field  and  the  great  Appalachian  Coal  Field  end,  so 
far  as  can  be  seen,  on  the  south-west  in  the  rocks  in  the  bed  of  the  Warrior 
River  at  Tuscaloosa,  or  just  below  the  head  of  navigation  of  that  river. 
At  and  near  this  most  south-western  visible  end,  these  coal  fields  are 
believed  to  have  their  greatest  thickness  of  Coal  Measures  and  their  great- 
est number  of  coal  seams.  These  Coal  Measures,  under  and  near  Tusca- 
loosa, are  believed  to  be  over  3,000  feet  thick,  and  to  contain  some  53 
seams  of  coal,  with  a  combined  thickness  of  about  125  feet  of  coal. 

Jefferson  County  comprises  about  630  square  miles  of  the  Warrior 
Coal  Field.  As  stated,  all  that  part  of  the  county  north-west  of  the  Anti- 
clinal Valley  is  of  this  field.  This  area  is  of  a  rectangular  shape,  running 
lengthwise  with  the  Anticlinal  Valley.  It  is  a  great  synclinal  trough,  or 
scoop-shape  depression,  with  all  of  its  south-east  rim  and  about  two-thirds 
of  its  north-west  border,  parts  of  great  and  parallel  anticlinal  folds.  The 
south-east  fold  is  of  the  Anticlinal  Valley  and  extends  clear  through  the 
county,  while  the  fold  of  the  north-west  border  is  the  south-west  terminus 
of  the  great  Sequatchie  Valley  of  Tennessee  or  of  Brown's  Valley  of 
Alabama,  as  an  unbroken  and  undenuded  fold,  or  it  is  the  south-west 
terminus  of  the  mountain  that  is  said  to  have  merely  touched  or  reached 
this  county  before  dying  out.  Of  these  two  folds  or  rims,  in  this  county, 
the  south-eastern  one,  as  a  whole,  is  much  the  higher,  though  a  portion  of 
this  south-eastern  rim  is  of  a  down-throw  along  faults,  and  is  not  very 
elevated.  This  south-east  rim  is  from  300  to  600  feet  above  the  Warrior 
River,  while  the  fold  of  the  north-west  border  is  only  about  200  feet  above 
this  river,  which  runs  along  close  to  its  base.  The  elevated  south-east 
rim,  with  the  exception  of  the  portion  in  the  down-throw,  is  composed, 
for  the  most  part,  of  the  hard  and  massive  conglomerate,  called  Millstone 
Grit,  and  sandstones  near  the  base  of  the  Coal  Measures,  and  is  known  as 
Rock  Mountain,  while  the  surface  rocks  of  the  fold  of  the  north-west  border, 
though  hard  and  massive,  are  somewhat  softer,  lighter,  and  higher  in  the 
measures,  except  as  this  fold  enters  the  county  in  the  extreme  northern 

The  Millstone  Grit,  in  its  out-crops  capping  the  south-east  rim  or  Rock 
Mountain,  is  usually  either  perpendicular  or  is  so  bent  over  on  itself  as  to 
throw  its  bottom  on  top  or  to  reverse  its  north-west  dip  to  the  south-east. 

Along  the  south-east  base  of  this   mountain,  or  between  the  capping 

26  Jefferso7i   County. 

Millstone  Grit  and  the  lower  and  older  rocks  of  the  Anticlinal  Valley,  there 
is  nearly  always  a  mass  of  debris  that  hides  the  underlying  strata,  though 
they  are  known  to  cover,  through  the  greater  length  of  this  county,  a 
fault  that  frequently  brings  Lower  Silurian  rocks  of  the  valley  side  in  con- 
tact with  the  Coal  Measures. 

Next  to  upheavals  and  denudations,  such  hard,  weather-resisting  rocks 
as  the  above  Millstone  Grit,  are  the  most  important  factors  in  determining 
surface  configuration  or  variety  and  picturesqueness  of  scenery.  Hence, 
the  surface  of  that  portion  of  the  Warrior  field  which  is  in  Jefferson 
County  is  most  irregular,  and  its  physical  features  are  most  varied  and 
striking,  along  the  south-east  and  north-west  boundaries,  where  the 
upheavals  and  denudations  have  been  greatest  and  where  these  hard  rocks 
are  most  highly  exposed. .  As  stated,  this  area  is  a  synclinal  trough,  and 
hence,  in  a  general  way,  it  is  made  up  of  two  water-sheds.  These  water- 
sheds are  very  unequal ;  the  one  on  the  south-east  or  the  north-west 
water-shed  of  the  elevated  south-east  rim  forming  the  greater  part  of  the 
area.  On  these  water-sheds,  and  especially  on  the  greater  one,  there  are 
smaller  ridges  which  run  up  and  down  the  trough,  or  parallel  to  the 
elevated  outside  ridges  or  folds.  These  inside  or  smaller  ridges  are  the 
results  of  waves  in  the  strata,  and  of  the  out-croppings  of  the  harder  and 
more  indestructible  strata. 

The  Warrior  River  flows  along  near  the  juncture  of  the  above  water 
sheds,  or  near  the  bottom  of  the  trough,  and  owes  its  general  direction  to 
that  of  the  trough.  This  river,  with  its  arteries,  or  large  side  streams, 
keeps  this  portion,  or  the  greater  portion,  of  the  county  well  drained. 

Being  a  trough  the  strata  of  the  two  sides  or  of  the  above  water 
sheds,  in  addition  to  their  general  dip  of  3°  or  4°  to  the  south-west,  have 
general  dips  toward  the  river  or  bottom  of  the  trough,  and  are  in  long, 
flat  waves  in  the  same  direction,  while  those  of  the  bottom  of  the  trough 
are  in  similar  waves  in  the  direction  of  the  trough. 

The  south-east  edge  of  this  field,  along  the  Anticlinal  Valley,  is 
especially  complicated  by  folds  and  faults.  These  folds  have  one  general 
direction,  that  of  the  Anticlinal  Valley,  while  the  faults  run  not  only  in  this 
same  general  direction  but  also  somewhat  at  right  angle  to  it.  Locally 
the  directions  of  the  folds  and  faults  are  sometimes  quite  different  from 
the  above,  for  they  have  been  seen  in  certain  localities  to  be  running 
almost  due  north  and  south  and  east  and  west. 

Along  the  north-east  and  south-west  faults,  or  those  in  the  direction 
of  the  anticlinal  valleys,  the  vertical  displacements  of  strata  are  much 
greater  than  in  the  cross  faults,  or  those  at  right  angle  to  this  direction. 

lis    Topos^rapliy,    Geology,  and  Natural  Reso^irces.  27 

These  north-east  and  south-west  faults  do  not  always  run  parallel  to  the 
Anticlinal  Valley,  or  to  the  south-east  edge  of  the  Warrior  Coal  Field,  but 
sometimes  run  in  and  out  the  Coal  Measures,  as  these  measures  encroach 
upon  the  valley,  and  cut  off,  on  the  Anticlinal  Valley  side,  strips  from  the 
Coal  Measures.  The  Little  Basin  is  an  example  of  this  cutting-off  process. 
The  upper  half  of  this  little  basin  is  in  Jefferson  County. 

The  Coal  Measures  of  the  Warrior  Field  in  this  county  are  complicated 
in  other  ways  than  by  folds  and  faults.  The  same  strata,  for  instance,  are 
always  more  or  less  variable,  though  not  more  so  than  in  other  parts  of  this 
same  field  or  in  other  fields.  The  number  of  strata,  and  the  distance 
between  two  well-known  strata,  are  sometimes  quite  different  at  localities 
only  a  few  miles  apart.  This  difference  is  likely  due  to  the  splitting  up  of 
some,  by  the  interpolation  of  others,  and  by  variableness  in  the  same 
strata  which  may  result  in  the  thickening  of  a  mere  streak  to  a  stratum 
several  or  many  feet  in  thickness,  or  the  reverse.  Again,  the  strata, 
frequently  without  breaking,  suddenly  fall  from  one  elevation  to  that  of 
another  several  feet  lower,  and  sometimes,  at  least,  after  a  short  distance, 
as  suddenly  resume  or  jump  back  to  their  former  place  or  horizontal  level. 
The  strata  are  frequently  also  falsely  bedded,  and  are  oftentimes  cut  up  by 
vertical  parallel  planes  of  division  running  in  the  general  directions  of  the 

As  stated,  there  are  supposed  to  be  53  searas  of  coal  in  the  Warrior 
Coal  Field.  These  seams  vary  in  thickness  from  a  few  inches  to  14  feet. 
There  are  twenty  five  of  them  of  workable  thickness,  or  that  contain  18 
inches  and  over,  each,  in  thickness  of  pure  coal.  Of  these  25  seams,  14 
have  2  feet  6  inches  and  over,  each,  in  thickness  of  clean  coal ;  of  these  14 
seams,  9  have  over  4  feet,  each,  in  thickness  of  coal,  and  of  these  9  seams, 
3  have  more  than  6  feet,  each,  in  thickness  of  coal.  These  coal  seams,  in 
their  out-crops,  are  thinner  on  the  north-west  side  of  the  field  than  they  are 
near  the  center  and  south-east  side.  This  is  doubtless  due  to  the  fact  that 
the  north-west  side  of  the  field  is  near  the  north-west  edge  of  the  original 
coal  basin  of  Alabama,  whereas  the  present  south-east  limits  of  the  field, 
the  Anticlinal  Valley,  ran  through  the  central  portion  of  the  original  coal 
basin  of  Alabama,  and  were  thrown  up  and  washed  out  as  limits  after  the 
coals  had  been  deposited. 

It  has  been  estimated  that,  if  these  coal  seams  will  but  hold  through- 
out their  entire  extent  a  thickness  equivalent  to  that  of  their  most  reliable 
and  accurate  measurements,  the  Warrior  Coal  Field  will  contain  a  sum  total 
of  coal  of  not  less  than  113,119,000,000  tons,  of  which  amount  108,394,- 
■000,000  tons  would  be  of  the  workable  seams,  or  of  the  seams  which 

28  Jefferson    County. 

contain  i8  inches  and  over,  each,  in  thickness  of  clean  coal.  There  is 
great  significance  attached  to  these  figures ;  they  tell  us  that  the  coal  in 
the  workable  seams  of  the  Warrior  Field  is  three  times  the  estimated 
available  bituminous  and  semi-bituminous  coals  of  the  great  coal-producing 
State  of  Pennsylvania,  and  that,  if  this  coal  was  spread  out  evenly  over 
the  surface,  it  would  cover  the  whole  State  of  Alabama  (52,250  square 
miles  in  extent)  over  two  feet  in  thickness,  and  that,  at  the  present  rate 
of  consumption  of  coals  of  all  kinds,  it  would  last  the  whole  world  over 
270  years.  This  workable  coal,  at  the  mouths  of  the  mines,  would  be 
worth  now  about  $  150,000,000,00x3,  of  which  at  least  130,000,000,000  is 
profit.  This  profit  money  is  nearly  two  hundred  times  the  present  total 
assessed  value  of  property  in  Alabama,  and  would  about  buy  every  foot  of 
territory  in  the  State  at  $900  per  acre. 

Of  the  fifty-three  coal  seams  of  the  Warrior  Field,  forty-five  are 
included  in  the  Coal  Measures  of  Jefferson  County.  These  forty-five  coal 
seams  vary  in  thickness  from  a  few  inches  to  fourteen  feet,  and  contain  a 
combined  average  thickness  of  about  one  hundred  feet  of  coal.  Of  these 
forty-five  coal  seams,  nineteen  have  each  an  average  thickness  of  two  feet 
and  over  of  clean  coal,  with  an  average  combined  thickness  of  about  sev- 
enty feet  of  clean  coal;  of  these  nineteen  seams,  twelve  have  each  an 
average  thickness  of  three  feet  and  over,  and  an  average  combined  thickness 
of  nearly  fifty-three  feet  of  clean  coal ;  of  these  twelve  seams,  eight  have 
each  an  average  thickness  of  four  feet,  and  over,  of  clean  coal,  with  an 
average  combined  thickness  of  over  forty  feet  of  clean  coal,  and  of  these 
eight  seams,  there  are  three  seams  that  have  each  an  average  thickness 
of  five  feet,  and  over,  of  clean  coal,  and  an  average  combined  thickness  of 
over  twenty-five  feet  of  clean  coal. 

A  better  idea  can  be  given  of  tl/e  thickness,  position,  etc.,  of  these 
different  coal  seams,  and  of  the  other  strata  of  the  Coal  Measures  of  the 
Warrior  Field  in  Jefferson  County  by  a  section  than  perhaps  can  be  given 
in  any  other  way.  The  reader  is  therefore  respectfully  referred  to  the 
following  general  section. 

Nothing  more  than  an  approximation  is  claimed  for  this  section, 
though,  so  far  as  the  coal  seams  are  concerned,  it  is  believed  to  be  a 
close  approximation.  Much  credit  is  due  to  a  section  by  Mr.  T.  H. 
Aldrich,  and  one  by  Mr.  Howard  Douglass,  for  aid  received  in  the 
making  out  of  this  general  section. 

Its    Topography,    Geology,  and  Natural  Resources.  29 

A   General  Section  of  the  Strata  above  Drainage  Level  of  the  Coal  Measures 
of  the  Warrior  Field  in  Jefferson  County. 

Sandstones,   shales  ;  surface  rocks  along  the  south- 
west county  line. 

(45)  Coal i  ft.  7 

Sandstones,  shales 20  ft.  to  35  ft.  o 

(44)  Coal 8  in  to  o  ft.  10 

Shales,  sandstones 10  ft.  to  30  ft.  O 

(43)  Coal:  University  Seam  .    .    .    .  2  ft.  to  5  ft.  o 

Sandstones,  shales 1 5  ft.  o 

(42)   Coal,  slate  ;    in   alternate   streaks   .    .    .   i  ft.  4 

Sandstones,  shales 20  ft.  to  25  ft.  O 

(41)  Coal 9  in.  to  i  ft.  3 

Sandstones,   shales,  about 1 5  ft.  o 

(40)  Coal i  ft.  8  in.  to  i  ft.  9 

Sandstones,  shales  .    .        25  ft.  o 

(39)  Coal 5  in.  to  i  ft.  6 

Conglomerates,   sandstones 34  ft.  o 

rCoAL     .      .      .      ; I   ft.    2 

(38)  I  Fire  clay 5  in.  to  5  ft.  o 

i  Coal i  ft.  o 

Fire  clay ;  fossiliferous 3  ft  o 

Sandstones,  shales 8  ft.  to  10  ft.  o 

(37)  Coal 2  in.  to  o  ft.  9 

Sandstones,  shales 30  ft.  to  35  ft.  o 

(36)  Coal 8 

Shales,  sandstones   .    .         ..    80  ft    to  8$  ft.  o 

(35)   Coal;  with  a  3  in.  slate  parting  .    .    .    .  i  ft.  3 

Fire  clay ;  very  fossiliferous 3  ft.  o 

Shales,  sandstones 40  ft.  o 

(34)  Coal o  to  i  ft.  2 

Shales,  about 40  ft.  o 

(33)  Coal  ;  Pratt  Seam 2  ft.  to  7  ft.  o 

Fire  clay 2  ft.  to  10  ft.  o 

Sandstones,  shales,  clays    .    .    20  ft.  to  30  ft.  o 

(32)  Coal;  fire  clay  seam  .    .    .    1  ft.  4  in.  to  2  ft.  6 

Fire  clay i  ft.  to  i  ft.  6 

Conglomerates,  sandstones,  shales,  25  ft.  to  40  ft. 


Jefferson    Co::nty. 





f  Coal  .    .    .    .  i  ft.  to  2  ft.  o  in.  )  3 
Clay  slate  .    .  6  in.  to  7  ft.  3  in.      g 
f,i  J  Co.AL  .    .    .    .    I  ft.  to  2  ft.  8  in.   I  S    2  ft.  6  in.  to 
Vj'm  /  -j;  17  ft    2  in 

I  Clay  slate    .    .     .  O  to  i  ft.  9  in.      5 

I  Co.'iL o  to  3  ft.  6  in.      •" 

Sandstones,  shales 25  ft.  to  50  ft.  o  in. 

(30)   Co.\L  :    with  slate    partings  .    .    .  10  in.  8  ft.  c  in. 

P'ire  clay 2  ft.  o  in. 

Sandstones,  shales ;  with  black  band 

and  clay  iron  stone  .    .    .  10  ft.  to  50  ft.  o  in. 

Conglomerates o  to  6  ft.  o  in. 

(29)   Coal  ;  with  a  thin  slate  parting'  .    .  o  to  i  ft.  O  in. 
Shales,  sandstones,  Limestones,  50  ft.  to  300  ft.  o  in. 

Conglomer.vtes o  to  7  ft.  o  in. 

Sandstones 10  ft.  o  in. 

'  Coal  ;  with  slate  partings,  '\ 

2  ft.  4  in.  to  9  ft.  6  in.  I 
Sandstones,  shales,  clays,  ]  §     2  ft.  4  in.  to 

O  to  12  ft.  O  in,   I  g        27  ft.  6  in. 
Coal  ;  with  slate  partings, 

O  to  6  ft.  O  in.  J 

Fire  clay 3  ft.  o  in. 

Sandstones,  shales 20  ft.  o  in. 

Coal o  to  2  ft.  o  in. 

Sandstones,  shales  ...  .  10  ft.  to  50  ft.  O  in. 
Coal;  with  slate  partings  .  .  .  .  o  to  8  ft.  o  in. 
Sandstones,  Conglomer.\tes,  shales,  slate, 

25  ft.  to  50  ft.  o  in. 

CoAi o  to  o  ft.  2  in. 

Sandstones;  with  thin  seams  of  coal  .     20  ft.  O  in. 

Coal 4  in.  to  i  ft.  o  in. 

Sandstones,  shales 25  ft.  to  30  ft.  o  in. 

Coal;  Baker's  Upper  Bed  .  .  10  in.  to  2  ft.  o  in. 
Shales,  sandstones,  fire  clay  .  20  ft.  to  50  ft.  o  in. 
Coal;  Baker's  Lower  Bed,  Freel's  Seam, 

2  ft.  to  6  ft.  o  in. 

Shales,  sandstones 20  ft.  to  40  ft.  o  in. 

Black  Band o  to  2  ft.  o  in. 

Shales,  sandstones 5  ft.  to  20  ft.  o  in. 

Its   Topography,    Geology,  a7id  Natural  Resources. 

(21)     Coal;  with  slate  and  clay  parting.      Newcastle, 

Mt.  Carmel,  Townley,  Jaggers,  etc. 

5  ft.  O  in.  to  14  ft.  o  in. 

Sandstones,  shales ;  with  kidney   ore, 

15  ft.  to  60  ft.  O  in. 

(20)     Co.^l;  poor,  slaty 10  in.  to  3  ft.  O  in. 

Fire  clay, i  ft.  to  3  ft.  O  in. 

Sandstones,  shales 10  ft.  to  50  ft.  o  in. 

(19)     Coal trace  to  2  ft.  6  in. 

Shales,  sandstones 15  ft.  to  25  ft.  o  in. 

Black  Band o  to  1  ft.  4  in. 

Sandstones,  shales 15  ft.  to  25  ft.  o  in. 

f  Coal  ;  soft  .    .    .    .  o  to  2  ft.  9  in.  1 

,  „,     Fire  clay    ...     .  o  to   i  ft.  o  in.  .    ^  . 

(18)  <^  r^,    ,  r        .         oto  21  ft.  6  in. 

^     '     Shales O  to  12  ft.  O  m. 

I  Coal o  to  4  ft.  9  in.  J 

Shales,  sandstones 20  ft.  to  25  ft.  o  in. 

Conglomerates 16  ft.  to  40  ft.  o  in. 

Slate O  to  I  ft.  O  in. 

(17)     Co.\L  ;  bony i  ft.  to  3  ft.  O  in. 

Fire  clay o  to  2  ft.  o  in. 

Sandstones,  shales;  with  some  streaks  of  coal, 

25  ft.  to  125  ft.  Gin. 

(16)     Coal  ;   peacock  luster     .    .    .    .    4  in.  to  I  ft.  4  in. 

Sandstones,  shales 30  ft.  to  50  ft.  o  in. 

f  Coal  ;  with  thin  slate  parting,    ^ 

2  ft.  to  4  ft.  o  in.  \  "-^ 

/N  I  Sandstones  .    .      0  to  9  ft.  o  in.  [  ^  2  ft.  to  19  ft. 

^     '  *  CoAi o  to  I  ft.  6  in.  I  2  2  in. 

Sandstones  .    .    .  oto  4  ft.  O  in.       .3 

^  Coal  ;  very  good,  o  to  o  ft.  9  in.  J 

Fire  clay 3  ft.  O  in. 

Sandstones,  shales 20  ft.  to  50  ft.  O  in. 

(14)     Coal;  Black  Creek  Seam  .  2  ft.  4  in.  to  6  ft.  o  in. 

Sandstones,  shales,  Limestones, 

50  ft.  to  140  ft.  o  in. 

( 1 3)     Coal o  to  i  ft.  o  in. 

Sandstones,  shales,  with  perhaps  some  coal 

streaks 60  ft.  to  225  ft.  O  in. 


Jefferson   Comity. 









°       3  ft.  lo  in. 
c/j  to  39  ft.  8  in. 

Co.\L I  ft.  to  I  ft.  2  in. 

Sandstones,  shales     .    .    .    .    30  ft.  to  125  ft.  O  in. 
Black  Band.     The  black  band' 
in  places    becomes    coal, 
3  in.  to  4  ft.  o  in. 
Shale  ;  hard  fossiliferous, 

O  to  18  ft.  o  in. 

Coal i  ft.  o  in. 

Shale     ...  3  in.  to  17  ft.  o  in. 

^CoAL 2  ft.  4  in. 

Fire  clay 4  ft.  o  in. 

Sandstones,  shales 16  ft.  to  20  ft.  O  in. 

Coal i  ft.  8  in.  to  2  ft.  4  in. 

Sandstones,  shales 7  ft.  6  in. 

Coal  ;  Naber's  Seam 2  ft.  2  in. 

Fire  clay 6  ft.  10  in. 

Shales,  sandstones 295  ft.  o  in. 

Coal i  ft.  6  in. 

Fire  clay i  ft.  o  in. 

Sandstones,  shales 16  ft.  o  in. 

Coal i  ft.  4  in. 

Shales  ;  with  fossil  coal  plants    .    .    .    .  1 2  ft.  o  in. 

Coal;  good 2  ft.  6  in. 

Sandstones,   shales 500  ft.  O  in. 

Coal 6  in. 

Shales,  sandstones 35  ft.  o  in. 

Coal i  ft.  o  in. 

Shales  ;  about 5  ft.  O  in. 

Conglomerates  ;  Upper  Conglomerate  of 

Tennessee 30  ft.  to  50  ft.  o  in. 

Coal i  ft.  o  in. 

Shales,  sandstones 50  ft.  o  in. 

Conglomerate  ;  Millstone  Grit, 

Lower  Conglomerate  of  Tennessee,  etc. 

40  ft.  to  75  ft.  O  in. 

Coal  ;  about 1  ft.  o  in. 

Shales;  fossiliferous    ...      .    3  ft.  to  10  ft.  o  in. 

Coal;  slaty 10  in. 

Shales,  sandstones 30  ft.  to  35  ft.  o  in. 

Sub-carboniferous  Strata. 

Its   Topography,    Geology,  and  Natural  Resources.  33 

In  this  county,  the  coals  of  the  above  section  cover  about  the  follow- 
ing areas:  From  (i)  to  (12),  inclusive,  575  square  miles;  from  (13)  to 
(16),  inclusive,  515  square  miles;  from  (17)  to  (25),  inclusive,  440  square 
miles;  from  (26)  to  (28),  inclusive,  385  square  miles;  from  (29)  to  (35), 
inclusive,  180  square  miles,  and  from  (36)  to  (45),  inclusive,  30  square 
miles.  This  data,  allowing  1,000,000  tons  of  coal  to  the  square  mile  for 
every  foot  in  thickness,  gives  26,865,000,000  tons  as  the  sum  total  of  the 
clean  coal  contained  in  the  seams  two  feet  and  over  in  thickness  in  the 
Warrior  Field  in  this  county.  At  the  present  rate,  1,400,000  tons  per 
annum,  of  mining  this  workable  coal  in  this  county,  it  will  take  over  1900 
years  to  exhaust  the  clean  coal  of  the  seams  that  are  two  feet  and  over  in 
thickness.  Much  of  this  coal,  however,  will  never  be  mined,  from  the 
fact  that  it  is  at  too  great  a  depth  below  the  surface ;  though  more  than 
one-fourth  of  it,  or  about  7,000,000,000  tons,  is  within  300  feet  of  the 
surface,  and  can  be  mined  cheaply  by  drifts  and  slopes.  The  above  clean 
coal,  of  this  county,  of  the  seams  that  are  two  feet  and  over  in  thickness, 
would  be  worth  now,  at  the  mouths  of  the  mines,  about  §57,947,000,000, 
of  which  sum  about  §7,589,000,000  would  be  profit. 

These  coals  are  all  bituminous  coals,  and,  as  a  class,  are  better  than 
the  average  bituminous  coals.  They  are  of  almost  every  variety :  some 
of  them  are  bright  and  hard,  and  are  well  adapted  to  handling  and  stock- 
ing, while  others  are  of  a  duller  color,  and  of  a  softer  or  more  friable  and 
crumbly  nature ;  some  of  them  seem  to  be  peculiarly  fitted  for  coking, 
for  iron-ore  smelting,  and  for  foundry  and  blacksmithing  purposes,  while 
others  do  not  coke  at  all,  but  are  excellent  heating  and  steaming  coals. 
They  all  burn  freely,  and  most  of  them  are  well  suited  for  making  gas. 
Some  of  them  have  a  vertical  flaggy  structure,  or  a  regular  face  and  butt 
structure,  while  others  are  divided  up  by  joints  into  cubical  and  rhom- 
boidal  blocks,  and  others  still  are  devoid  of  any  regular  forms  or  are  solid 
and  compact  throughout.  Some  of  them  on  being  exposed  to  the 
weather  quickly  crumble,  while  others,  to  the  naked  eye,  are  not  effected 
for  years.  Many  of  them  contain  considerable  mineral  charcoal,  princi- 
pally in  thin  sheets  along  the  planes  of  stratification,  and  some  of  them 
are  very  pure  coals  or  contain  a  large  percentage  of  fixed  carbon  with  but 
very  little  ash  and  clinker,  while  others  are  bony  and  slaty.  Some  of 
them,  however,  look  slaty  when  they  are  not ;  the  dull  luster  being  due 
to  the  casts  of  plants  along  the  seams  of  division  or  stratification.  The 
most  of  these  coals  have  been  judged  of  solely  from  their  exposed  out- 
crops, and  it  is  a  well  known  fact  that  all  bituminous  coals  deteriorate,  or 
lose  in  their  gas-giving  and  heating  qualities  on  weathering,  though  they 


Jefferson    County. 

retain  their  forms  and  to  all  appearances  are  not  effected  ;  hence  it  is  very 
likely  that  most  of  them  have  been  underestimated. 

The  following  analyses  of  freshly  mined  and  average  samples   will 
serve  to  show  the  quality  of  these  coals : 

Name  of  Coal  Seivui. 

Specific  Gravity 


Volatile  Matter, 
Fixed  Carbon  . . 















AVatt  or    Warrior. 
Jefferson  or  Pierce.. 


61. 7S") 




These  seams  occur  in  the  upper,  middle,  and  lower  part  of  the  meas- 
ures, as  may  be  seen  from  an  inspection  of  the  General  Section. 

Chemical  analyses  will  show  the  compositions  of  coals,  but  will  not 
show  how  they  are  put  together,  and  as  their  true  values  and  fitness  for 
certain  purposes  are  largely  dependent  on  their  mechanical  make-up  or 
physical  structure,  the  best  tests  of  their  worth  are  actual  experiments  and 
uses  on  a  large  scale,  and  hence  the  following  table  is  appended  to  show 
the  standing  of  some  Alabama  coals,  as  compared  with  well  known 
coals  of  other  States  for  heating  or  steaming  purposes : 

Name  of 

Cumberlanil  . 

Fouiuls  of  water 

evaporated  from  and 

at  212°  per  lb.  of 



Percent,  of  non- 
combustible  from 
combustion  under 


Relative  heatiu.t;  or 

steaming  values. 

Cumberland,    Md. 

being  100. 


Jellico 7.45 ! 6.3 : 90.7. 

Pittsbur!:; ! 7.63 7.4 j 92.0. 

Altmont : 7.41 I S.-'i | 90.:'.. 

St.  Bernanl ' 6.73 1 6.0 1 82  0. 

Warrior i 7.73 ! 4.6 1 94.2. 

Helena i 7.58 ' 7.7 ! 92.:;. 

Watt 7.11 t 13.2 j 86.6. 

Diamond i 6.20 1 10.2 ! 75.."> . 

Mud  EivL-r ! 6.89 4.6 ; 8:!.0 . 

Memphis [ 6.4.5 i 8.5 ' 7S.ii. 

Clifton ' 5.74 14.6 60.0. 

Sewaneu | 7.37. 

Cahaba 1 7.6.5. 

Blocton j 7.37. 

Black  Cri.L 7.(i3. 

Henry  Ell'n 7.25. 

Daisy ' 7.16. 



5.0. , 


.  5.2. 


Name  of 




















The  above  table  is  an  abstract  of  the  results  of  tests  made  by  Prof. 

Its   Topography,    Geology,  and  A^atiiral  Reso?cncs.  35 

O.  H.  Landreth,  at  Vanderbilt  University,  Nashville,  Tennessee,  between 
March  I2th  and  May  22nd,  1885,  In  these  tests  ten  tons  of  coal  from 
each  mine  were  used,  and  in  case  of  the  Alabama  coals  we  have  been 
told  that  some  of  them,  at  least,  were  not  picked  coals  or  were  not 
intended  for  this  purpose,  but  were  taken  from  their  regular  marl<etable 
screened  products.  These  tests  show  up  the  Alabama  coals  in  a  most 
favorable  light,  and  demonstrate  that  one-half  of  the  eight  tested  were 
excelled  for  steaming  purposes  by  only  the  Cumberland  coal,  and  that  the 
lowest  Alabama  coal  on  the  graded  list  was  superior  for  these  purposes 
to  several  of  the  coals  brought  from  other  States.  Four  of  these  Alabama 
coals,  those  in  italics,  namely :  the  Pratt,  the  Warrior,  the  Watt,  and  the 
Black  Creek,  were  from  the  Warrior  Field,  in  this  county  ;  the  other  four 
were  from  the  Cahaba  Field.  The  analyses  of  these  four  coals  of  the 
Warrior  field  have  already  been  given. 

The  coals  of  the  Warrior  Field  have  a  great  advantage  over  the  coals 
of  many  other  fields  in  the  ease  and  cheapness  with  which  they  can 
be  mined.  In  the  case  of  this  field,  the  physical  features  of  the  measures, 
the  small  angle  of  dip,  the  structure  of  the  coals,  and  the  solid  roofs  and 
soft  underbeds  are  all  conducive  to  cheap  mining.  The  only  drawback 
that  any  of  these  coals  have  to  cheap  mining  is  that  the  thicker  seams 
always  have  thin  interstratified  partings  of  slate  and  clay  that  can  not  be 
mined  out  cleanly,  and  hence,  to  make  the  coals  of  these  thick  seams  val- 
uable, the  additional  expense  of  crushing  and  washing  will  have  to  be 
resorted  to.  The  physical  features  of  the  Warrior  Field  will  enable  good 
workable  seams  of  coal  to  be  reached  in  nearly  all  parts  of  the  productive 
measures  at  moderate  depths  below  the  surface  or  by  drifts  and  slopes. 
The  small  angle  of  dip  enables  the  mines  either  to  drain  themselves,  or 
to  be  kept  dry  at  comparatively  small  cost.  The  face  and  butt  structure, 
and  the  joint  structure  of  these  coals,  enable  them  to  be  mined  advanta- 
geously and  in  large  lumps.  The  hard,  solid  roofs  save  the  great  expense 
of  propping,  and  the  soft  underbeds  permit  of  the  coals  being  easily 

The  coals  of  the  Warrior  Field,  as  a  whole,  as  well  as  those  of  Jeffer- 
son County,  will,  in  a  few  years,  be  highly  blessed  with  great  competition  in 
transportation  lines  or  with  exceedingly  cheap  transportation.  Now,  the 
L.  &  N.  R.  R.  crosses  this  field  on  the  east,  the  A.  G.  S.  R.  R.  bounds  it  on 
the  south-east,  while  the  Ga.  P.  R.  R. ,  that  will  soon  be  completed,  penetrates 
it  on  the  east  and  west,  and  the  S.  &  B.  R.  R.  and  M.  &  B.  R.  R.,  that  are 
now  being  built,  will  bisect  it  respectively  from  the  north  and  the  west. 
Besides    the  above  several  other  railroad  lines  have  been  surveyed  to 

36  Jefferso7i    County. 

Birmingham,    and  doubtless   cars   will    be  running   over    them   in   a  few 

Far  better  than  all  of  these  railroads,  this  field  and  this  county  have, 
winding  through  their  most  productive  areas  for  miles,  a  river  that  can  be 
made  navigable  for  steam  tugs  and  coal  barges  all  the  year  round,  with 
a  minimum  channel,  at  extreme  low  water,  of  eighty  feet  wide  by  four 
feet  deep,  for  the  sum  of  from  $400,000  to  ^1,200,000,  according  to  the 
nature  of  the  work.  Congress  has  already  made  a  large  appropriation 
for  the  opening  of  this  river,  and  will  doubtless  continue  in  this  good 
work  until  a  water-way  is  opened  to  the  sea  for  the  cheap  coal  of  the 
Warrior  Field. 

The  coals  of  this  county,  as  they  have  been  and  are  still  the  most  con- 
venient to  lines  of  transportation,  have  been  and  are  still  the  most  exten- 
sively worked  of  the  coals  of  the  Warrior  Field.  They  furnished  in  1874 
only  33, 139  tons  of  coal ;  now  there  are  in  operation  in  them  about  thir- 
teen mines  that  have  daily  outputs  of  from  100  to  2, 600  tons  of  coal,  and 
three  or  four  mines  that  have  daily  outputs  of  from  ten  to  twenty-five 
tons,  making  in  all  a  daily  output  of  about  4,500  tons  of  coal  for  the 
mines  of  the  Warrior  Field  in  Jefferson  County.  This  coal  is  used  princi- 
pally for  iron-ore  smelting,  and  for  heating  and  steaming  purposes  around 
Birmingham,  and  on  the  railroads  which  run  through  Birmingham,  though 
some  of  it  is  shipped  to  the  larger  cities  of  the  South  for  miscellaneous 


Of  the  Cahaba  Coal  Field. 

Physical  Features — Coal  Measures :  Thickness  of  its  Strata,  and  Number  ajid 
Thickness  of  its  Coal  Seams  ;  the  Quantity,  Quality,  and  Value  of  its 
Coals,  and  their  Transporting  Facilities — Coal  Mining  in  Alabama ; 
Location  and  Output  of  the  Mines —  The  Coke  Industiy  in  Alabama  ;  its 
Qua?itity,  Quality,  and  Consumption — Other  Natural  Resources  of  the 
ll^arrior  and  Cahaba  Coal  Fields. 

Part  III  is  now  taken  up,  out  of  its  regular  order,  because  it  also  treats 
of  the  coals  or  is  of  the  same  geological  formation  as  Part  I. 

The  Cahaba  Coal  Field  comprises  about  435  square  miles.  Not  one- 
third  of  this  area,  or  only  130  square  miles  of  it,  however,  is  in  Jefferson 
County :  but  as  the  greater  part  of  it  is  or  will  soon  be  contributary  to  the 

Its   Topography ,    Geology,  and  Nahtral  Resources.  t^"] 

prosperity  of  Jefferson  County,  a  general  description  will  be  given  here  of 
the  whole  field. 

The  Cahaba  Coal  Field  must  necessarily  possess  many  characteristics 
in  common  with  the  Warrior  Field,  for,  as  has  been  seen,  it  was  originally 
connected  with  the  Warrior  Field,  or  was  of  the  same  great  basin,  and  all 
Coal  Measures,  especially  those  of  the  same  field,  are  known  to  be  every- 
where more  or  less  alike.  These  two  coal  fields,  however,  are  at  present 
very  different  from  each  other  in  their  topographical  features  and  geologi- 
cal structure.  This  difference  is  due  mainly  to  the  fact  that  the  Cahaba 
Field  is  more  intimately  connected  with  the  results  of  the  great  Appala- 
chian revolution,  or  with  the  upheavals,  fractures,  etc.,  of  the  mountain- 
making  epoch  of  that  revolution,  and  hence  it  is  more  broken  up,  and  its 
strata  are  more  highly  tilted  than  they  are  in  the  case  of  the  Warrior  Field. 
This  Cahaba  Coal  Field,  in  fact,  is  simply  the  south-west  terminus,  so  far  as 
can  be  seen,  of  the  folded  and  faulted  strata  that  form  the  Appalachian 
chain,  and  extend  from  Canada  to  Central  Alabama.  This  field  is  of  an 
oblong  shape,  extending  lengthwise  with  the  anticlinal  valleys.  Its  length 
is  about  seventy-five  miles,  and  its  greatest  width,  near  its  south-west  end, 
is  about  twelve  miles.  Its  limits  are  well  defined ;  it  is  bounded  on  the 
north  and  west  by  a  ridge  of  Millstone  Grit,  and  on  the  south  and  east  by 
a  great  fault  that  brings  up  to  a  level  with  its  highest  measures.  Lower  Silu- 
rian rocks.  As  its  south-east  rim  is  not  at  all  elevated,  and  as  the  pre- 
vailing dip  of  its  strata  over  the  whole  field  is  toward  the  south-east  rim, 
it  is  not  a  true  trough-shape  area  like  the  Warrior  Field,  but  is  rather 
a  nionoclinal  basin.  The  actual  dip,  however,  in  a  few  localities  of  com- 
paratively small  areas  is  to  the  north-west,  from  the  presence  of  small 
folds  in  the  strata  that  run  up  and  down  the  field.  The  prevailing  south- 
east dip  increases  constantly  from  the  6°  to  8°  of  the  Millstone  Grit  of  the 
north-west  boundary  to  65°  and  80°,  and  to  even  a  perpendicularity,  along 
the  south-east  edge  or  the  great  fault,  where  the  Coal  Measures  are  suddenly 
cut  off  and  made  to  butt  up  against  Lower  Silurian  rocks.  As  the  prevail- 
ing dip  is  constant  in  its  direction  to  the  south-east,  and  as  it  is  much 
greater  than  the  inclination  of  the  surface,  the  measures  must  of  necessity 
be  thickest  along  the  south-east  edge  of  the  field  or  along  the  great  fault. 
This  field  is  still,  for  the  most  part,  covered  with  its  virgin  forest  of 
yellow  pine,  oak,  and  other  valuable  timber,  and  its  surface  is  broken  or  is 
cut  up  by  denudation  into  a  series  of  valleys  and  ridges.  The  ridges,  as 
a  general  thing,  owe  their  existence  to  the  out-croppings  of  hard,  weather- 
resisting  rocks,  while  the  valleys  have  been  cut  down  into  the  out-crops 
of  the  softer  and  more  destructible  strata.       These  ridges  and  valleys. 

38  Jefferson   County. 

therefore,  run  in  the  general  north-east  and  south-west  direction  of  the 
out-crops  of  the  tilted  strata,  or  up  and  down  the  field.  As  the  topo- 
graphical features,  in  a  great  measure,  are  dependent  on  the  character  of 
the  underlying  strata,  they,  too,  are  arranged  in  strips  running  in  this 
same  general  direction  to  the  length  of  the  field. 

This  field  is  admirably  drained  by  the  Cahaba  River  and  its  tribu- 
taries. The  river  conforms  in  its  general  direction  to  that  of  the  field. 
The  Cahaba  Coal  Field  is  small  in  comparison  with  the  great  Warrior  Field, 
but  it  contains  a  vast  amount  of  workable  coal.  Its  measures  are  believed 
to  be  about  as  thick  and  to  have  as  many  coal  seams,  with  as  great  a  com- 
bined thickness  of  coal,  as  those  of  the  Warrior  Field.  The  coal  seams  of 
these  two  fields  have  never,  as  yet,  been  connected,  but  they  will  doubtless 
be  in  the  course  of  time.  The  coal  seams  of  the  Cahaba  Field,  from  their 
steeper  dip,  crop  out  in  much  more  limited  areas,  and  they  have  much  less 
coal  above  drainage  level  than  those  of  the  Warrior  Field.  For  many 
years  there  has  been  known  to  be  in  this  field,  at  the  least,  twenty  differ- 
ent seams  of  coal,  with  a  combined  thickness  of  between  forty  and  fifty  feet 
of  coal.  There  is,  however,  as  already  stated,  believed  to  be  in  this  field 
more  than  twice  this  number  of  seams,  and  that  they  have  a  combined 
thickness  of  coal  of  over  twice  fifty  feet.  Twelve  of  the  known  twenty  coal 
seams  in  this  field  are  of  workable  thickness,  or  contain,  each,  an  average 
thickness  of  two  feet  and  over  of  clean  coal,  while  others  of  them  contain, 
each,  eighteen  inches  and  over  in  thickness  of  clean  coal.  The  workable 
coal  seams  of  this  field,  as  reported,  are  of  two  groups  that  are  separated 
by  a  great  thickness  of  comparatively  barren  strata.  The  lower  group 
has  from  seven  to  eight  seams  of  coal  from  three  to  seven  feet  in  thick- 
ness, and  with  a  combined  thickness  of  about  thirty-five  feet  of  workable 
coal.  The  upper  group  is  known  as  the  Montevallo  Group.  It  occurs 
along  the  south-east  edge  of  the  field,  and  is  said  to  cover  a  comparatively 
small  area.  It  contains  from  three  to  four  seams  of  coal  of  workable 
thickness  that  have  an  aggregate  thickness  of  about  twelve  feet  of  coal. 

It  has  been  estimated,  after  a  most  liberal  discount  for  every  imagin- 
able cause,  that  there  are,  at  the  least,  4,000,000,000  tons  of  coal  in  this 
field  in  the  seams  that  are  two  feet  six  inches,  and  over,  in  thickness. 

These  coals  are  usually  of  a  bright  and  shiny  luster,  and  are  of  a  very 
fine  quality.  They  seem  to  be  especially  drj',  and  to  contain  a  small 
amount  of  ash,  and  a  large  percentage  of  fixed  carbon.  Some  of  them, 
from  long  use,  are  known  to  be  good  heating  and  steaming  coals,  while 
others  make  excellent  coke,  that  is  well  suited  for  iron-ore  smelting. 
Others  of  them  are  dry  burning  coals  that  do  not  coke,  while  others  still 

Its    TopograpJiy,    Geology,  and  Natural  Resources.  39 

are  fat  bituminous  coals,  and  are  good  fuel  and  gas  coals.  They,  as  a  class, 
appear  to  be  cleaner  and  harder  coals  than  those  of  the  Warrior  Field, 
but  more  faulty.  Some  of  them  seem  to  stand  weathering  finely,  as  they 
have  remained  lumpy,  and  burned  freely  after  years  of  exposure  to  the 
sun  and  rain. 

The  following  three  analyses  will  serve  to  show  the  quality  of  these 
coals : 




















The  heating  and  steaming  values  of  these  coals  may  be  seen  on  an 
examination  of  the  table  already  given  of  the  tests  made  by  Prof.  O.  H. 
Landreth,  at  Vanderbilt  University. 

The  coals  of  this  field  are  especially  valuable  from  the  fact  that  they 
are  the  most  southern  true  coals  in  the  United  States,  and,  in  common 
with  the  coals  of  the  other  fields  in  Alabama,  are  surrounded  by  iron  ores 
and  limestones  in  seemingly  almost  exhaustless  quantities  and  of  the 
best  qualities. 

The  Cahaba  coals  have  one  great  drawback  to  cheap  mining :  namely, 
their  steep  dip.  This  dip  is  so  great  that  the  coals  will  have  to  be  mined 
principally  by  shafts,  and  it  will  be  expensive  to  keep  the  mines  dry. 

The  transportation  facilities  for  the  coals  of  this  field  are  at  present 
very  good,  but  they  will  doubtless  be  rapidly  increased.  Besides  being 
bound  on  the  north  and  west  by  the  A.  G.  S.  R.  R.,  this  field  is  bisected 
from  north  to  south  by  the  L.  &  N.  R.  R. ,  crossed  on  the  east  by  the 
Ga.  P.  R.  R.,  touched  on  the  south-east  by  the  S.  R.  &  D.  R.  R.,and 
will  soon  be  cut  in  twain,  lengthwise,  by  the  M.  &  G.  T.  R.  R. 

It  has  also,  through  its  most  productive  area,  a  river  that  can  be  made 
navigable  the  year  round  for  steam  tugs  and  coal  barges  ;  and,  on  the  south 
and  east,  it  has  no  elevated  rim,  and  can  be  easily  and  cheaply  penetrated 
by  any  number  of  railroads  from  those  sides. 

For  many  years,  in  ante-railroad  times  in  Alabama,  and  from  many 
places,  the  coals  of  the  Warrior  and  Cahaba  Coal  Fields  were  raised  in 
considerable  quantities  from  the  beds  of  the  rivers,  and  the  mouths  of  the 

40  Jefferson  County, 

creeks  along  the  rivers  during  low  stages  of  the  water,  and  floated  down 
the  rivers  in  flatboats  during  freshets.  This  business,  however,  was  so 
perilous  to  both  life  and  property  that  no  considerable  capital  was  ever 
invested  in  it,  and  no  regular  miners  ever  engaged  in  it.  It  was  aban- 
doned on  the  advent  of  the  central  railroads  through  Alabama,  and  it  was 
not  until  the  year  1872,  on  the  completion  of  the  S.  &  N.  Ala.  R.  R., 
that  any  coal  seams  were  scientifically  opened  and  worked  in  Jefferson 
County.  Since  1872,  coal  mining  in  Alabama  has  grown  most  rapidly,  or 
from  an  annual  output  of  about  11,000  tons  to  about  2,225,000  tons 
in  1885,  and  from  an  investment  of  a  few  thousand  dollars  to  that  of 
about  $3,000,000.  The  present  mines  are  all  near  the  present  lines 
of  transportation,  and  are  on  the  out-crops  of  coal  that  are  near  the  edges 
of  the  most  productive  areas.  They  include  among  them  some  of  the 
richest,  if  not  the  richest,  bituminous  coal  plants  on  the  face  of  tl;ie  globe. 
About  six-sevenths  of  the  coal  that  is  now  mined  in  Alabama  is  from  the 
Warrior  Field,  and  about  seven-eighths  of  the  rest  is  from  the  Cahaba  Field. 
Of  the  output  for  the  whole  State,  at  least  five-sixths  of  it  is  from  Jef- 
ferson County,  and  four-fifths  of  it  is  consumed  by  the  furnaces  and  rail- 
roads of  the  State. 

The  miners  of  this  coal  are  of  many  nationalities  ;  among  them  may  be 
found  Americans  (principally  natives),  Germans,  Irish,  Welsh,  English, 
Swedes,  French,  Scotch,  Austrians,  Swiss,  Bavarians,  and  Africans  (prin- 
cipally natives.)  The  outside  help  at  the  mines  are  chiefly  Americans  or 
native  whites,  while  the  miners,  strictly  speaking,  are,  for  the  most  part, 
foreigners  and  native  blacks.     The  native  blacks  make  very  good  miners. 

The  coals  of  these  fields  are  of  special  value  on  account  of  their 
being  almost  surrounded  by  iron  ores  and  limestones  of  the  very  best 
quality.  They  are  particularly  enhanced  in  value  by  the  vast  deposits  of 
red  and  brown  iron  ores  and  limestones  of  the  narrow  Anticlinal  Valley,  or 
Part  II,  that  separates  these  fields  and  which  has  along  it,  especially  in 
Jefferson  County,  such  a  development  and  juxtaposition  of  the  raw  mate- 
rials for  the  smelting  of  iron  ores,  on  a  large  scale,  as  is  nowhere  else  to 
be  seen. 

In  keeping  with  the  rapid  growth  of  the  coal  production  is  the  coke 
industry  of  this  State.  This  industry,  though  less  than  eight  years  old, 
is  now  the  next  to  the  largest  of  the  kind  in  the  world.  It  increased 
from  an  output  of  60,781  in  1880  to  304,509  tons  in  1885.  This  coke  is 
made  chiefly  from  the  coals  of  the  Warrior  Field,  mainly  the  Pratt  Seam, 
and  is  about  all  consumed  in  the  State.     It  is,  as  a  general  thing,   of 

Its   Topography ,    Geology,  a?:d  Natural  Resources.  41 

excellent  quality  for  both  iron-ore  smelting  and  foundry  uses.      Its  quality 
is  indicated  by  the  following  analyses : 

(1)  (2) 

Fixed  carbon 93.86  93.01 

Ash 2.98  6.83 

Sulphur 61  .57 

Moisture 2.55 

No.  1 — Coke  of  the  Warrior  Seam. 
No.  2— Coke  of  the  Pratt  Seam. 

The  Warrior  and  Cahaba  Coal  Fields  have  other  great  natural 
resources  than  those  of  their  coals.  They  have  several  seams  of  black 
band  iron  ore,  considerable  clay  iron  stotie,  a  vast  amount  of  ^ood  fire  clay, 
inexhaustible  quarries  of  the  best  of  building  and  paving  stojics,  numerous 
localities  of  suitable  materials  for  grindstones  and  millstones,  many  deposits 
of  varying  extent  of  alian,  saltpeter,  copperas,  etc. ,  and  a  great  variety  and 
quantity  of  fine  timber. 

l^hc  black  band  iron  ore  or  coaly  carbonate  of  iron  is  in  seams  from  a 
few  inches  to  several  feet  in  thickness.  The  ore  from  two  of  the  seams 
has  been  tested  in  the  furnace  with  favorable  results  when  mixed  with 
more  siliceous  ores. 

The  clay  iro7i  stone  occurs  both  as  interstratified  bands  and  as  layers 
of  nodules,  balls  and  kidney  shape  concretions  dispersed  through  the  thick 
beds  of  shale. 

The  fire  clays  are  the  underbeds  to  most  of  the  coal  seams.  They 
are  from  a  few  inches  to  ten  and  twelve  feet  in  thickness.  They  are 
nearly  always  carbonaceous  and  of  a  dark  gray  color.  When  thoroughly 
wet  they  are  usually  plastic  and  sticky.  They  have  never  been  suffi- 
ciently tested,  if  at  all,  and  are  believed  to  be  in  many  cases  of  the  best 
material.     They  are  frequently  full  of  the  fossil  plant,  Stigmaria. 

The  building  stones  are  of  a  good  variety  and  durability.  Some  of 
them  work  with  equal  ease  in  any  direction,  while  others  split  into  thin, 
tough  sheets. 

The  flaggino  and  paving  stones  are  of  all  degrees  of  thickness  and 
are  of  great  uniformity.  They  have  perfectly  smooth  and  beautifully 
rippled  marked  sides,  and  need  only  to  be  squared  to  be  ready  for  their 
many  uses.  These  flagging  and  paving  stones,  from  their  great  regu- 
larity in  thickness,  etc.,  in  certain  localities,  have  been  caWed plank  rocks, 
and  the  thinner  of  them,  as  seen  in  the  faces  of  quarries  and  bluffs,  fre- 
quently look  like  planks  piled  up  one  on  another.  Grindstones  could  be 
easily  and   cheaply  made  from  the  above  flagging  and  paving  stones. 

Jefferson   Coimty. 

which  frequently  are  of  very  good  grit  for  ordinary  edge  tools,  oftentimes 
better  than  that  of  the  grindstones  which  are  imported  to  this  country 
from  a  great  distance. 

Millstones. — The  Millstone  Grit  oi  these  coal  fields,  as  it  name  implies, 
is  well  suited  for  millstones,  and  is  used  for  this  purpose,  more  or  less, 
wherever  it  abounds.  There  are  other  conglomerates  and  sandstones  of 
these  coal  fields  that  could  be  worked  up  into  good  millstones. 

Alum,  saltpeter,  copperas,  etc.,  are  found  as  efflorescences,  incrustations, 
and  earthy  deposits  in  the  rock  houses  and  other  sheltered  places  of  these 
coal  fields.  They  owe  their  origin  principally  to  the  weathering  or  disin- 
tegration of  pyrites. 

The  timber  is  mainly  of  long  and  short  leaf  pines,  oaks,  gums,  hick- 
ories, beech,  poplar,  cypress,  etc.  The  long-leaf  pine,  over  certain  sec- 
tions of  these  coal  fields,  will  yield  from  15,000  to  20,000  feet  of  good, 
merchantable  lumber  to  the  acre.  The  other  growth,  especially  in  the 
hollows  and  ravines  and  along  the  water  courses,  is  of  fine  size. 

The  Warrior  and  Cahaba  Coal  Fields  also  have  along  their  streams 
some  of  the  grandest  and  most  picturesque  of  scenery,  and  innumerable 
sites  of  narrow  channels,  with  rocky  bottoms  and  sides,  for  the  erection 
of  machinery  of  any  magnitude  up  to  that  of  loo-horse  power  and  more. 

Of  the  Anticlinal  Valley. 

General  Description — General  Section — Structure  and  Complications — Silurian 
Rocks  and  Iron  Ores —  The  Clintoti  Group  and  its  Exhaustless  Red  Iron 
Ore —  The  Knox  Dolomite  and  its  Vast  Deposits  of  Brown  hvn  Ore. 

This  valley  or  middle  division  completely  separates  the  other  two, 
and  is  a  striking  feature  in  the  topography  of  this  State  and  County.  Its 
narrowness  from  coal  field  to  coal  field,  its  abundance  of  red  and  brown 
iron  ores,  its  inexhaustible  quantity  of  the  best  of  limestones  for  fluxing 
purposes,  for  lime,  etc.,  its  numerous  beautiful  and  bold,  big  springs  and 
limpid  streams  of  perpetual  flow,  and  its  great  natural  advantages  as  the 
most  important  highway  or  line  of  communication  between  the  busy 
marts  of  the  north-east  and  the  south-west,  all  tend  to  make  it  of  the  great- 
est interest  to  the  geologist  and  the  engineer,  and  to  the  manufacturer 

Its    Topography,    Geology,  ajid  Natural  Resources.  43 

and  agriculturist,  and  will  make  it  the  richest  and  densest  populated  sec- 
tion of  Alabama. 

This  valley  is  one  of  the  outliers  of  the  great  Coosa  Valley,  or  is  one  of 
the  valleys  of  the  Appalachian  chain,  near  its  south-western  terminus.  It 
therefore  partakes  of  the  characters  of  those  Anticlinal  Valleys,  or  is  made 
up  of  folded  and  faulted  strata,  and,  like  those  valleys,  its  greatest  peculiar- 
ity is  that  it  was  once  a  mountain.  It  is  due  entirely  to  erosion,  though  its 
present  features  have  been  highly  influenced  by  the  geological  strata.  Like 
its  parent  stem,  the  Coosa  Valley,  it  may  be  described  as  a  complex  valley, 
fluted  with  smaller  valleys  and  ridges.  These  smaller  valleys  and  ridges, 
as  well  as  the  soils  and  growth,  have  a  strict  relationship  with  the  geo- 
logical structure  of  the  main  valley.  This  is  especially  noticeable  in  the 
case  of  the  soils,  and  is  exemplified  in  the  barren  ridges  of  hornstone  or 
chert  running  along  parallel  to  and  with  the  fertile  limestone  valleys  at 
their  base. 

The  edges  of  this  valley  are  well  defined  by  ridges  of  Millstone  Grit 
or  the  heavy  beds  of  conglomerates  and  sandstones  near  the  base  of  the 
Coal  Measures.  It  is  something  over  100  miles  long,  and  as  a  whole  is 
known  as  Lottg  Valley.  Different  portions  of  it,  however,  have  received 
different  names ;  the  upper  or  northeastern  portion  is  called  Murphree's 
Valley;  the  middle,  Jones  Valley,  and  the  lower  or  south-west  end, 
Roupe  Valley.  The  floor  of  this  valley  for  nearly  its  whole  length  is 
higher  than  the  mountainous  country  on  each  side  of  its  raised  edges,  and 
it  presents  the  anomaly  of  a  valley  that  is  a  water  divide  in  a  mountainous 

The  relative  altitude  of  this  valley  is  shown  from  the  fact  that,  though 
it  is  bounded  on  the  right  and  left  by  tall  ridges  of  Millstone  Grit,  not  one 
of  its  streams  flows  along  it  for  any  considerable  distance  before  forcing 
its  way  through  the  rocky  barriers  into  the  Coal  Measures  or  mountainous 
country  on  one  side  or  the  other.  It  divides  the  waters  of  the  Warrior 
and  Cahaba  Rivers,  and  hence  separates  the  Warrior  and  Cahaba  Coal 

This  valley  rarely  exceeds  three  to  four  miles  in  width,  though  at  the 
juncture  of  the  Murphree  and  Jones  Valleys  it  is  about  twelve  miles 
wide.  Nearly  one-half  of  its  length  and  about  200  square  miles  of  its  area 
are  embraced  in  this  county.  This  county  includes  the  middle  portion  of 
it  or  the  whole  of  Jones  Valley  and  a  part  of  Roupe  Valley.  The  portion 
in  this  county  is  a  single  anticlinal  that  is  much  folded  and  faulted  along 

44  Jefferson   Coimfy. 

its  north-west  side.     The  following  is  a  general  section  of  the  geological 
formations  of  this  valley: 

Coal  Measures ;  rims  of  Millstone  Grit  of 

CARBONiFEROrs \  the  Warrior  and  Cahaba  Coal  Fields 

.  on  each  side  of  the  valley. 


CI       ,^  /  Ui/per,  Calcareous ;  Mountain  Limestone.  }      -Ann 

Sub-Carboniferous..  [  ^^^^^;  g-^-^^^^^^  .  'g^_  ^^„  .^  „„^  ^..^^^,^^.  \     m  ft. 


f  Black  Shale ;  unknown  thickness,  out- 

t  crop  usually  covered  up,  not  ovr. .         50  ft. 

Upper  Silurian  ....  -I  Clinton  or  Red  Mountan  (xrw,, 400  ft. 

1  Trenton  and  Chazij 400  ft. 

Lower  Siluria  x \  n  ,^>^^  1  Knox  l)olor:>  i:: 1 ,200  ft. 

j  ^"-("(^^  \  Knox  Shah 

In  the  simplest  possible  form  of  this  valley,  or  when  it  is  a  simple  regular 
Anticlinal  Valley,  the  Knox  Dolomite  and  Shale,  or  oldest  rocks,  occupy  the 
center  of  the  valley,  and  the  others  occur  in  regular  succession,  as  given 
above,  to  the  north-west  and  south-east  of  them.  The  south-east  side  or 
half  of  the  valley  is  usually,  if  not  always,  of  this  simple  form,  and  shows 
the  above  formations  in  almost  unbroken  continuity  from  one  end  of  the 
valley  to  the  other,  but  the  opposite  side  or  the  north-west  half  of  the 
valley  is  not  so  simple  in  its  geological  structure,  and  but  seldom,  if  ever, 
exhibits  the  above  simple  form.  On  the  south-east  side  or  half  of  the 
valley  the  strata  have  a  regular  dip  to  the  south-east ;  but  on  the  north- 
west side  or  half  it  is  the  exception  to  find  them  dipping  to  the  north- 
west, as  they  should  be  if  this  valley  was  of  a  simple  regular  anticlinal 
fold.  On  this  north-west  side  or  half  the  most  common  state  of  things  is 
to  find  an  inversion  of  the  strata,  or  to  find  them  so  lapped  together  and 
so  bent  over  to  the  north-west  that  their  proper  dip  to  the  north-west  is 
reversed  to  one  to  the  south-east,  and  the  newer  rocks  are  thrown  to  the 
bottom  or  under  the  older  ones.  This  north-west  side  or  half  is  also  most 
frequently  complicated  by  faults,  which  run  rather  up  and  down  the 
valley.  These  faults  in  some  instances  have  doubled  some  of  the  strata, 
and  in  others  have  left  out  or  engulfed  some  of  them.  This  doubling  of 
the  strata,  so  far  as  has  been  observed,  is  confined  principally  to  the  Clin- 
ton, Black  Shale  and  Sub-carboniferous  formations,  though  occasionally  it 
has  included  the  Trenton  and  upper  Chazy  rocks.  The  above  faults  along 
the  north-west  edge  of  the  valley  have  frequently  pushed  up  and  over  the 
Lower  Silurian  rocks  or  the  Knox  Dolomite  until  they  are  in  contact  with 
the  Coal  Measures ;  for  this  to  be  the  case  there  has  been  a  vertical  dis- 
placement of  the  strata  of  not  less  than  1,500  feet,  and  in  some  cases  a 
great  deal  more.      Of  the  formations  of  this  valley,  the  Upper  and  Lower 

Its    Topography,    Geology,  and  Natural  Resources.  45 

Silurian  are  of  special  interest  and  importance  on  account  of  their  econom- 
ical or  mineral  worth.  These  Silurian  rocks  are  the  repository  of  the  great- 
est accumulations  of  iron  ores  in  Alabama  or  perhaps  in  the  world.  They 
occur  in  the  anticlinal  valleys  of  the  Appalachian  chain  from  Canada  to 
Central  Alabama,  but  nowhere  along  this  whole  line  do  they  possess 
such  a  development  of  hematite  and  Hmonite,  or  of  red  and  brown  iron 
ores,  as  near  their  south-west  terminus  in  Alabama,  and  especially  in  Jef- 
ferson County.  These  vast  deposits  of  red  and  brown  iron  ores  are 
respectively  of  the  Clinton  Group  of  the  Upper  Silurian  formation  and  the 
Sub-group  Knox  Dolomite  of  the  Lower  Silurian  formation. 

I.  Clinton  Group. — These  rocks  consist  principally  of  yellowish,  brown- 
ish, and  white  standstones  and  shales  with  inter-stratifted  seams  of  hema- 
tite or  red-iron  ore.  They  are  of  a  most  persistent  character,  and  are 
closely  associated  with  the  Sub-carboniferous  rocks.  They,  with  the 
cherty  beds  of  the  lower  Sub-carboniferous  rocks,  form  well-defined  ridges 
which  run  up  and  down  the  Anticlinal  Valley,  on  each  side,  parallel  to  but 
somewhat  lower  than  the  bordering  ridges  of  the  Millstone  Grit  of  the  Coal 
Measures.  These  ridges  of  Clinton  rocks  are  not  always  continuous  or 
prominent,  but  they  sometimes  sink  to  the  general  level  of  the  country  to 
again  rise  to  what  is  known  in  Alabama  as  mountains;  in  other  words, 
they  are  rather  a  range  of  long,  high  hills  in  a  line  on  each  side  of  the 
valley,  parallel  to  the  ridges  of  Millstone  Grit  or  edges  of  the  valley.  Those 
in  this  county,  near  Birmingham,  received  years  ago  the  local  name  of 
Red  Mountain,  from  their  seams  of  ever-present  red  ore.  This  name,  Red 
Mountain,  has  now  become  so  extensive  that  it  is  applied  not  only  to  all 
the  mountains  and  ridges  in  Alabama  that  contain  this  red  ore,  but  also 
to  the  geological  group  of  rocks  of  which  it  is  a  part.  The  Red  Mou?itai?i 
group  of  Alabama  is  therefore  synonymous  with  the  Clinton  group  of 
New  York  and  the  Dyestone  group  of  Tennessee.  The  iron  ore  of  these 
rocks  is  known  as  hematite,  red-iron  ore,  red  hematite,  specidar  ore,  fossilifer- 
ousnron  ore,  lentieular  ore,  Clinton  ore,  Dyestone  ore,  and  red  oclve.  When 
pure  it  has  nearly  70  per  cent,  of  metallic  iron.  It  is  of  very  great  inter- 
est and  value  to  Alabama,  and  especially  to  Jefferson  County,  on  account 
of  its  quantity,  quality,  and  position.  It  is  highly  esteemed  as  an  iron  ore 
by  the  iron  manufacturers,  and  is  now  being  extensively  used.  It  is  the 
main  dependence  of  the  blast  furnaces  of  Alabama.  It  is  by  far  the 
greatest  iron  ore  deposit  in  the  State,  and  is  seemingly  almost  inexhaust- 
ible. It  occurs  in  seams  or  is  regularly  stratified.  These  seams,  from 
their  very  nature  and  position,  would  appear  to  extend  down  and  spread 
•out  indefinitely.      In  this  county  there  are  three  of  these  seams  of  ore 

46  Jefferson   Coimiy. 

within  150  feet  of  strata,  though  the  seams  are  usually  only  from  fifteen 
feet  to  twenty-five  feet  apart.  Their  outcrops  are  parallel,  and  are  indica- 
ted by  a  red  soil  and  by  ferruginous  fragments  scattered  over  the  surface. 
These  seams  of  ore  should  occur  on  both  sides  of  the  Anticlinal  Valley 
when  not  engulfed  in  faults,  and  they  are  frequently  duplicated  on  the 
north-west  side  by  faults,  so  that,  if  the  outcrops  in  this  county  were 
stretched  out  in  a  single  straight  line,  they  would  doubtless  reach  near 
200  miles.  The  combined  thickness  of  the  three  seams  in  this  county,  it 
is  believed,  would  average  twenty-five  feet.  The  quality  of  the  ore  is 
different  in  the  different  seams,  and  frequently  from  outcrop  to  outcrop  in 
the  same  seam.  This  quality,  however,  as  a  general  thing  is  good,  and, 
in  places,  it  is  superior  in  richness  to  the  brozvn  ore.  It  is  usually  richest 
on  the  surface ;  seemingly  having  been  leached,  as  it  generally  becomes 
more  and  more  calcareous  downward.  Doubtless  the  composition  of  each 
scam  is  constant  beyond  its  line  of  weathering.  It  is  oolitic  in  structure  ; 
consisting  of  glazed  grains  of  various  sizes,  flattened  and  cemented  together 
as  if  by  pressure.  It  is  frequently  porous  on  the  outcrop.  Its  impurities 
consist  principally  of  siliceous  matter,  usually  in  rounded  grains,  and  of 
carbonate  of  lime,  and  occasionally  of  a  little  argillaceous  matter.  The 
carbonate  of  lime,  when  present  in  considerable  quantities,  causes  the  ore 
to  effervesce  freely  on  the  addition  of  acids.  When  this  carbonate  of 
lime  is  constant,  and  not  in  too  large  quantities,  its  presence  in  the  ore  is 
no  serious  objection,  but  is  rather  an  advantage,  since  it  may  be  made  to 
take  the  part  of  a  flux.  The  argillaceous  matter  is  never  in  large  enough 
quantities  to  require  the  washing  of  the  ore.  This  ore  is  of  a  brownish 
and  bright  red  color ;  on  a  fresh  surface  it  is  shiny,  but  has  no  metallic 
luster.  It  is  friable  and  readily  soils  the  hands.  If  the  outcrops  of  this 
ore  in  Jefferson  County  formed  a  seam  only  forty  miles  long,  that  had  an 
available  thickness  of  ore  of  only  ten  feet,  and  if  this  ore  contained  an 
average  of  only  40  per  cent,  of  metallic  iron  and  had  a  specific  gravity  of 
only  3,  all  the  way  down,  it  would  still  give  to  Jefferson  County  for  every 
foot  of  descent  into  it  nearly  56,000  tons  of  metallic  iron.  The  data  of 
the  above  supposition  are  known  to  be  far  within  the  real  state  of  things ; 
for  in  this  county  the  outcrops  of  each  of  the  three  seams  on  the  south- 
east side  of  the  valley  alone  must  be  near  75  miles  in  length,  and  one  of 
them,  in  places  at  least,  is  over  fifteen  feet  in  thickness  ;  the  ore,  too,  fre- 
quently has  as  much  as  50  per  cent,  of  metallic  iron  and  a  specific  gravity 
of  4.  The  iron  made  from  this  ore  is  of  a  hard,  brittle  character,  that  is 
well  suited  for  castings ;  its  quality  is  improved  by  mixing  with  this  red 
ore  a  little  broivii  ore. 

Its    Topography,    Geology^  a?id  Natural  Resources.  47 

The  following  analyses  will  serve  to  show  the  quality  of  the  red  ores 
that  are  now  supplying  the  furnaces  of  this  county : 

(1)  12) 

Ferric    oxicie 73.930  90.271 

Silica 19.680  O.3S0 

Alumina 2.710  2.460 

Lime 523  .220 

Magnt-sia 192  .230 

Phosphoric  anliydriile 371  .090 

Sulphuric  anhydride 028  trace. 

Manganese  oxide 390 

Zinc   oxide .070 

Baryta .080 

Water  and  loss 1.438  .199 

100.000  100.000 

Metallic  iron 51.500  63.190 

Phosphorus 162  .040 

Sulphur Oil  trace 

Manganese 025 

jVo.  1. — Alice  Furnace  Company  Red  Mountain  Ore. 

Anali/st :  Alfred  F.  Brainerd,  Birmingham,  Ala. 
jVb.  2. — Sloss  Furnace  Company  Red  Mountain  Ore. 

Analyst :  Alfred  F.  Brainerd,  Birmingham,  Ala. 

This  group  of  rocks,  besides  its  vast  deposit  of  red  iron  ore,  is  rich, 
in  flagging  or  paving  stones.  These  flagging  stones  are  of  the  very  best 
quality ;  they  are  hard,  and  of  uniform  thickness,  with  perfectly  smooth 
and  beautifully-rippled  marked  sides.  They  do  not  absorb  water,  and  do 
not  peel  off  on  weathering.  They  are  now  being  extensively  used  in  Bir- 
mingham as  curbing  and  paving  stones.  Many  of  these  flagging  stones 
would  make  excellent  grindstones  for  common  edge  tools. 

2.  Knox  Dolomite. — The  rocks  of  this  sub-group  generally  form  the 
central  and  larger  portion  of  the  valley.  In  the  upper  part  they  are 
rough,  cherty  dolomites,  and  in  the  lower  part  they  are  pure  limestones 
and  dolomites.  The  upper  of  these  rocks  on  weathering  sometimes  leave 
the  very  finest  specimens  of  concretionary  chert,  and  the  lower  ones  will 
furnish  fine  building  stones  for  handsome  structures,  good  lime,  and  some- 
times an  inferior  quality  of  hydraulic  cement. 

On  each  side  of  this  central  area  are  usually  found  belts  of  limestone, 
more  or  less  pure,  of  the  Chazy  and  Trenton  ages;  the  latter  often  quite 
pure  and  excellent  for  the  manufacture  of  lime.  In  many  places,  as,  for 
instance,  from  Birmingham  south-westward  to  Jonesboro  and  below,  the 
central  parts  of  the  valley  are  formed  by  the  thin-bedded  limestones  of 

Jefferso7i   County. 

the  underlying  Knox  Shale  Sub-group.  These  rocks  usually  crop  out  in 
parallel  and  rough  ledges — running  sometimes  for  great  distances — and 
are  usually  very  highly  inclined,  and  in  some  cases  nearly  vertical.  These 
limestone  ledges  are  commonly  interbedded  with  clayey  strata,  and  the 
soils  resulting  from  their  disintegration  are  calcareous  and  clayey,  and, 
inasmuch  as  the  areas  of  the  Knox  Shale  are  usually  quite  level,  they  are 
known  as   "Flatwoods." 

The  flatwoods  are  generally  badly  drained,  and  the  soils  are  cold  and 
unproductive,  although  not  deficient  in  the  elements  of  plant  food. 

With  the  increase  and  decrease  of  the  Knox  Dolomite  Sub- 
group as  surface  rocks,  the  limonite  ore  deposits  of  the  valley 
also  increase  and  decrease,  showing  most  conclusively  that  there 
must  be  an  intimate  connection  between  the  two.  The  superficial 
extent  of  these  rocks,  and  the  number  and  importance  of  the  limonite 
ore  beds,  are  not,  however,  always  in  the  same  proportion ;  for  the 
disturbances  of  these  underlying  rocks  also  seem  to  have  had  some- 
thing to  do  with  the  deposition  of  the  overlying  limonite  ore  beds,  as, 
wherever  these  disturbances  and  hence  decomposition  have  been  greatest, 
there,  too,  the  limonite  ore  beds  are  most  numerous  and  extensive.  The 
theory,  therefore,  that  the  great  limonite  ore  banks  of  the  Anticlinal  Valleys 
are  the  results  of  the  decomposition  of  the  ferruginous  limestones  and 
dolomites  of  this  sub-group,  seems  to  hold  good,  as  has  been  observed, 
so  far  as  Jefferson  County  or  Alabama  are  concerned.  The  supposition  is 
that,  while  the  calcareous  matter  of  these  ferruginous  limestones  and 
dolomites  was  being  gradually  removed  by  denudation,  their  iron  was  col- 
lecting together  in  concretionary  masses  and  was  left  deposited  in  beds 
of  varying  extent  on  or  near  the  sites  once  occupied  by  the  original  rocks. 
This  ore  generally  overlies  beds  of  impure,  shaly  limestone,  though  it  is 
not  beheved  to  be  confined  to  superficial  deposits.  Its  beds,  like  the  Knox 
Dolomite,  occupy  a  zone  from  two  to  three  miles  wide,  running  up  and 
■down  the  center  of  the  valley,  or  with  the  outcrop  of  the  rocks,  and, 
with  occasional  interruptions,  may  be  traced  the  whole  length  of  the 
valley.  They  occur  principally  in  leached  knolls,  hills,  and  ridges,  of 
orange  and  reddish-colored  loams,  from  50  feet  to  200  feet  high.  These 
ridges  and  knolls,  in  the  richer  localities,  for  five  and  six  miles  up  and 
down  the  valley  and  over  areas  of  500  and  600  acres,  seem  sometimes  to 
be  made  up  almost  entirely  of  this  ore,  though  in  the  poorer  localities,  of 
nearly  or  equal  extent,  the  ore  seems  to  be  almost  wanting.  The  ore 
exists  in  the  banks  in  irregular  masses  as  hard,  solid,  compact  ore ;  as  cell- 
ular   and  honey-comb  ore,  and  as  ochreous  and    earthy  varieties ;    and 

Its   Topography,    Geology,  and  Natural  Resources.  49 

from  small  shot  ore  to  boulders  fifteen  feet  and  twenty  feet  in  diameter, 
weighing  3,000  tons  and  more.  It  has  commonly  a  dull,  metallic  luster. 
The  surface  indications,  and  the  diggitigs  into  it,  go  to  prove  that  the  sup- 
ply is  very  great.  It  would,  however,  be  a  very  difficult  matter  to  esti- 
mate this  supply  with  any  degree  of  certainty.  Though  its  principal 
occurrence  is  in  knolls,  hills,  and  ridges,  it  is  sometimes  found  on  the  low, 
flat  grounds.  It  has  frequently  associated  with  it  ferruginous  sandstones 
of  fantastic  shapes.  It  is  a  good  ore  on  account  of  its  purity  and  rich- 
ness, containing  from  50  to  60  per  cent,  of  metallic  iron.  It  is  now  being 
used  to  a  considerable  extent  in  the  furnaces  of  this  county  as  a  mixture 
with  the  fossiliferous  ore  of  Red  Mountain.  The  Alabama  Great  South- 
ern Railroad  runs  through  or  near  the  great  deposits  of  it  in  this  county. 
The  following  analyses  of  samples  from  the  lower  or  south-west  end 
of  the  valley  will  serve  to  represent  the  quality  of  this  brown  ore: 

(1)  (2)  (3)                (4) 

Combined  water 11.35  12.14           13.09 

Siliceous  matter 9.80  2.46  12.16              3.10 

Sesquisoxide  of  iron 72.40  84.46  75.04           84.25 

Alumina 3.75  .91  .30 

Oxide  of  manganese .33  0.00 

Lime .26  .41 

Magnesia .04  .06 

Phosphoric  acid 0.31  .58  0.00           trace 

Sulphur 0.00  .14  .14 

Metallic  iron 50.68  59.15  52.55           59.00 

Phosphorus 0.12  0.25  0.00           trace 

The  growth  of  the  iron  business  in  Alabama,  and  especially  in  Jeffer- 
son County,  within  the  last  few  years,  has  been  something  remarkable. 
This  county  not  only  supplies  its  nine  blast  furnaces  with  ore,  but  also 
ships  a  great  deal  of  it.  The  output  of  pig  iron  in  Alabama  for  1876  has 
been  estimated  at  24,732  tons,  and  for  1885  at  227,438  tons.  About 
four-fifths  of  this  iron  was  made  from  the  ores  and  by  the  furnaces  of  Jef- 
ferson County.  The  present  output  in  this  county,  it  is  expected,  will 
be  almost  doubled  within  the  next  twelve  months. 

The  iron  or  middle  division  of  Jefferson  County  is  not  only  one 
hot  bed  of  iron  ores  and  limestones,  but  is,  as  has  been  seen,  rich  in  the 
purest  and  best  of  materials  for  the  making  of  lime,  and  for  handsome, 
durable,  and  beautiful  building  stones.  It  is  also  blessed  with  a  naturally 
fertile  soil,  and  with  an  abundance  of  pure,  free-flowing  water  for  both 
man  and  beast. 

Nature  has,  therefore,  favored  Jefferson  County  with  the  best  of  her 
earthly  goods,  and  with  everything  that  is  necessary  for  a  future  great- 


,  J  <  <J  L-J  s.--*.M*m'--'-5V"JVTC 


^^•i\y  Htjl^Vy. 


B.  E.  GRACE. 


The  territory  which  constitutes  the  county  of  Jefferson  is  a  part  of 
what  was  formerly  known  as  the  county  of  Blount.  Under  the  territorial 
government  known  as  the  Mississippi  Territory  the  counties  were  large 
and  but  sparsely  populated.  After  the  admission  of  Alabama  as  a  State 
into  the  Union,  and  the  adoption  of  the  constitution,  at  the  first  session 
of  the  legislature,  in  1820,  great  changes  were  made  in  the  county 
boundaries,  and  many  new  counties  established,  among  which  was  the 
present  county  of  Jefferson^  which  embraces  the  territory  commencing 
at  Village  Springs,  in  the  north-eastern  portion,  and  extends  down  in  a 
south-western  direction  to  Roupe  Valley,  which  has  long  been  famous 
for  its  immense  deposits  of  iron  ore,  and  where  the  first  iron  was  made  in 
the  State  of  Alabama.  The  county  is  about  forty-five  miles  long,  from 
north-east  to  south-west,  and  about  thirty  miles  across  the  other  way 
from  a  point  between  the  Mulberry  and  Locust  forks  of  the  Warrior 
River  to  the  Shades  Mountain,  and  at  the  south-east  extremity  to  Cahaba 
Valley.     Jones  Valley  extends  pretty  near  through  the  whole  length  of 

54  Jeffersoii    Co7tJiiy. 

the  county,  being  divided  by  a  low  ridge  for  two-thirds  the  distance,  the 
most  valuable  portion  running  parallel  and  by  the  side  of  the  great 
deposit  of  red  hematite  ore  and  known  as  Red  Mountain. 

The  city  of  Birmingham  is  situated  in  that  part  of  the  valley  about 
midway  between  the  north-east  and  south-west  extremities,  and  within 
about  eight  miles  of  the  southern  boundary  and  three  miles  from  Red 
Mountain.  The  great  Warrior  Coal  Basin  extends  for  about  twenty  miles 
at  the  widest  part,  from  south-east  to  north-west,  and  the  whole  length  of 
the  county  the  other  way. 

The  early  settlers  say  that  the  Indians  did  not  occupy  this  portion  of 
their  territory  as  their  homes,  but  seem  to  have  set  it  apart  as  a  hunting 
ground,  and  as  a  great,  magnificent  park,  in  which  they,  the  Creeks 
and  neighboring  nations,  the  Cherokees  and  Choctaws,  held  their  annual 
meetings  to  celebrate  notable  events  in  their  history,  and  to  perform  their 
national  games,  like  the  ancient  Greeks.  They  had  a  town  on  the 
Warrior  River,  known  as  Old  Town,  at  which,  according  to  Miss  Duffie, 
a  detachment  from  General  Jackson's  army  had  a  battle  with  them  and 
captured  one  of  their  principal  chiefs.  Long  after  the  settlement  of 
Jones  Valley  a  trace  leading  from  Old  Town  to  Mudd  Town,  on  the 
Cahaba  River,  now  owned  by  Rev.  John  Caldwell,  and  crossing  the 
Shades  Mountain,  about  a  mile  east  of  Oxmoor,  was  plainly  visible. 

After  the  year  1815,  which  was  about  the  time  of  the  first  settlement 
of  white  persons  in  Jones  Valley,  there  were  very  few  Indians  seen  here, 
and  no  hostile  demonstrations ;  nevertheless,  through  abundant  caution, 
the  first  settlers  erected  a  rude, fort  near  the  present  site  of  Old  Jonesboro, 
but  it  was  seldom  occupied.  The  first  settlers,  John  Jones,  Andrew 
McLaughlin,  Samuel  and  Isaac  Fields,  and  a  few  others,  made  the  first 
settlement  at  the  point  above  named,  and  the  valley  took  its  name  from 
one  of  them,  who,  it  seems,  was  a  reckless,  daring  man,  but  who  has  left 
nothing  but  his  name  to  throw  any  light  upon  his  previous  history.  The 
others  have  left  numerous  descendants,  who  are  among  the  noted  families 
of  our  old  citizens.  At  that  settlement  Moses  Fields,  lately  deceased, 
was  born,  being  the  first  white  child  born  in  the  county.  The  first 
merchants  there  at  that  time  were  Ben.  McWhorter,  Mark  M.  Harris, 
Edward  Sims,  John  B.  Ayers,  and  John  W.  Bramlett.  Near  the  same 
time  a  colony  from  Rutherford  County,  Tenn.,  settled  at  the  place  now 
known  as  Woodlawn,  a  suburb  of  the  new  city.  This  party  was  com- 
posed of  Williamson  Hawkins,  Thomas  Barton,  WilHam  Cowden,  James 
Cunningham,  probably  Jonathan  York  and  others,  and  soon  afterward  a 
large  party  from  South  Carolina,  consisting  of  John  Brown,  Isaac  Brown, 

Early  History.  55 

John  Brown  (red),  John  Brown  (black),  John  Wood,  James  H.  Wood, 
William  Culbertson,  William  C.  Tarrant,  Henry  Tarrant,  James  Tarrant, 
William  Reid,  and  several  of  the  Montgomerys,  and  others  not  now  recol- 
lected. The  persons  above  mentioned,  and  their  descendants,  constituted 
a  large  part  of  our  population,  and  have  filled  important  offices  in  our 
county  and  State.  After  several  years'  residence  there,  Williamson 
Hawkins  moved  to  the  farm  four  miles  west  of  Birmingham,  where  Mr. 
Thomas  is  now  erecting  his  furnaces.  It  is  a  beautiful  plateau  of  2,000 
acres  on  Village  Creek.  At  the  start  he  cleared  and  cultivated  much  of 
the  land  with  his  own  hands,  but  he  afterward  became  wealthy,  and  in 
i860  was  the  owner  of  150  negroes  and  made  100  bales  of  cotton  per 
year,  and  large  quantities  of  grain.  Mr.  Hawkins  died  soon  after  the 
surrender,  and  has  left  a  numerous  offspring,  among  whom  were  the  late 
lamented  Dr.  Hawkins  and  his  son  James,  the  present  able  solicitor  of 
our  county. 

In  coming  from  Nashville  or  Huntsville,  and  going  toward  Tusca- 
loosa, a  person  would  enter  the  county  at  Village  Springs,  in  which 
neighborhood,  as  far  back  as  1821,  he  would  meet  with  many  persons 
whose  names  have  since  been  well  known  throughout  the  county.  I  think 
they  were  mostly  Tennesseeans,  among  whom  were  Joseph  D.  Harrison, 
John  Hanby,  Sr. ,  Christopher  Deavers,  John  Cantley,  Jeremiah  Randolph, 
and  others.  A  little  lower  down  Turkey  Creek  they  would  find  Jonathan 
Liverman  and  George  Powell,  and  proceeding  down  the  Tuscaloosa  road 
you  would  soon  come  upon  another  neighborhood  of  South  Carolinians, 
consisting  of  Dr.  Hagood,  Robert  H.  Green,  Horton  B.  Chamblee, 
James  H.  Hewitt,  George  L.  Green,  George  Starns,  John  Burford,  and 
others,  some  of  whom,  and  their  descendants,  have  filled  the  most 
important  offices,  from  representative  in  Congress  down  to  justice  of  the 

The  first  regular  term  of  the  circuit  court,  I  think,  was  held  in  a 
place  called  Carrollsville,  now  owned  by  Mrs.  Nabers. 

The  seat  of  justice  was  moved  to  Elyton  in  1821. 

The  principal  citizens  there  at  that  time  were  David  Prude,  John 
Martin,  James  Hall,  Stephen  Hall,  John  M.  Dupuy,  J.  W.  McWilliams, 
Stephen  Reeder,  Daniel  Watkins,  and  others.  The  population  increased 
rapidly,  James  Mudd,  Sr. ,  Jonathan  Steel,  E.  W.  Peck,  Thomas  W. 
Farrar,  William  B.  Duncan,  Samuel  S.  Earle,  and  Baylis  W.  Earle  being 
among  the  early  settlers. 

The  first  merchants  in  Elyton  were  Slaughter  &  Labuzan,  Jonathan 
Steel,  Charles  McLaran,  W.  A.  Walker,  Sr.,  and  Thomas  W.  Rockett. 

56  Jefferso7i   County. 

The  bar  of  Elyton  soon  after  that  time  consisted  of  some  of  the 
ablest  lawyers  of  the  State.  Among  them  were  William  Cochran, 
George  N.  Stewart,  George  W.  Crabb,  Harvey  W.  Ellis,  John  F.  Forest, 
Walker  K.  Baylor,  R.  E.  B.  Baylor,  Pleasure  H.  May,  Daniel  E. 
Watrous,  Samuel  W.  Mardis,  John  W.  Henley,  Thomas  W.  Farrar,  etc. 

Our  physicians  were  Samuel  S.  Earle,  Peyton  King,  and  William  B. 
Duncan.  For  several  years  they  did  most  of  the  practice  of  the  county. 
There  was  nothing  like  a  drug  store  known  in  the  county  at  that 
time.  The  physicians  had  neat  saddle-bags,  with  numerous  departments 
and  pockets  for  the  different  kinds  of  medicines  and  surgical  instruments. 

Our  judiciary  system  at  that  time  was  a  supreme  court,  which  was 
composed  of  the  different  judges  of  the  circuit  court,  who  also  exercised 
chancery  jurisdiction.  A  county  court,  presided  over  by  a  judge  who, 
as  well  as  the  other  judges,  was  elected  by  the  legislature,  and  a  clerk 
of  the  county  court,  as  well  as  of  the  circuit  court,  a  sheriff  and  a 
coroner,  all,  except  the  judges,  elected  by  the  people.  The  judges  of 
the  county  court,  as  far  as  recollected,  were  P.  Walker,  John  Brown 
(red),  and  W.  K.  Baylor. 

The  clerks  of  the  county  court,  before  the  change  to  a  probate 
court,  were  James  Thompson,  H.  W.  Goyne,  Baylis  E.  Grace,  and  Joab 

The  clerks  of  the  circuit  court  were  James  Dodds,  M.  H.  Gillespie, 
and  Hugh  Morrow,  Jr. 

The  sheriffs  of  the  olden  time,  before  the  war,  were  Levi  Reed, 
Stephen  Reader,  John  McWhorter,  John  B.  Ayers,  William  A.  Scott, 
Peter  Anderson,  B.  E.  Grace,  W.  C.  Eubank,  and  A.  Killough. 

The  names  of  the  general  administrators  and  guardians  were 
Samuel  S.  Earle,  B.  E.  Grace,  and  A.  J.  Waldrop. 

Our  mail  facilities  in  the  early  history  of  the  county  were  very  poor. 
The  mail  from  Huntsville  to  Tuscaloosa  was  carried  on  horseback  once  a 
week.  This  state  of  affairs  continued  for  several  years.  It  was  succeeded 
first  by  a  two-horse  hack,  and  afterward  by  fine  four-horse  coaches  from 
Huntsville  to  Tuscaloosa.  For  this  last  improvement  the  county  was 
indebted  to  the  energy  and  good  management  of  Robert  Jemison,  of 
Tuscaloosa.  Before  the  invention  of  the  telegraph,  under  the  adminis- 
tration of  President  Jackson,  his  enterprising  Postmaster-General,  Amos 
Kendall,  conceived  the  idea  of  an  express  mail,  by  which  news  could  be 
sent  through  the  principal  mail  routes  much  more  expeditiously  than  by 
the  old  plan.  He  accordingly  established  lines  of  that  kind  between  the 
principal    cities  of  the  country.     We  had  one  between    Nashville  and 

Early  History.  57 

Montgomery.  He  had  relays  of  horses  of  the  best  blood  every  ten  miles 
and  boys  who  were  fearless  riders.  The  speed  adopted  was  ten  miles  per 
hour.  The  writer  of  this  lived  on  the  line  of  that  route,  and  frequently 
heard  them  pass  at  the  dead  hour  of  night.  The  boy  who  rode  that  ten 
miles  was  one  of  Birmingham's  first  settlers,  and  is  now  a  prosperous 
and  wealthy  citizen.  I  allude  to  J.  B.  Webb.  But  the  express  mail 
was  unpopular  with  the  mercantile  community  of  the  country,  as  it  gave 
great  advantages  for  favoritism,  and  was  soon  abandoned.  The  mail 
stage  system  was  carried  to  great  perfection  in  consequence  of  the  rivalry 
between  two  large  contractors,  Robert  Jamison  and  James  R.  Powell, 
and  was  continued  till  superseded  by  the  railroad  system. 

About  the  year  1836  great  excitement  was  caused  in  Jefferson  County 
in  consequence  of  the  hostile  attitude  of  the  Seminole  and  Creek  Indians, 
especially  the  latter.  The  treaty  which  had  recently  been  concluded 
between  the  General  Government  and  Indians  for  their  removal  to  the 
West  caused  great  dissatisfaction  among  a  large  portion  of  them,  and 
several  murders  were  committed  between  Montgomery  and  Columbus, 
Georgia,  and  other  outrages,  which  finally  resulted  in  a  state  of  war.  The 
Governor  made  a  call  for  volunteers,  and  Jefferson  County,  as  usual  in 
such  cases,  responded  promptly,  and  a  company  of  near  100  men  was 
soon  raised,!  and  James  McAdory  was  elected  captain,  I  forget  the 
names  of  the  other  officers,  or  I  would  gladly  give  them,  as  they  were 
a  gallant  set  of  boys,  and  spent  a  hot  summer  in  the  sickly  climate, 
at  that  time,  of  South  Alabama,  serving  faithfully  till  the  object  of  the 
campaign  was  accomplished,  and  the  hostile  Creeks  were  captured  and 
sent  ina  Montgomery  and  Mobile  by  water  to  their  new  homes.  The 
captain  and  most  of  his  men  returned,  but  several  contracted  disease 
which  finally  proved  fatal. 

About  the  same  time  a  regiment  commanded  by  Colonel  Dent,  of 
Tuscaloosa,  was  sent  to  Florida  against  the  Seminoles.  There  were  some 
of  the  Jefferson  boys  in  that  expedition,  but  their  names  are  not  recol- 
lected.    In  that  campaign  the  gallant  Mims  Jemison  was  killed. 

A  fine  regiment  from  Tennessee,  under  the  command  of  General 
Armstrong,  passed  through  our  county  near  that  time  on  their  way  to 
Florida.  Some  of  the  best  blood  of  the  Volunteer  State  was  spilled  on  the 
' '  Tampas'  desert  strand. "  In  that  campaign  I  recollect  that  Colonel  Guild 
and  one  of  General  Carroll's  sons  were  among  them,  and  I  think  the 
immortal  Cheatham  was  also  with  them,  but  am  not  certain.  They  spent 
several  days  resting  and  recruiting  for  the  long  march  at  the  fine  country 
residence  of  Colonel  Dupuy,  one  and  a  half  miles  south  of  Birmingham. 

5  8  Jefferson   County. 

At  that  time  the  land  on  which  Birmingham  is  located,  and  all  between 
that  and  his  residence,  belonged  to  the  Colonel,  and  with  genuine  Vir- 
ginian hospitality  he  threw  open  his  parlors  and  well-filled  cribs  to  the 
volunteers  and  their  horses,  and  they  had  a  good  time  for  about  a  week, 
but  unfortunately  while  there  the  measles  broke  out  in  the  camp  and  was 
left  in  the  family,  by  which  misfortune  the  Colonel  lost  twenty  likely 
young  negroes,  worth  about  ;g  10,000.  I  have  always  thought  that  he 
should  have  been  reimbursed  from  the  United  States  Treasury,  but  as 
that  kind  of  property  was  not  very  popular  with  the  majority  in  Congress 
all  applications  for  compensation  by  our  representatives  in  Congress  have 
been  refused. 

The  remainder  of  the  Creek  tribe  which  had  not  been  sent  by  water 
soon  after  passed  through  El^^torr,  and  rested  a  short  time  there  on 
their  march  to  their  new  homes.  I  recollect  noticing  the  chiefs  as  they 
sat  on  the  piazza  of  the  Taylor  Hotel,  and  I  think  a  finer  looking  set  of 
men,  consisting  of  some  twenty  or  more,  were  seldom  seen  together.  If 
there  is  any  truth  in  phrenology,  I  don't  think  they  would  have  suffered  by 
comparison  with  the  Congress  of  the  United  States,  which,  at  that  time, 
contained  such  men  as  Clay,  Webster,  Crittenden,  Menifee,  Underwood, 
Graves,  Bell,  Grundy,  etc. 

\  That  part  of  Jefferson  County  where  the  first  settlement  was  made, 
and  which  seems  likely  to  be  diverted  into  a  great  manufacturing  city  by 
the  energy  and  capital  of  Mr.  DeBardeleben  and  his  associates,  was  in  the 
early  days  considered  the  garden  spot  of  Jefferson  County.  When  I 
first  knew  it  such  was  its  fame  abroad  that  it  had  already  brought 
together  a  large  population.  In  the  election  for  sheriff  in  1823  or  1824 
John  McWhorter,  the  successful  candidate,  received  201  votes,  equal  to 
the  vote  of  the  most  popular  candidate  of  the  present  day.  The  lands 
for  a  few  miles  east  and  north  of  Jonesboro  brought  as  high,  at  public 
sale,  as  $100  per  acre.  This  fine  country  was  owned,  when  I  first  knew  it, 
by  such  men  as  John  Smith,  Darby  Henley,  John  W.  Terrell,  William 
Nabers,  Sr.,  John  Cochran,  Wm.  H.  Cochran,  Isham  Harrison,  Gen.  John 
Wood,  Mortimer  Jordan,  Octavius  Spencer,  Stephen  Hodges,  Wm.  K. 
Paulling,  John  Paulling,  Joseph  Riley,  John  Brandon,  George  Ware,  and 
others;  and  further  south,  in  the  neighborhood  of  'Squire  Owen,  we  had 
Thomas  H.  Owen,  Ben  Worthington,  Ninean  Tannehill,  James  McAdory 
and  his  several  sons,  Robert  McAdory,  John  Moore,  William  B.  Moore, 
and  I.  W.  Sadler,  who  still  lives,  an  honor  to  his  country  and  his  race. 
Down  on  Big  creek,  in  the  north-west  part  of  the  county,  the  country 
belonged  almost   to  three  or  four  families,  viz:   the  Waldrops,   Parsons, 

Early  History.  59 

Vines,  and  Smiths,  three  of  which   famihes  could  raise  a  captain's  com 
pany,  and  did  come  very  near  doing  so  in  the  late  unpleasantness. 

At  the  time  of  which  I  write  the  county  was  subject  to  great  incon- 
venience in  getting  supplies  such  as  they  could  not  raise  themselves. 
The  land  was  productive,  and  required  but  little  labor  to  produce  the 
necessaries  of  life.  The  woods  on  both  sides  of  the  valley  were  the  hunt- 
ers' paradise,  abounding  in  deer  and  turkeys,  with  some  panther  and  bear 
and  numerous  rattlesnakes.  We  wore  long  buckskin  leggings,  reaching 
from  the  ankle  up  to  the  hips,  fastened  with  brass  buttons  on  each  side  of 
the  leg  all  the  way  up.  The  winters  were  not  as  cold  then  as  now. 
Cattle  and  horses  were  raised  in  the  woods,  and  afforded  all  the  butter, 
milk,  and  beef  that  we  needed.  What  little  cotton  was  made  was  hauled 
to  the  falls  of  Black  Warrior,  as  ,  Tuscaloosa  was  then  called,  and 
exchanged  for  salt,  sugar,  coffee,  and  calico,  which  was  then  twenty-five 
cents  per  yard.  I  think  the  people  enjoyed  themselves  then  much  better 
than  they  do  now.  They  would  meet  at  public  places  every  Saturday 
and  play  "Fives" — a  game  much  more  manly  and  interesting  than  the 
present  game  of  baseball.  When  they  got  too  drunk  to  play  ball  they 
would  fight  on  the  real  Marquis  of  Queensbury  style,  and  each  man  would 
select  a  second,  strip  to  the  waist,  and  go  into  a  lot  or  ring  and  fight  it 
out.  It  was  very  seldom  that  any  weapons  were  used,  as  it  was  considered 
dishonorable  and  cowardly  to  carry  a  weapon. 

The  county  between  Jones  Valley  and  the  Warrior  River,  and  on  the 
south  side  to  the  Cahaba  River,  was  full  of  game.  On  the  north 
side  there  were  but  few  settlers.  There  were  Richard  B.  Walker,  Ralph 
McGee,  Tom  James,  Isaiah  Bagley,  and  a  few  others.  The  south  side 
was  almost  entirely  uninhabited.  The  Warrior  and  Cahaba  Rivers  were 
then  beautiful  streams,  clear  as  crystal,  in  which  you  could  see  a  fish  in 
ten  feet  of  water.  The  fisherman  in  his  canoe,  dug  out  of  a  poplar  tree, 
with  his  gig  in  his  hand  and  his  rifle  lying  beside  him,  ready  for  a  deer  if 
he  should  venture  in  sight,  with  the  muscadine  vines  hanging  in  festoons 
from  the  tops  of  the  tall  trees  that  overhung  the  water  with  their  clusters 
of  black,  delicious  fruit,  and  the  beautiful  red-horse  fish  sporting  beneath 
his  canoe,  with  their  silver  sides  and  red  fins  and  tails,  in  the  most  desira- 
ble and  healthful  climate  in  the  United  States,  the  thirty-third  degree  of 
north  latitude,  almost  entirely  free  from  cyclones  and  northers,  is  it  any 
wonder  that  Alabama's  most  gifted  poet,  A.  B.  Meek,  surrounded  by 
such  scenes,  should  have  been  inspired  to  write  the  following  beautiful 
verses : 

6o  Jeffejson    County. 

Land  of  the  South,  imperial  land, 

How  proud  thy  mountains  rise  ! 
How  sweet  the  scenes  on  every  hand. 

How  fair  thy  evening  skies ! 
But  not  for  this,  oh,  not  for  these, 

I  love  thy  fields  to  roam. 
Thou  hast  a  dearer  spell  to  me, 

Thou  art  my  native  home. 

Thy  rivers  roll  their  liquid  wealth 

Unequaled  to  the  sea; 
Thy  hills  and  valleys  bloom  with  healtfi 

And  green  with  verdure  be ; 
But  not  for  thy  proud  ocean  streams. 

Nor  for  their  azure  dome. 
Sweet  Sunny  South,  I  cling  to  thee. 

Thy  art  my  native  home. 

I've  stood  beneath  Italia's  clime, 

Beloved  of  tale  and  song  ; 
On  Helvyn's  hills,  proud  and  sublime, 

Where  nature's  wonders  throng ; 
By  Tempe's  classic  sunlit  stream, 

Where  gods  of  old  did  roam, 
But  ne'er  have  found  so  fair  a  land 

As  thou,  my  native  home. 

What  I  have  said  of  Jefferson  County  in  the  foregoing  pages  is 
intended  to  apply  to  it  from  its  earUest  settlement  up  to  the  year  1861. 
Over  the  scenes  which  occurred  here  during  the  next  five  years  I  would 
willingly  draw  a  vail.  As  for  the  present  condition  and  status  of  our 
county,  the  public  must  judge  for  itself.  And  as  to  the  future,  as  I  am 
no  prophet  or  son  of  a  prophet,  I  shall  make  no  prediction. 

Trussville  was  one  of  the  most  important  portions  of  our  county. 
That  part  of  the  county  was  settled  at  a  very  early  day  by  such  men  as 
Warren  Truss, the  grandfather  of  our  present  sheriff;  Nicholas  Talley, 
William  Perkins,  Charles  C.  Clayton,  and  Rickets  Blythe,  Elijah  Self, 
Stephen  Garner,  B.  Praytor,  Andrew  Bass,  Burnell  Bass,  and  others. 

Our  territory  extends  over  a  portion  of  Cahaba  Valley,  including  the 
present  town  of  Leeds.  In  that  portion  of  our  territory  lived  John 
Oliver,  for  many  years  one  of  our  representatives  in  the  legislature.  Wil- 
liam Cameron  was  a  resident  and  merchant  of  Cedar  Grove.  There  was 
also  a  numerous  family  of  the  McDaniels,  and  Worthingtons. 

In  that  portion  of  our  county  known  as  the  Bethlehem  neighbor- 
hood, in  the  western  part  of  the  valley,  lived  many  good  citizens,  such  as 

Early  History.  6i 

Wm.  Brown,  Sr.,  and  his  several  sons;  James  Rutledge,  Stephen 
Hodges,  WiUiam  Snow,  Alvis  Davis,  etc. 

In  the  Jonesboro  neighborhood  lived  Wm.  R.  Sadler,  one  of  the 
most  prominent  citizens  of  that  part  of  the  county.  He  built  the  first 
grist  and  saw  mill  in  that  section,  and  supplied  the  people  with  meal,  flour, 
and  lumber  for  many  years. 

Among  the  lawyers  of  Elyton  was  Judge  Peck,  for  many  years  one 
of  the  leading  attorneys  of  the  county  and  of  the  State. 

Thomas  J.  Wright,  one  of  the  leading  merchants  of  Elyton,  was 
noted  for  his  candor  and  integrity  in  all  business  transactions. 

John  F.  Forrest  was  one  of  our  last  judges  of  the  county  court, 
under  the  old  system. 

Colonel  Green  and  Captain  Hewitt  removed  to  this  county  at  an  early 
day,  about  the  year  1819  or  1820,  and  settled  about  six  and  nine  miles 
north  of  Birmingham,  respectively,  which  has  since  been  known  as  the 
Green  neighborhood,  and  lived  there  till  their  deaths,  which  occurred 
more  than  thirty  years  ago.  They  were  both  men  of  note  in  their  day 
and  time.  Colonel  Green  came  from  the  Abbeville  district.  South  Caro- 
lina, and  while  quite  a  young  man  had  charge  for  several  years  of  the  large 
planting  interest  of  George  McDuffee,  the  eloquent  representative  in 
Congress  from  that  district,  and  it  is  said  that  after  a  long  absence  in 
Washington  City,  on  his  return,  his  large  estate  had  been  so  skillfully 
managed  and  improved  that  he  could  scarcely  recognize  it  as  his  former 

Colonel  Green  married  Jane  Young,  one  of  the  most  amiable  and  lovely 
women  I  ever  knew,  and  after  he  came  to  Alabama  he  acquired  property 
rapidly.  Such  was  his  good  judgment  that  everything  he  took  hold  of 
seemed  to  prosper  with  him,  and  at  his  death  he  left  a  fine  estate  to  his 
family.  He  was  a  very  public-spirited  man,  and  a  great  friend  of  internal 
improvements,  and  became  a  stockholder  in  the  Selma,  Rome  &  Dalton 
road  before  it  reached  Montevallo.  He  was  generous  almost  to  a  fault, 
and  I  have  known  him  in  times  of  scarcity  to  send  a  four-horse  wagon- 
load  of  corn  to  his  more  needy  neighbor,  and  have  it  thrown  into  his  crib 
without  expecting  any  compensation.  He  always  took  an  active  part  in 
elections,  and  supported  the  candidate  whom  he  considered  the  most 
worthy  and  best  qualified  to  fill  the  office  he  sought. 

Captain  Hewitt  was,  I  think,  the  best  informed  politician  I  ever  knew, 
was  a  strict  constructionist,  and  understood  the  true  principles  of  the  gov- 
ernment thoroughly.  In  common  with  most  of  the  Southern  people  of 
that  day  he  was  opposed  to  a  protective  tariff,  believing  that  the  consumer 

62  Jefferson   Coiinty. 

had  to  pay  more  than  his  true  share  of  the  public  revenue.  He  was 
a  successful  farmer,  and  in  the  latter  years  of  his  life  he  engaged  in  the 
coal  business.  He,  together  with  David  Hanby,  Jonathan  Steele,  and 
James  A.  Mudd,  were  the  pioneers  of  that  business  in  this  country.  He 
opened  mines  near  the  mouth  of  Turkey  Creek,  and  David  Hanby  opened 
higher  up  the  river.  Steele  and  Mudd  had  their  location  near  the  mouth 
of  Village  Creek.  They  constructed  flat-bottomed  boats  out  of  the  tall 
poplars  that  grew  in  the  rich  bottoms,  and  after  putting  on  several  thous- 
and bushels  of  coal  would  float  them  down  to  Mobile.  The  Squaw 
Shoals  was  the  great  obstacle,  where  they  always  had  to  wait  for  a  rise 
in  the  river,  and  with  plenty  of  water  they  generally  went  over  safely, 
though  some  boats  were  lost,  and  one  or  two  lives.  The  men  who 
learned  to  pilot  a  boat  down  the  Warrior  River  safely  became  almost  as 
famous  as  Mark  Twain's  pilots  described  in  his  "Life  on  the  Mississippi." 

About  the  year  1832,  John  Cantley,  a  genial,  whole-souled  man, 
made  his  appearance  in  Jefferson  County,  and  established  his  home  here. 
He  was  of  the  mercantile  firm  of  Audley,  Gazzam  &  Co.,  of  Mobile.  In 
passing  back  and  forth  to  New  York  to  purchase  goods,  he  became  inter- 
ested in  this  place,  and  finally  located  here.  He  was  a  man  of  splendid 
physique,  and  wonderfully  magnetic  in  his  nature.  He  soon  became  very 
popular  with  the  people  of  his  adopted  county.  They  gave  him  the  high- 
est honor  in  their  power,  which  was  to  represent  them  in  their  State  leg- 
islature.    Tuscaloosa  was  at  that  time  the  capital  of  the  State. 

His  dry  goods  store  was  located  in  Elyton,  and  soon  became  the  ren- 
dezvous of  all  the  bone  and  sinew  of  the  county  surrounding  the  little 
antique  village.  There  were  congenial  spirits  found  in  this  Jones  Valley, 
and  among  the  prominent  citizens  of  that  time  we  will  mention  Judge  E. 
W.  Peck,  who  has  since  become  chief  justice  of  the  State  ;  another  law- 
yer, John  W.  Henley,  who  was  the  father  of  one  of  Birmingham's  most 
prosperous  and  popular  physicians,  Dr.  Henley,  also  of  Robt.  Henley,  the 
first  mayor  of  this  city.  The  descendants  of  these  three  men  are  now 
living  in  Birmingham,  which  has  risen,  phcenix-like,  from  the  corn  and 
cotton  fields  of  their  fathers.  Hon.  John  Martin,  the  "silver-tongued 
orator,"  and  congressman  from  this  district,  having  married  the  daughter 
of  Judge  Peck,  is  now  a  prominent  citizen  of  Birmingham.  Among 
others  at  that  time,  living  in  this  embryo  wonder  of  the  world,  was  Dr.  S. 
S.  Earle,  one  of  the  most  profound  scholars  and  best  physicians  of  his  age. 
Also  Walker  K.  Baylor  and  Judge  Thomas  A.  Walker.  Any  or  all  of 
these  men  would  have  been  ornaments  to  any  society  or  profession. 

Major  Cantley  subsequently  removed  to  Tuscaloosa,  which  proved 

Early  History.  63 

unfortunate  for  him.  He  engaged  in  the  mercantile  business  there  upon 
a  large  scale,  but  his  partners  soon  involved  the  firm  in  trouble,  both 
financial  and  otherwise.  Major  Cantley  was  quite  as  popular  in  the  Druid 
City  as  he  had  been  in  the  mountains  of  Jefferson,  and  was  soon  made 
one  of  the  directors  of  the  Bank  of  Tuscaloosa.  He  was  a  member  of 
that  old  and  time-honored  institution,  called  Masons,  and  at  his  burial 
this  fraternity  showered  every  honor  known  to  their  order  over  his  remains 
and  grave.  At  the  early  age  of  thirty-seven,  in  the  prime  of  his  life,  this 
man  of  promise  was  stricken  down,  without  a  moment's  warning,  by  a 
secreted  enemy.  So  unsuspecting  and  conscious  of  having  no  such 
enemy  that,  when  dying,  a  few  hours  after,  he  inquired:  "  Who  did  it?" 
His  widow  is  still  living  with  her  daughter,  the  wife  of  B.  E.  Grace,  Sr. 

Mineral  Interests. 

About  the  year  1823,  I  think  it  was,  that  a  few  gentlemen  of  means, 
McGee,  and  some  others,  being  greatly  impressed  with  the  immense 
deposits  of  brown  hematite  ore  in  Roupe  Valley,  thirty  miles  south- 
west of  Birmingham,  determined  to  try  the  experiment  of  making  iron 
on  a  cheap  plan,  as  that  article  was  very  much  needed  by  the  early  set- 
tlers, whose  nearest  market  (and  a  very  poor  one  at  that  time)  was  the 
present  town  of  Tuscaloosa,  then  more  commonly  known  as  the  Falls  of 
the  Black  Warrior. 

The  company  was  so  fortunate  as  to  secure  the  co-operation  of  Mr. 
Hillman,  of  New  Jersey,  the  grandfather  of  our  townsman,  and  part 
owner  and  manager  of  the  Alice  Furnaces  of  Birmingham,  one  of  which 
was  the  first  erected  here,  and  on  a  bold  little  stream  which  runs  across 
Roupe  Valley  and  empties  its  waters  into  the  Shades  Creek,  near  its 
mouth,  he  erected  his  little  furnace,  and  with  a  large  hammer  propelled 
by  water  (which  the  writer  has  since  seen  in  operation)  hammered  out  a 
suflficient  quantity  of  the  best  kind  of  tough  metal  to  supply  the  country 
for  some  distance  around.  The  farmers  had  their  plows  made  and  horses 
shod  with  it,  which  is  probably  as  good  a  test  as  making  car  wheels ;  but 
unfortunately  for  Mr.  Hillman,  and  for  the  iron  business  in  Alabama,  he 
died  soon  after  getting  his  furnace  in  operation,  and  was  buried  in  the 
Baptist  burying  ground  near  the  little  town  of  Bucksville.  It  has  been  so 
long  ago  that  the  exact  spot  cannot  now  be  pointed  out,  and  his  son  and 
grandsons  have  endeavored  in  vain  to  find  it  in  order  to  remove  the 
remains  to  their  splendid  home  in  Nashville,  and  erect  a  suitable  monu- 
ment over  them. 

64  Jejjerson   Cottnty. 

This  was,  I  think,  about  the  commencement  of  the  iron  manufacture 
in  this  State.  After  the  death  of  Mr.  Hilhnan  the  property  fell  into  the 
hands  of  Ninean  Tannehill,  and  afterward  was  run  by  Messrs.  Stroup  & 
Sanders,  and  finally  was  destroyed  by  the  Union  forces,  and  was  purchased 
by  the  Thomas  Iron  Company  in  1868,  who  are  now  the  present  owners. 

Near  the  same  time,  or  soon  afterward,  a  furnace  was  erected  a  few 
miles  from  Montevallo,  by  another  one  of  Birmingham's  worthy  citizens, 
Mr.  Horace  Ware,  and  afterward  he  was  the  principal  party  in  the  build- 
ing up  and  putting  in  operation  the  splendid  and  widely-known  iron  works 
near  Columbiana. 

At  an  early  day  there  was  a  furnace  or  two  started  near  Round 
Mountain,  near  the  line  between  Alabama  and  Georgia.  These  furnaces 
were  all  run  by  charcoal.  It  remained  for  Mr.  DeBardeleben  and  Colonel 
Sloss,  assisted  by  James  and  William  Thomas,  and  others,  to  utilize  our 
bituminous  coal  in  the  manufacture  of  iron,  which  great  discovery  was 
made  only  a  few  years  ago. 

At  a  very  early  date  in  our  history  it  was  apparent  that  our  great  nat- 
ural resources  could  not  be  developed  without  transportation,  and  Congress 
was  applied  to  for  assistance,  and  an  act  was  passed  granting  a  fund  of 
three  per  cent,  of  the  sales  of  all  the  public  lands  in  Alabama  to  be  used 
exclusively  for  connecting  the  waters  of  the  Tennessee  River  with  the 
waters  of  the  Mobile  Bay.  This  act  produced  a  large  fund,  which  was, 
from  time  to  time,  paid  into  the  State  treasury,  and  loaned  out  to  com- 
panies, and,  I  think,  finally  lost  to  the  State. 

The  plan  contemplated  at  first  was  to  connect  the  Tennessee  and 
Tombigbee  by  canal  through  a  succession  of  valleys,  which  extend  through 
our  State,  from  northeast  to  south-west,  but  that  idea  was  abandoned 
when  railroads  became  more  common,  and  it  was  proposed  by  some 
enterprising  men  to  connect  the  two  sections  by  a  railroad  from  Mont- 
gomery to  Decatur,  but  that  idea  was  ridiculed  by  many  as  fanciful.  One 
member  from  East  Alabama  declared,  in  a  debate  in  the  legislature  on  an 
appropriation  for  a  survey,  that  nothing  but  a  pelican  could  travel  the 
country  from  Elyton  to  Decatur,  and  that  it  would  have  to  carry  its 
rations  in  its  pouch.  At  last,  however,  several  years  before  the  war,  the 
legislature  was  induced  to  grant  the  sum  of  ;^io,ooo  for  a  reconnois.sance 
and  preliminary  survey  of  the  contemplated  route,  and  Mr.  John  T. 
Milner  was  appointed  to  make  it.  He  collected  his  corps  and  entered 
upon  his  duties,  which  I  think  consumed  the  best  part  of  the  year,  at  the 
end  of  which  he  made  a  report  to  the  proper  authorities,  which  was 
published  in  pamphlet  form,  and  made  the  project  look  entirely  feasible. 

Early  History.  65 

The  estimates  of  the  quantities  of  coal  and  iron  that  would  finally  pass 
over  the  road  were  almost  prophetic,  and  have  been  more  than  realized. 
One  of  our  most  learned  and  worthy  citizens  and  best  critics,  after  reading 
it  in  the  writer's  presence,  removed  his  spectacles  from  his  brow  and 
remarked:  "Well,  if  Milner  wrote  that,  he  must  be  a  swinged  cat,  and 
deceives  his  looks  most  egregiously. "  It  is  unfortunate  that  so  few  of 
these  pamphlets  are  now  extant,  as  they  would  be  interesting  reading. 
It  would  be  too  tedious  to  enter  into  a  detailed  account  of  the  difficulties 
encountered  in  its  construction.  Mr.  Milner  was  the  chief  engineer,  and 
has  lived  to  send,  himself,  a  great  deal  of  the  freight  which  he  predicted 
for  the  road.  The  names  of  Hartley  Boyle  and  Colonel  Jackson  will  long 
be  remembered  in  connection  with  its  construction. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  war  this  road  was  approaching  the  mineral 
region  of  the  State,  which  caused  the  development  of  the  Cahaba  Coal 
before  that  of  the  Warrior  Coal  Fields.  About  this  time  the  company 
constructing  it  conceived  the  idea  of  erecting  iron  works  near  Red 
Mountain,  and  did  erect  two  rude  furnaces  during  the  war  at  a  point  seven 
miles  south  of  Birmingham,  and  named  the  place  O.xmoor.  One  of  the 
furnaces  was  run  awhile,  but  was  destroyed  in  March,  1865,  by  Wilson's 
army.  The  experiment  had  not  been  encouraging  up  to  that  time,  as  the 
company  was  imposed  upon  by  incompetent  persons  desiring  to  keep  out 
of  the  war.  It  was  not  until  it  fell  into  the  hands  of  Mr.  DeBardeleben 
and  his  associates  that  it  began  to  show  profitable  results.  Its  history 
since  that  time  is  well  known.  The  last  named  company  also  established 
themselves  in  the  coal  and  coke  business  at  the  Pratt  mines  and  demon- 
strated to  the  world  the  fine  qualities  of  the  coal  of  that  region.  Since 
the  war  large  investments  have  been  made  here  by  capitalists  in  mineral 
lands,  but  much  remains  unsold  at  low  prices. 

About  the  month  of  July,  1868,  there  came  to  the  house  of  the 
writer,  on  foot,  with  blistered  feet,  a  fine-looking,  middle-aged  man  who 
reminded  me  very  much  of  Walker  K.  Baylor,  who  is  well  known  to  all 
of  our  old  citizens.  He  told  me  he  was  worn  out  and  tired  and  wanted 
to  rest,  and  had  heard  something  about  the  Red  Mountain  and  wanted  to 
see  it ;  said  he  had  been  engaged  several  years  of  his  life  in  constructing 
the  Memphis  &  Charleston  Railroad,  and  for  the  last  four  years  in 
fighting  the  Yankees  and  had  got  whipped.  He  said  that  he  had  belonged 
to  General  Polk's  staff,  and  spent  all  his  money  in  providing  for  the  necessi- 
ties of  the  soldiers,  and  that  his  name  was  Tom  Peters.  He  was  quarter- 
master for  the  corps,  I  believe.  After  a  night's  rest  we  went  up  on  top  of 
the  mountain,  and  while  standing  on  the  twenty-foot  bluff  of  red  ore  he 

66  Jeffet'son    County. 

exclaimed,  in  the  supposed  language  of  the  Indian  chief,  "  Here  we  rest." 
He  afterward  made  that  point  his  headquarters  for  a  year  or  two,  and 
soon  effected  a  sale  of  the  Roupe  Valley  property,  which  put  him  in  funds 
and  gave  him  a  start,  and  he  probably  did  more  to  bring  the  capabilities 
of  this  region  for  manufacturing  purposes  into  notice  than  any  other  man. 
His  untimely  death  is  known  and  regretted  by  all. 


BY    D.     B.     G. 

The  early  days  of  this  century  brought  forth  men  of  hardy  frames, 
indomitable  energy,  and  undying  patriotism.  On  the  12th  of  November, 
1808,  Baylis  Earle  Grace  was  born  inGreeneville  district.  South  Carolina. 
His  middle  name  was  bestowed  upon  him  by  his  parents  in  honor  of  Gen- 
eral J.  B.  Earle,  many  of  whose  descendants  now  live  in  Jefferson  County. 
When  an  infant  the  parents  of  Mr.  Grace  moved  to  Jackson  County, 
Tennessee,  and  when  he  was  twelve  years  of  age  they  removed  to 
Jefferson  County,  Alabama,  and  settled  near  Jonesboro.  He  has  resided 
in  this  county  ever  since.  Mr.  Grace  entered  Alabama  at  the  time  it  was 
admitted  into  the  Union,  and  has  seen  it  rise  from  a  wilderness  to  one  of 
the  proudest  and  richest  of  the  galaxy  of  Southern  States.  But  few  men 
are  vouchsafed  such  a  privilege  by  an  indulgent  Providence. 

In  those  early  days  educational  advantages  were  limited,  and  Mr. 
Grace  attended  school  but  one  year,  near  the  spot  where  Woodward's 
furnace  now  stands,  under  the  tuition  of  Thomas  Carroll.  The  school- 
house  was  a  log  cabin  without  any  floor.  Among  his  schoolmates  were 
several  pupils  who  afterward  rose  to  distinction,  such  as  John  W.  Henley, 
the  father  of  Dr.  A.  T.  Henley,  and  William  King,  both  of  whom 
became  distinguished  lawyers ;  Drayton  Nabers,  the  father  of  Dr.  F.  D. 
Nabers,  also  two  daughters  of  Isham  Harrison,  Eliza  and  Laura  ;  the  first 
named  became  the  wife  of  Dr.  B.  W.  Earle,  and  Laura  married  the  late 
Wm.  H.  Jack,  an  eminent  lawyer  of  Texas. 

Mr.  Grace  was  left  an  orphan  at  an  early  age,  and  being  the  only 
child  of  a  widowed  mother  her  support  fell  upon  his  shoulders.  But  he 
descended  from  a  line  of  revolutionary  ancestors,  and  the  indomitable 
spirit  burned  in  his  breast  that  his  forefathers  displayed  in  their  struggles 
for  independence.  His  grandfather,  Joseph  Grace,  surrendered  his  life 
for  his  country  in  the  battle  of  Eutaw  Springs.      His  grandmother,  Mrs. 


jf'^  yf^^/!±^^ 

Early  History.  69 

Catherine  Elizabeth  Grace,  set  fire  to  her  own  house  rather  than  allow  it 
to  shelter  the  enemy.  Her  Spartan  courage  was  mentioned  highly  by 
Mrs.  Elliott  in  her  work,  "Women  of  the  Revolution."  It  was  this 
same  hardy  courage  that  fired  Thomas  Grace  with  the  pioneer  spirit  of 
Daniel  Boone  and  impelled  him  to  carve  out  a  home  in  the  virgin  wilds  of 
Kentucky,  and  inspired  Elihu  C.  Grace  to  offer  five  sons  to  the  Southern 
Confederacy,  and  has  won  success  in  the  battle  of  life  for  Rev.  W.  C. 
Grace,  of  Tennessee,  Colonel  Preston  Grace,  of  Arkansas,  and  other 
descendants.  It  was  this  high  sense  of  justice  and  right  that  has  prevented 
the  name  from  ever  being  stained  by  crime. 

The  efforts  of  Mr.  Grace  in  making  his  way  in  the  world  were 
successful,  and  in  1827  he  was  taken  into  the  circuit  clerk's  office  at 
Elyton  by  Harrison  W.  Goyne,  as  his  assistant,  and  transacted  most  of 
the  business.  At  the  end  of  the  term  he  was  elected  to  this  office  by  a 
vote  of  the  people  over  Hugh  M.  Caruthers,  a  very  popular  man,  and 
was  re-elected  in  1835  and  1839,  but  before  the  expiration  of  his  last  term, 
he  resigned  and  moved  to  the  country  at  the  place  known  as  Grace's  Gap, 
where  the  L.  &  N.  road  cuts  through  Red  Mountain.  During  his  term  of 
office  Mr.  Grace  kept  the  neatest  set  of  books  ever  known  in  the  county, 
and  they  are  now  in  the  archives  of  the  county  in  the  courthouse  in 

In  1844  Mr.  Grace  was  elected  sheriff  of  Jefferson  County,  but  as  the 
sheriff  can  only  serve  one  term  he  was  not  a  candidate  for  re-election. 
When  the  law  was  passed  requiring  the  lands  to  be  assessed  by  sectional 
divisions,  he  was  appointed  by  Judge  Forrest  to  make  the  first  assessment, 
which  duty  he  performed  to  the  satisfaction  of  all  concerned.  In  1859  ^^ 
was  appointed  general  administrator  and  guardian  for  the  county,  and 
held  the  office  until  1863.  In  his  public  trusts  as  well  as  private  duties  he 
was  the  same  honest,  earnest,  faithful  man.  The  people  delighted  to 
honor  his  sterling  qualities  of  head  and  heart.  He  never  had  an  enemy. 
His  modesty  has  often  held  him  back  from  places  of  preferment.  He  is 
a  gentle  man. 

In  early  manhood  Mr.  Grace  wedded  Miss  Jane  Mitchell,  a  relative 
of  Judge  Lawrence  Mitchell,  of  Florida,  and  Mrs.  B.  P.  Worthington,  of 
Birmingham.  His  second  wife  was  Miss  Ann  Eliza  Cantley,  daughter  of 
Hon.  John  Cantley,  a  member  of  the  legislature  from  Jefferson  County. 
His  first  wife  bore  him  three  sons.  The  eldest.  Rev.  F.  M.  Grace,  D.  D., 
is  now  president  of  the  Mansfield  (La.)  Female  College;  the  second  son 
was  accidentally  killed  while  at  college  in  Athens,  Georgia,  and  the  third, 

■JO  Jefferson   County. 

Baylis  E.  Grace,  Jr.,  is  a  leading  lawyer  of  Birmingham.  A  grandson  is 
part  proprietor  and  manager  of  the  Birmingham  Daily  Chronicle. 

Mr.  Grace  has  by  hard  study  made  considerable  literary  attainments, 
and  his  articles  to  the  press  have  been  widely  read  and  admired.  He  was 
one  of  the  first  newspaper  men  of  the  county,  and  edited  the  Central 
Alabamian,  the  successor  to  the  Jones  Valley  Times,  the  first  paper 
published  in  the  county,  a  file  of  which  is  now  preserved  by  the  Tennessee 
Historical  Society.  A  vein  of  poetry  runs  through  his  nature,  and  he  has 
often  successfully  invoked  the  muse.  He  is  also  a  musician,  and  has 
delighted  his  friends  with  selections  on  the  flute.  In  years  past  he  was 
often  the  winner  of  the  beef  at  shooting  matches  then  so  frequent.  His 
rifle  is  a  very  fine  one,  the  gift  of  an  admiring  stock  drover  from  Tennessee, 
who  stopped  over  night  on  his  way  South.  It  was  the  custom  at  these 
matches  to  divide  the  beef  into  five  quarters,  the  fore  and  hind  quarters, 
and  the  hide  and  tallow  made  the  fifth. 

Mr.  Grace  was  the  first  person  to  attach  any  importance  to  the  Red 
Mountain  as  a  mineral  deposit.  He  had  the  first  iron  made  that  was  ever 
made  from  the  ore  of  that  mountain,  by  sending  a  two-horse  wagon  load 
to  the  puddling  furnace  of  Newton  Smith,  of  Bibb  County,  who  had  it 
smelted  and  hammered  into  bars,  and  it  was  pronounced  by  the  black- 
smiths equal  to  Swede  iron.  He  afterward  made  the  first  sale  of  iron  ore 
for  manufacturing  purposes.  The  sale  was  made  to  Colonel  John  T. 
Milner  for  the  use  of  the  Oxmoor  Company,  and  from  this  land  they  now 
draw  their  principal  supply  of  ore.  He  first  recognized  the  abilities  of 
Major  Thomas  Peters,  who  came  to  Jefferson  County  prospecting  after  the 
war,  and  he  took  the  Major  to  his  home  and  encouraged  him  in  develop- 
ing those  grand  ideas  which,  now  in  the  full  fruition  of  realization,  have 
challenged  the  wonder  and  admiration  of  the  civilized  world. 

For  some  years  Mr.  Grace  has  been  the  agent  of  the  Thomas  Iron 
Company,  of  Pennsylvania,  and  all  of  their  magnificent  iron  and  coal 
lands,  which  they  are  now  developing  by  building  furnaces  and  founding 
a  town  near  Birmingham,  were  purchased  by  him.  It  was  through  his 
faith  in  the  possibilities  of  this  mineral  district  and  his  representations  of 
its  unequaled  advantages  that  these  Pennsylvania  iron  kings  were  induced 
to  invest  here.  Their  investment  attracted  the  attention  of  other 
capitalists,  and  the  impetus  was  given  to  iron  making  that  has  carried  the 
Birmingham  district  to  the  first  place  in  the  new  world. 

Mr.  Grace  now  resides  one  mile  from  Birmingham,  and  surrounded 
by  home  comforts  and  the  amenities  of  an  extended  social  circle  he  enjoys 
life  with  a  zest  equaled  by  few,     He  is  a  living  example  of  the  health- 

Early  History.  71 

fulness  of  Jones  Valley,  and  his  pure  and  honest  life  has  preserved  him 
to  a  green  old  age.  He  is  a  firm  believer  in  the  great  future  of  this  coun- 
try. He  has  seen  the  land  for  which  he  gave  a  few  dollars  an  acre 
increase  in  value  to  $10,000  an  acre.  It  is  his  daily  custom  to  ride  into  the 
city  on  business,  and  he  meets  hundreds  of  his  friends  who  are  glad  to 
grasp  his  hand  and  look  in  the  eyes  of  an  honest  man — "the  noblest 
work  of  God."  Of  all  the  men  who  crowd  the  busy  marts  of  trade  there 
are  none  whose  memories  reach  farther  back  into  the  annals  of  the  history 
of  Jefferson  County.  He  is  a  link  that  binds  the  past  to  the  present. 
"Birmingham  Illustrated"  says:  "Mr.  Grace  is  one  of  the  most  illus- 
trious characters  of  the  valley  planter.  Venerable  in  memories  of  the 
past,  he  is  yet  active  in  the  new  era.  The  victim  of  a  revolution,  he  is 
one  of  the  fortunate  beneficiaries  of  the  restored  prosperity  of  Alabama 
in  the  new  channels." 

(C«>o^ly  Q^^VeYy. 



in  the  Legislature  of  Alabama  from  Jefferson  County, 
ators  in  italics. 

Names  of  Sen- 

1822.  Isaac  Brown,  Thomas  W.  Farrar. 

1823.  John  Wood,  JohnJBrown,  Isham  Harrison. 

1824.  J.   Wood,  Thomas  W.  Farrar,  Benjamin  Worthington. 

1825.  Johi  Brown,  J.  Brown,  Walker  K.  Baylor,  John  M.   Dupey. 

1826.  J.  Brozvn,  J.  Brown,  J.  M.  Dupey,  John  Martin. 

1827.  J.  Brown,  William  R.  Paulding,  J.  Brown,  John  F.   Forrest.. 

1828.  John  Wood,  John  Brown,  John  M.  Dupey. 

1829.  J.   Wood,  John  Brown,  John  F.  Forrest. 

1830.  John  M.  Dupey,  John  Brown,  Peyton  King, 

1 83 1.  J.  M.  Dupey,  Emery  Loyd,  Harrison  W.  Goyne. 

1832.  /.  M.  Djipcy,  H.  M.  Carithers,  Samuel  S.  Earle. 
'833.  /.  Brown,  John  Brown  (red),  H.  M.  Carithers. 

1834.  Jolin  Broivn,  John  Cantley,  William  A.  Scott. 

1835.  /•  Brown,  J.  Cantley,  Lemuel  G.  McMillon. 

1836.  Harrison  W.  Goyne,  L.  G.  McMillon,  Moses  Kelly,  Jr. 

1837.  H.   W.  Goyne,  Octavius  Spencer,  Benjamin  Tarrant. 

1838.  Walker  K.  Baylor,  S.  S.  Earle,  L.  G.  McMillon. 

County  Officers. 

1839.  C-  C.  P.  Farrar,  S.  S.  Earle,  L.  G.  McMillon. 

1840.  C.  C.  P.  Fatrar,  L.  G.  McMillon,  Jeremiah  Randolph. 

1841.  Walker  K.  Baylor,  L.  G.  McMillon,  J.  Randolph. 

1842.  IV.  K.  Baylor,  S.  S.  Earle,  L.  G.  McMillon. 

1843.  Moses  Kelly,  William  S.  Mudd,  L.  G.  McMillon. 

1844.  John  Ashe,  W.  S.  Mudd,  Octavius  Spencer. 

1845.  Jolin  Ashe,  J.  Randolph,  Christopher  Deavers. 
1847.     M.  Kelly,  W.  S.  Mudd,  L.  G.   McMillon. 
1849.     M.  Kelly,  John  Camp,  Hugh  Copeland. 

185 1.     M.  Kelly,  William  S.  Earnest,  S.  A.  Tarrant. 

1853.     M.  Kelly,  John  Camp. 

1855.      H.    W.  Nelson,  J.  Camp. 

1857.    John  T.  Storrs,  O.  S.  Smith. 

1859.     H.   IV.  Nelson,  Alburto  Martin. 

1 86 1.    John  P.  Morgan. 

1863.     Mitchell  T.  Potter,  John  C.  Morrow. 

1865.      G.   T.  Deason,  John  Oliver. 

1868.     John  Oliver,  Thomas  Sanford. 

1870.     /.   Oliver,  G.  W.  Hewitt. 

1873.      G.   IV.  Hewitt,  R.  S.  Greene. 

1874-75.      /.    J-V.  Inzer,  R.  S.  Greene. 

1876-77.     R.   W.  Cobb,  J.  J.  Jolly,  I.  W.  McAdory. 

1878-79.     Dr.   W.  A.  Rosamond,  W.  A.  Walker,  Jr.,  J.  J.  Akers. 

1880-81.     Dr.  J.  B.  Lnckie,  Dr.  Kout,  H.  J.  Sharit. 

1882-83.     Dr.  J.  B.  Luckie,  James  Hawkins,  C.  McAdory. 

1884-85.     R.  H.  Sterrett,  C.  McAdory,  S.  E.  Greene. 

1886-87.     P-  H.  Sterrett,  G.  W.  Hewitt,  I.  W.  McAdory. 

County  Officers  from  the  year  i860: 


W.  L.  Wilson  was  elected  in  May,  1862,  and  served  until  August, 

John  C.  Morrow  was  appointed  to  fill  the  vacancy  and  served  from 
1865  until  November,  1884. 

Mitchell  T.  Porter  was  appointed  November  10,  1884,  and  in  August, 
1886,  was  elected  for  a  term  of  six  years. 

74  Jefferson   County. 


A.  J.  Waldrop,  1858  until  1865. 

James  M.  Ware,  1865  until  1874. 

R.  S.  Montgomery,  1874  until  1879. 

R.  C.  Bradley,  1879  ""til  1886. 

William  Burgin,  1886,  for  a  term  of  six  years. 


Nathaniel  Hawkins,  i860  until  1864. 
W.  P.  Hickman,  1864  until  1873. 
C.  L.  McMillan,  1873  until  1877. 
W.  P.  Hickman,  1877,  term  ends  1888. 


Richard  Hudson,  i860  until  1862. 
Abner  Killough,  1862  until  1865. 
W.  F.  Hanby,  1865  until  1868. 
Marion  A.  May,  1868  until  1871. 
James  T.  Eubank,  1871  until  1874. 
R.  H.  Hagood,  1874  until  1877. 
John  T.  Reed,  1877  until  1880. 
T.  A.  Anderson,  1880  until  1884. 
S.  R.  Truss,  1884,  serving  second  term. 


T.  F.  Waldrop,  i860  until  1871. 
John  A."  Baker,  1871  until  1875. 
Samuel  W.  Downey,  1875  until  i88r. 
A.  J.  Tarrant,  1881,  term  expires  1889. 


W.  B.  Cofley,  1858  until  1868. 
T.  B.  Ayres,  186S  until  1874. 
William  H.  Riley,   1874  until  1880. 
W.  J.  Mims,  18S0,  still  in  office. 

County  Officers.  75 


H.    A.   Sharpe,  appointed  December,    1884.     Elected  for  a  term  of 
six  years  in  1886. 


Frank  M.   Irion,  appointed  1884,  and  reappointed  1886  for  a  term  of 
six  years. 


James  E.  Hawkins,  appointed  1885,  elected  1886.     Term  six  years. 


Lucian  Martin,  i860  until  1864. 
Alburto  Martin,  1864  until  1865. 
Judge  J.  T.  Luper,  1865  until   1866. 
Alburto  Martin,  1866  until  1868. 


William  A.  Walker,  Jr.,  1868  until  1876. 


T.  B.  Nesmith,  1876  until  1880. 

T.  W.  Coleman,  1880  until  1886. 

James  E.  Hawkins  represented  the  latter  in  Jefferson  County. 

J.  T.  Martin,   1886,  for  a  term  of  six  years. 


Jarrell  Waldrop,  i860  until  1873. 
H.  L.  Wheeler,  1873  until  1876. 
J.  A.  Ray,  1876,  still  in  office. 


Jefferson   County. 


Joab  Bagley,  i860  until  1868. 

James  M.  Ware,  1868  until  1879. 

A.  O.  Lane,  1879  until  1883. 

E.  L.  Clarkson,  1883  until  1886. 

Charles  A.  Senn,  1886,  for  a  term  of  six  years. 


c^.  a  c<:^ 

Z\ie  BeT\(k  ar\^  Baf. 

A.  O.  LANE, 
Of  the^  Birminghs^m  Bar. 


The  history  of  the  Bench  and  Bar  of  Jefferson  County,  Alabama, 
covers  a  period  of  more  than  fifty  years.  As  usual  with  new  counties 
Jefferson  was  sparsely  settled,  and  the  administration  of  justice  was  begun, 
and  for  several  years  prosecuted,  in  the  crudest  and  most  primitive  man- 
ner. There  was  no  courthouse,  and  a  log  cabin  was  substituted  therefor. 
The  first  court  was  held  in  a  log  hut,  about  a  mile  from  the  Worthington 
place,  which  is  situated  about  one  mile  east  of  Birmingham.  This  seat 
of  justice  was  never  dignified  with  a  name,  and  after  three  or  four  terms 
of  the  court  were  held  there,  Carrollsville  (four  miles  south  of  where  Bir- 
mingham now  stands)  was  selected  as  the  place  to  hold  the  courts.  Here, 
too,  the  court  accommodations  never  exceeded  the  limits  of  a  log  cabin, 
in  which  two  terms  of  the  court  were  held,  and  then  the  county  seat  was 
removed  to  Elyton,  about  two  miles  south  of  the  present  flourishing  city 
of  Birmingham.  All  this  time  the  county  was  rapidly  filling  up  with  a 
thrifty  and  hardy  population,  whose  aspirations  reached  out  and  secured  a 
brick  courthouse.  The  courts  of  record  continued  to  be  held  at  Elyton 
until  the  fall  of  1873,  when  the  county  seat  was  removed  to  Birmingham. 
Work  was  at  once  begun  on  a  courthouse  that  promised  to  be  a  "beauty", 
if  not  a  "joy  forever";  certainly  a  suitable  temple  of  justice  for  even  a 

8o  Jefferson   County. 

growing  county  for  many  years  to  come.  But  the  foundation  proved  to 
be  a  failure,  and  the  acoustics  of  the  courtroom  are  simply  execrable. 
The  growing  demand  for  more  space  and  the  unsafe  condition  of  the 
rickety  structure  will  soon  necessitate  the  erection  of  another  edifice, 
which,  let  it  be  hoped,  will  be  worthy  of  a  people  second  to  none  in  push, 
vim,  enterprise,  and  public  spirit.  While  the  present  courthouse  was^ 
building  in  1874,  the  courts  were  held  in  Sublett  Hall,  in  the  city  of  Bir- 
mingham, then  used  as  a  theater. 

From  the  formation  of  the  county  in  1819  until  1825,  the  supreme 
court  was  composed  of  the  several  circuit  judges  of  the  State.  It  has  been 
referred  to  by  one  of  Alabama's  most  witty  and  far-famed  lawyers,  as  the 
' '  court  on  horseback. "  By  the  Constitution  of  1819  the  general  assembly 
was  authorized  to  establish  a  supreme  court,  and  thus  a  burden  was  lifted 
from  the  circuit  judges  that  should  never  have  been  placed  on  their 

In  those  days  the  circuit  judges  had  chancery  jurisdiction,  and  this 
continued  until  after  the  adoption  of  the  Constitution  of  18 19,  soon  after 
which  the  chancery  courts  were  established,  and  from  that  time  to  the 
present  day  separate  and  distinct  jurisdictions  have  been  maintained, 
except  where  city  courts  have  been  established,  which,  as  a  rule,  have 
been  clothed  with  common  law  and  equity  jurisdiction,  as  is  the  case  with 
the  city  court  of  Birmingham,  established  in  December,  1884.  In  the 
early  history  of  said  county  there  was  a  county  court,  which  was  the  same 
as  our  probate  courts  of  the  present  day.  There  was  then  no  county 
court  as  the  same  is  now  understood.  It  might  be  added  here,  in  addition 
to  the  above,  there  were  justice  courts  with  jurisdiction  not  materially 
different  from  those  of  the  present  day.  From  1825  to  1828  the  presiding 
judges  were  A.  S.  Lipscomb,  John  Gale,  Jr.,  and  John  D.  Flinn.  Then 
the  judges  exchanged  circuits,  which  is  now  done  only  to  a  limited  extent. 
Judge  Lipscomb  was  a  man  of  more  than  ordinary  ability.  From  1828 
to  1883  the  courts  were  presided  over  by  Henry  W.  Collier,  S.  L.  Perry, 
Reuben  Chapman,  A.  B.  Moore,  Eli  S.  Shortridge,  Thomas  A.  Walker, 
Robert  Dougherty,  Thomas  D.  Shortridge,  and  W.  S.  Mudd.  Of  these 
Colyer,  Perry,  Chapman,  and  Moore  afterward  became  Governors  of  Ala- 
bama. Eli  Shortridge  was  a  learned  and  able  judge.  He  was  possessed 
of  fine  sense,  clear  perception,  and  vigorous  intellect.  Dougherty  was  a 
great  wit,  but  at  the  same  time  a  profound  lawyer  and  a  good  judge. 
Collier  was  a  close  student  and  a  fine  lawyer,  and  he  utilized  and 
illustrated  his  learning  on  the  bench.  Perry,  Chapman,  Moore,  Walker, 
and  George  D.  Shortridge  were  all  good  judges  and  men  of  more  than 


The  Bench  and  Bar.  83 

ordinary  ability.  William  S.  Mudd  became  judge  in  1857  and  remained 
on  the  bench  until  1883,  when  ill  health  compelled  him  to  resign.  It  is 
safe  to  say  Alabama  never  had  a  sounder  lawyer  or  more  accurate  circuit 
judge  than  Mudd.  The  writer  well  remembers  the  first  time  he  ever  saw 
Judge  Mudd ;  he  was  on  the  bench  at  the  time,  and  his  love  of  justice 
was  noticeable  in  every  ruling.  He  presided  with  dignity,  and  was  so 
careful  to  always  try  to  do  exact  justice  that  the  unfortunate  litigant  rarely 
complained.  He  had  no  patience  for  falsehood,  and  whenever  it  showed 
itself  he  would  turn  away,  as  if  ashamed  of  his  race,  and  look  out  of  the 
window  that  the  jury  might  not  see  his  disgust.  The  confidence  of  the 
people  in  his  honor  and  integrity  was  simply  boundless.  If  a  little  exag- 
gerated, it  was  pretty  well  illustrated  by  a  remark  of  one  who  knew  him 
well,  that  a  certain  individual  "was  as  honest  as  Jesus  Christ;  yes,  as 
honest  as  Judge  Mudd."  He  was,  perhaps,  the  best  poised  man,  intel- 
lectually, that  the  writer  ever  knew.  He  was  not  brilliant,  but  sound, 
safe,  logical,  deep,  and  practical.  Give  him  twenty-four  hours  to  investi- 
gate a  case  and  his  opinion  would  be  almost  infallible. 

He  was  succeeded  by  5.  H.  Spratt,  of  Livingston,  Ala.,  a  compara- 
tively young  man.  The  latter's  term  expired  the  first  day  of  November, 
1886.  He  is  a  bright,  active,  energetic  man,  and  his  record  as  a  judge 
was  endorsed  by  his  renomination  for  a  second  term.  However,  in  redis- 
tricting  the  circuits  in  February,  1885,  Jefferson  was  put  into  the  Fifth 
Judicial  Circuit.  Le  Roy  F.  Box  was  elected  judge  of  this  circuit  in 
August,  1886,  and  will  sit  for  the  next  six  years.  He  is  a  lawyer  of 
ability,  and,  with  his  clear  perception  and  love  of  justice,  does  credit  to 
the  bench.  He  is  hardly  more  than  forty-six  years  old,  and  many  years 
more  of  usefulness  lie  before  him. 

The  circuit  court  docket  was  getting  sadly  overcrowded,  mainly  on 
account  of  the  rapid  growth  of  the  county,  and  in  1886  the  city  court  of 
Birmingham,  with  common  law  and  equity  jurisdiction,  was  established. 
This  court  is  in  session  the  year  round,  with  the  exception  of  June  and 
December.  It  has  taken  long  strides  toward  relieving  the  circuit  court, 
and  it  has  almost  absorbed  the  civil  business  of  the  county.  The  county 
was  most  fortunate  in  the  selection  of  a  judge  for  this  court.  Henry  A. 
Sharpe  was  appointed  by  the  Governor  in  December,  1884,  and  he  was 
re-elected  by  the  people  in  August,  1886,  without  opposition.  Although 
under  40  years  of  age,  he  is  a  profound  lawyer,  and  his  administration  of 
justice  has  given  extraordinary  satisfaction  to  the  bar  and  to  the  people  at 
large.  He  is  dignified,  painstaking,  patient,  courteous,  and  learned. 
While  he  is  not  a  disciplinarian  in  the  ordinary  sense  of  the  term,  still   he 

^4  Jeffcrso7i   County. 

effects  the  same  object  by  the  esteem  and  confidence  which  he  wins  from 
the  bar.  Not  one  who  practices  before  him  could  be  induced  to  treat  him 
with  disrespect.  His  method  may  well  be  illustrated  by  a  little  incident 
that  occurred  during  the  present  year.  Two  of  the  bar  had  become  quite 
heated  over  a  question  "before  the  court  and  began  to  wrangle  over  it.  He 
quietly  reminded  them  that  he  would  settle  the  matter  if  they  would  be 
seated.  Their  blood  was  up,  and  they  found  it  difficult  to  desist  from 
giving  each  other  a  few  parting  words.  Apparently  unmoved  the  judge 
quietly  remarked,  "  Gentlemen,  if  you  persist  in  this  wrangling  you  will 
incur  the  displeasure  of  the  court."  That  remark  was  "oil  upon  the 
troubled  waters,"  and  from  that  time  on  not  a  ripple  occurred  upon  the 
current  of  the  proceedings  in  the  case. 

Since  the  civil  war,  chancery  court  has  been  held  in  this  county,  with 
the  following  named  gentlemen  on  the  bench,  who  presided  in  succession 
as  named :  J.  B.  Clarke,  J.  Q.  Loomis,  Wm.  B.  Woods,  Charles  Turner, 
and  Thomas  Cobbs. 

Chancellor  Clarke  was  a  man  of  marked  ability,  and  had  the  finest  dis- 
cipline in  his  court.  He  was  painstaking,  and  his  decisions  exhibited  pro- 
fundity of  thought,  extensive  learning,  and  careful  research.  He  was  dis- 
placed by  the  Republicans  in  1868,  and  was  succeeded  by  Charles  Turner, 
then  of  Selma,  but  formerly  of  Connecticut.  He  proved  a  worthy  suc- 
cessor of  even  such  a  chancellor  as  Clarke.  His  ability  to  dispatch  busi- 
ness was  remarkable.  Although  not  in  political  sympathy  with  the  bar 
he  soon  won  their  respect.  His  mind  was  clear,  and  his  love  of  justice 
dominated  every  other  influence. 

He  was  succeeded  in  1880  by  Thomas  Cobbs,  of  Livingston,  Ala., 
who  soon  afterward  removed  to  Birmingham,  where  he  has  ever  since 
resided.  He  was  a  ripe  lawyer,  and  by  his  exceptionally  courteous  bear- 
ing he  soon  won  a  high  place  in  the  esteem  and  affection  of  the  bar.  He, 
too,  dispatches  business  with  facility  and  ease,  and  the  docket  will  never 
become  crowded  with  Cobbs  on  the  bench.  So  satisfactory  was  his  admin- 
istration of  the  office  that  he  was  re-elected  without  opposition.  He  has 
just  begun  his  second  term,  and  will,  therefore,  hold  for  the  next  six  years. 

The  business  of  this  court  has  been  largely  absorbed  by  the  city  court 
of  Birmingham,  because  it  sits  continually  and  the  chancery  court  sits  but 
twice  a  year.  Chancery  business  has  largely  increased  in  recent  years. 
Some  idea  of  its  former  insignificance  may  be  derived  from  the  fact  that 
some  twenty  years  ago  the  register  had  forgotten  when  his  court  would 
meet,  and  when  the  chancellor  arrived  the  register  had  gone  a-fishing  with 
the  docket  in  his  pocket.      It   is  hardly  necessary  to  add   that  when  he 

The  Bench  and  Bar.  85 

returned  he  found  the  only  business  transacted  was  his  own  removal. 
However,  no  one  considered  it  very  seriously  except  the  chancellor,  for 
the  bar,  and  especially  the  register  (who  was  a  noble,  whole-souled  old 
gentleman),  treated  the  matter  as  the   "best  joke  of  the  season." 

The  probate  court,  formerly  called  county  court,  was  first  presided  over 
by  Peter  Walker.  He  was  a  man  of  bright  intellect  and  genial  manners. 
He  hailed  from  Virginia,  and  was  a  lawyer  of  moderate  ability.  He  was  suc- 
ceeded by  John  Brown,  commonly  known  as  "Red"  Brown  on  account 
of  his  ruddy  complexion,  to  distinguish  him  from  the  other  John  Browns 
in  the  county.  Walker  K.  Baylor  was  next  in  succession.  He  was  highly 
educated,  but  was  not  studious,  and  was  not  regarded  as  a  profound  law- 
yer. He  afterward  became  circuit  judge.  In  the  fall  of  1844  he  came 
in  from  his  circuit  and  was  making  preparations  for  visiting  his  brother  in 
Texas.  At  that  time  Texas  was  a  wild  and  turbulent  country.  His 
friends  prevailed  on  him  to  carry  with  him  a  Colt  revolver,  then  a  very 
rare  weapon  and  a  great  show  to  the  people,  few  of  whom  had  ever  seen 
one.  He  said  he  had  never  owned  or  carried  a  pistol,  and  that  he  had 
bought  that  one  against  his  better  judgment.  He  seemed  to  have  a  pre- 
monition that  it  would,  in  some  way,  prove  his  own  destruction.  While 
showing  it  to  his  brother  and  other  friends  in  Texas  it  was  accidentally  dis- 
charged and  killed  him.  He  was  then  about  fifty  years  old  and  had  never 
married.  When  he  left  Kentucky  he  parted  from  a  pure,  sweet  girl,  who 
was  soon  to  become  his  wife.  When  he  returned  for  her,  her  new-made 
grave  was  there  to  tell  him  if  he  would  meet  her  it  must  be  in  heaven. 
He  remained  loyal  to  her  to  the  last.  He  would  take  a  "spree"  of  a 
few  days  every  few  months,  and  when  about  to  "sober  up"  he  would  go 
with  horse,  dog  and  gun  into  the  woods  and  remain  a  week  or  so,  when 
he  would  return,  as  bright  as  a  silver  dollar,  and  then  stick  to  business  for 
several  months.  He  could  draw  as  sweet  strains  from  the  violin  as  ever 
issued  from  the  throat  of  the  sweetest  warbler  of  the  forest.  Before  he 
left  for  Texas  he  gave  his  violin  to  James  Wilson,  then  and  now  one  of 
Jefferson  County's  best  citizens,  to  keep  until  they  should  meet  again. 

Moses  Kelly  succeeded  Judge  Baylor.  He  was  not  a  lawyer,  but  a 
man  of  fair  native  ability,  which,  however,  had  not  been  improved  by  a 
liberal  education.     But  he  was  popular  with  the  masses. 

Next  in  succession  was  W.  L.  Wilson,  who  now  resides  in  Birming- 
ham and  is  still  a  leading  citizen  of  the  county.  He  was  not  "  learned  in 
the  law,"  but,  withal,  was  a  man  with  good,  practical  sense,  and  performed 
his  duty  faithfully  and  well. 

86  Jefferson   County. 

He  was  succeeded  by  John  C.  Morrow,  who  held  the  office  about 
twenty  years  and  resigned  two  years  ago.  He  is  a  born  Chesterfield,  and 
it  is  safe  to  say  no  man  can  converse  with  him  and  not  like  him.  In  spite 
of  the  fact  that  he  administered  his  office  loosely,  the  people  have  always 
stood  by  him  when  he  contested  for  their  suffrages.  On  Judge  Morrow's 
resignation  the  Governor  appointed  to  fill  the  vacancy  M.  T.  Porter,  an 
exceptionally  pure  and  upright  man.  He  was  elected  without  opposition 
in  August,  1886,  to  succeed  himself.  He  is  a  sound,  safe  lawyer,  and  is 
quite  accurate  in  his  rulings.  He  acts  as  county  judge,  to  try  the  smaller 
grade  of  criminal  offenses,  which  consumes  a  very  large  part  of  his  time. 
This  and  the  crowded  condition  of  the  court  present  very  serious  obstacles 
to  a  proper  administration  of  his  office.  As  a  rule,  it  is  the  worthless 
man  who  has  no  enemies.  This  rule  finds  an  exception  in  the  life  of  Hon. 
M.  T.  Porter.  A  more  worthy  man  or  a  truer  citizen  it  would  be  hard, 
if  not  impossible,  to  find  ;  and  yet  perhaps  the  county  might  be  searched 
from  one  end  to  the  other  without  finding  a  single  man  to  say  aught 
against  "  Mitch  "  Porter.  It  used  to  be  a  favorite  diversion  with  a  former 
influential  and  humorous  member  of  the  Birmingham  bar  to  try  to  put 
dissatisfied  litigants  to  finding  fault  with  Porter  for  some  fancied  wrong. 
Invariably  the  grumbler  would  say,  "No,  'Mitch'  Porter  never  did  it; 
some  of  his  associate  counsel  were  the  guilty  parties." 

Courts  are  held  throughout  the  county  by  justices  of  the  peace,  but 
these  courts  have  little  to  do  outside  of  Birmingham.  But  the  business 
conducted  by  these  officers  in  Birmingham  is  simply  immense.  Some  of 
them  often  have  fifty  or  sixty  cases  a  month  and  their  fees  amount  to 
$1,500  to  $2,000  per  annum  each.     ■ 

For  some  time  after  the  formation  of  the  county  there  was  but  little 
business  in  the  courts,  and  the  demand  for  legal  services  was  filled  by 
three  or  four  legal  practitioners  and  by  several  lawyers  from  adjoining 
counties.  The  earliest  attainable  data  give  the  names  of  Thomas  W.  Far- 
rar,  Francis  Bugbee,  Walker  K.  Baylor,  and  E.  W.  Peck  as  the  lawyers 
composing  the  Jefferson  County  Bar. 

General  Farrar  came  from  North  Carolina,  and  was  about  forty  years 
old,  corpulent,  big-hearted,  genial,  and  an  epicure.  No  dinner  party 
was  complete  without  him.  His  appetite  always  relieved  any  deficiency 
of  the  caterer.      He  had  little  energy,  but,  withal,    was  a  good   lawyer. 

Francis  Bugbee  hailed  from  Connecticut.  He  was  highly  educated 
and  cultivated,  and  for  those  times  an  excellent  la\v'yer.  He  married  Miss 
Lavinia  Tarrant,  of  Jefferson  County,  in  1878,  and  soon  afterward 
removed  to  Montgomery,  Ala. 

The  Bench  and  Bar.  87 

Walker  K.  Baylor  was  from  Kentucky,  as  hereinbefore  stated,  being 
the  same  party  alluded  to  above  as  circuit  judge. 

E.  W.  Peck  immigrated  to  the  county  in  1824  from  the  State  of  New 
York.  At  that  period  a  law  student  had  to  study  law  seven  years  under  the 
tutelage  of  a  lawyer  before  he  could  be  admitted  to  practice  law,  unless  he 
was  a  graduate  of  some  college  or  had  pursued  classical  studies,  in  either  of 
which  cases  the  time  might  be  reduced  to  three  years,  but  not  less — every 
year  of  classical  study  being  counted  as  a  part  of  the  seven  years,  up  to  four 
years.  Young  Peck's  education  was  obtained  in  the  common  schools  of 
that  day,  supplemented  by  a  three  years'  course  in  the  academies  of  New 
York  State.  He  began  the  study  of  law  in  1 8 19,  at  the  age  of  twenty 
years.  He  pursued  his  studies  until  1824,  when  he  was  admitted  to  the 
bar  and  came  South  in  quest  of  fame  and  fortune.  He  came  with  a  young 
friend  in  a  one-horse  wagon  (the  vehicle  now  called  buggy),  and  after 
traveling  six  weeks  reached  Huntsville,  Ala.  There  he  took  a  horse  and 
started  alone  on  horseback  to  Cahaba,  then  the  capital  of  Alabama.  He 
fell  in  with  Simeon  Streeter  on  the  way,  who  advised  him  to  locate  at 
Elyton.  He  accepted  his  advice  and  stuck  out  his  shingle  in  that  little 
village.  He  was  received  with  an  old-time  Southern  hospitality.  Writing 
of  it  years  afterward  he  said :  "  I  at  once  regarded  myself  as  perma- 
nently located  to  do  the  best  I  could  to  make  a  living,  and  if  possible  to 
do  something  better.  The  people  with  whom  I  had  cast  my  lot  treated 
me  with  such  real  Southern  cordiality  and  heartiness  that  it  relieved  me  of 
many  of  my  anxieties  and  troubles  and  inspired  me  with  a  good  hope  that 
my  life  among  them  would  prove  a  success."  The  four  years'  training  he 
had  received  begun  to  show  its  good  fruits  from  the  first,  and,  though  quite 
young,  he  began  to  work  right  to  the  front.  He  was  sober,  industrious, 
and  talented,  and  soon  engaged  the  best  practice  at  the  bar.  About  that 
time  Matthew  W.  Lindsay  was  solicitor,  and  he  was  one  of  the  finest  pros- 
ecuting officers  the  State  of  Alabama  ever  produced.  He  was  a  terror  to 
evil  doers.  They  feared  him  and  yet  they  admired  him.  Generally, 
whenever  they  had  to  encounter  his  eloquence  and  logic,  they  would  pit 
against  him  the  wiry  and  gifted  Peck.  He  continued  to  practice  in  Jeffer- 
son County  until  1833,  when  he  moved  to  Tuscaloosa,  which  had  been 
made  the  capital  of  Alabama.  Here  he  has  ever  since  resided.  In  186S 
he  became  chief  justice  of  the  supreme  court,  and  his  decisions  were 
marked  for  learning  and  ability,  especially  on  all  questions  of  pleading. 

In  1825  Peter  Walker,  of  Virginia,  and  John  F.  Forest,  of  North 
Carolina,  moved  to  Elyton  and  practiced  law  together.     They  were  good 

88  Jeffersoti    County. 

men,   but  had  indifferent  success  in  their   practice.      Afterward  each    of 
them  became  judges  of  the  county  court. 

About  the  same  year  P.  N.  Wilson,  a  young  lawyer  from  Tuscaloosa, 
settled  in  Elyton.  He  remained  only  a  few  years,  when  he  removed  to 
Sumter  County,  Ala.  He  was  a  young  man  of  fine  ability,  and  after- 
ward became  one  of  the  best  lawyers  in  the  State. 

Thomas  A.  Walker,  a  young  lawyer,  settled  in  Elyton  about  1828, 
and  practiced  there  several  years.  He  was  a  man  of  fair  abilities  and 
great  purity  of  character.  He  removed  to  Calhoun  County,  and  was  twice 
elected  circuit  judge. 

Wm.  S.  Mudd  entered  the  professional  arena  in  1839,  and  met  with 
phenomenal  success.  He  has  already  received  a  notice  in  this  sketch, 
and  it  only  remains  to  add  that  he  was  for  some  years  circuit  solicitor  and 
filled  the  position  with  credit.  He  had  a  great  reputation  as  a  collector. 
In  those  days  merchants  were  nearly  all  solvent,  but  many  of  them  were 
"slow."  Mudd,  on  getting  a  claim,  would  at  once  remit  the  money  to 
his  clients  and  afterward  collect  from  the  tardy  debtor.  By  this  he 
attained  two  objects ;  in  the  first  place  he  pleased  his  clients  and  built  up 
his  business,,  and  in  the  second  place  he  got  interest  on  the  money  he  had 
advanced  and  remitted. 

In  1851  M.  T.  Porter  began  the  practice  of  law  at  Elyton,  and  met 
with  considerable  success.  He  continued  to  practice  there  until  the 
county  seat  was  removed  to  Birmingham. 

Alburto  Martin,  then  a  young  man,  removed  to  Elyton  from  Pickens 
County.  He  was  a  bright  fellow  and  the  soul  of  honor,  and  met 
with  good  success.-  In  1857  ^^^  formed  a  partnership  with  M.  T.  Porter 
under  the  firm  name  of  Porter  &  Martin,  and  they  enjoyed  a  large  prac- 
tice until  Martin's  death  in  1879.  Porter  continued  the  practice  alone 
for  a  few  months,  when  he  formed  a  partnership  with  his  son,  M.  A. 
Porter.  They  practiced  together  until  M.  T.  Porter  was  made  judge  of 
probate  in  1884. 

In  1858  John  C.  Morrow  and  G.  W.  Hewitt,  then  young  men,  were 
admitted  to  the  practice  of  law,  and  soon  afterward  formed  a  partner- 
ship under  the  firm  name  of  Morrow  &  Hewitt.  They  practiced  together 
about  two  years,  when  Morrow  was  elected  probate  judge.  Hewitt  con- 
tinued the  practice  until  the  civil  war,  in  which  he  enlisted  for  the  Con- 
federacy. After  the  war  he  resumed  the  practice,  and  met  with  great 
success.     He  has  a  vigorous  intellect,  and  conducts  his  cases  with  skill. 

In  1867  W^  A.  Walker  was  admitted  to  the  bar,  and  Hewitt  and  he, 
in  1870,  formed  a  partnership  under  the  firm  name  of  Hewitt  &  Walker, 

T!ie  Bc?ich  and  Bar.  91 

and  they  practiced  together  until  1884,  when  they  took  into  the  firm  M. 
A.  Porter,  and  the  firm  is  now  known  as  Hewitt,  Walker  &  Porter.  V*'. 
A.  Walker,  Jr.,  is  one  of  the  best  poised  lawyers  in  the  county.  Take 
him  any  way  you  will  and  he  is  always  found  "level  headed."  He  has 
the  confidence  of  all  the  people. 

W.  S.  Earnest  began  the  practice  of  law  at  Elyton  about  18 — ,  and 
continued  the  practice  until  his  death  in  1S82.  He  was  a  warm-hearted, 
genial  man,  but  loved  his  fun  and  did  not  "  stick  close  "  to  his  professional 

In  1872-73  there  came  to  Birmingham  the  following  lawyers  :  R.  H. 
Henley,  R.  H.  Pearson,  George  S.  Cox,  H.  A.  Young,  Eugene  McCaa, 
E.  L,'  Clarkson,  John  T.  Terry,  W.  W.  Moore,  E.  K.  Fulton,  W. 
W.  Shortridge,  and  A.  O.  Lane.  Henley  was  a  brilliant  man,  but 
was  in  wretched  health,  and  soon  died.  Pearson  walked  into  a  good  prac- 
tice from  the  start,  and  his  professional  life  has  been  a  great  success. 
He  is  a  sound  lawyer,  a  close  student.  He  has  fine  personal  magnetism, 
which,  with  his  native  talent  and  loyalty  to  his  profession,  will  always 
insure  him  a  large  practice. 

Eugene  McCaa  was  a  brilliant  man,  but  he  was  in  Birmingham  onl)- 
a  few  months  when  he  returned  to  Marengo  County. 

John  T.  Terry  was  a  man  of  great  native  ability,  and  for  years  he 
enjoyed  a  fine  practice.  He  was  a  safe  counselor,  and  few  lawyers  had 
greater  strength  before  a  jury.  Latterly  he  did  not  devote  much  time  to 
his  profession  ;  warm-hearted  and  genial,  he  spent  most  of  his  time  in 
social  intercourse  with  his  friends.  Being  a  fine  conversationalist,  he  had 
many  friends  seeking  his  companionship.  Having  formed  a  partnership 
with  A.  O.  Lane  in  1874,  they  practiced  together  until  1885,  when  Col. 
Terry  retired  from  the  practice,  having  accumulated  a  fortune. 

W.  W.  Moore  was  a  warm-hearted,  genial  young  gentleman  ;  but  his 
health  was  most  wretched,  and  he  was  unable  to  devote  himself  to  stud}- 
and  research.  Consumption  carried  him  away  in  1879.  A  nobler  citizen 
or  a  truer  friend  never  lived. 

James  E.  Hawkins,  a  native  of  this  county,  was  admitted  to  the  bar 
in  1872.  He  practiced  here  for  about  two  years  when  he  removed  to 
Shelby  County,  and  after  remaining  there  one  year  he  returned  to  Bir- 
mingham. He  is  a  gentleman  of  great,  good  humor  and  pleasing  address, 
and  a  fluent  speaker.  He  is  solicitor  for  the  city  court  of  Birmingham, 
and  discharges  his  duty  with  credit  to  himself  and  satisfaction  to  the 

92  Jeffei^soJi    Comity. 

E.  K.  Fulton  came  to  this  city  from  Sumter  County  in  1873.  He 
has  enjoyed  a  liberal  practice,  and  is  always  faithful  to  the  interests  of  his 

John  J.  Jolly  began  the  practice  here  in  1874,  having  come  from 
Eutaw,  Ala.  Already  possessing  a  good  reputation  as  a  fluent  and 
attractive  speaker,  he  commanded  a  large  practice  from  the  start.  His 
health   failed   him  and   he  returned  to   Green  County  in    1877. 

E.  L.  Clarkson  began  the  practice  in  Birmingham  in  1873.  He  sus- 
tained himself  well  as  a  young  lawyer  of  research,  clear  perception,  and  stu- 
diousness.  He  practiced  here  until  1878,  when  he  removed  to  Green 
Count)',  where  he  remained  for  two  or  three  years.  He  then  resumed  the 
practice  here,  and  has  sustained  a  Hberal  patronage  to  the  present  time. 

Ellis  Phelan  began  the  practice  at  Elyton  in  1 871,  and  enjoyed  a  good 
practice  for  several  years,  when  he  was  elected  secretary  of  state  and 
removed  to  Montgomery.  He  is  a  man  of  sterling  worth,  but  has  not 
much  taste  for  his  chosen  profession.  No  man  has  ever  possessed  more 
completely  the  confidence  of  the  people. 

R.  A.  McAdory  began  the  practice  at  Elyton  in  1870,  and  while 
possessing  a  fine  mind  he  had  little  inclination  to  law  and  abandoned  the 
profession  in  1883. 

J.  M.  Russell  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1877  at  Birmingham,  where 
he  has  since  practiced.  By  his  indomitable  energy  he  has  amassed  con- 
siderable means. 

W.  W.  Shortridge  was  a  bright  young  man,  but  he  remained  in  Jeffer- 
son County  too  short  a  time  to  work  himself  into  practice.  He  returned 
to  Shelby  in  1873. 

This  brings  the  history  of  the  bar  down  to  within  the  last  four  or  five 
years,  and  as  the  number  of  lawyers  has  increased  to  nearly  one  hundred 
the  limits  of  this  sketch  will  not  allow  of  anything  more  than  to  give 
their  names,  whence  they  came,  and  their  length  of  residence  in  this 
city  and  practice  at  this  bar. 

The  Bencli  and  Bar.  93 


No.  Years 
Names.  Where  From.  in  Birmingham, 

E.  T.  Taliaferro Fort  Smith,  Ark 2 

B.  H.  Tabor Fort  Smith,  Ark i 

M.  A.  Porter Elyton,  Ala 4 

C.  F.  Eastman Rappahannock  County,  Va.  .  .3 

W.  E.   Martin Columbus,    Miss 3 

Robert  Hagood Elyton,  Ala 6  mos. 

Jas.  E.  Webb Greensboro,  Ala 2 

J.  P.  Tillman Selma,  Ala 2 

D.  D.  Smith Randolph  County,  Ala.  ...  4 

R.  J.  Lowe Huntsville,  Ala 5 

C.  A.  Mountjoy King  George  County,  Va.  .    .  5 

Jno.  W.  Tomlinson Tate  Springs,  Tenn 3 

Jno.  D.  Strange Ashville,   Ala 8 

J.  J.  Altman Livingston,  Ala 6 

J.  B.  Earle,  Jr Birmingham,   Ala i 

J.  J.  Garrett Greensboro,  Ala 4 

O.  W.  Underwood Louisville,    Ky 2 

J.  M.  Gillespie Jonesboro,   Ala .7 

E.  J.  Smeyer Cherokee  County,  Ala.  ...  4 

J.  P.  Stiles Columbus,  Miss 4 

R.  H.  Sterrett Selma,   Ala 4 

W.  C.  Ward Selma,   Ala 2 

J.  W.  Chamblee Ashville,  Ala 6 

W.  T.  Poe  .    .  .  .  ' Greensboro,  Ala i 

J.  J.  Banks Union  Springs,  Ala i 

B.  M.  Allen Greensboro,  Ala 4 

E.  K.  Campbell Abingdon,  Va 2 

Jno.  T.  Heflin,  the  nestor  of  the  bar,  Talladega,  Ala 5 

M.  J.  Gregg Greenville,   Tenn 6 

W.  J.  Cahalen Birmingham,    Ala 7 

D.  F.  Myers Augusta,  Ga 6  mos. 

W,  O.  Berryman Georgetown,  Ky.  ...  6  mos. 

R.  C.  Redus Columbus,  Miss 6  mos. 

S.  E.  Greene Elyton,   Ala 6 

S.    L.    Weaver Warrior,  Ala 3 

H.    C.    Selheimer Pittsburg,  Pa 2 

94  Jefferson    Comity. 

L.  C.  Dickey Greensboro,  Ala 2 

J.  F.  Gillespie Decatur,    Ala i 

J.  M.  Martin Tuscaloosa,  Ala 4  mos. 

J.   S.    McEachin Tuscaloosa,  Ala 3  mos. 

J.    M.   Vanhoose Tuscaloosa,  Ala i 

Walker    Percy Greenville,  Miss i 

W.  M.  Brooks Selma,  Ala 3  mos. 

Jno.  Vary Marion,    Ala 2 

Leigh   Carroll New  Orleans i 

Joseph   Carroll New   Orleans I 

James  Weatherly Montgomery,  Ala 4 

Samuel  P.    Putnam Pulaski,  Tenn 2 

W.    W.    Wilkerson Union  Springs,  Ala i 

N.    B.    Feagin Anniston,   Ala 6  mos. 

W.  B.  Mitchell Georgetown,    Ky i 

B.  L.  Hibbard Mobile,    Ala 9  mos. 

C.  A.  Senn Graniteville,  S.  C 3 

W.  M.   Bethea Talladega,  Ala 3 

F.  B.  Hemphill Tuscaloosa,    Ala i 

Geo.  P.  Zimmerman Pensacola,   Fla i 

G.  R.  Horst Nashville,   Tenn i 

Frank   S.    White Mississippi 6  mos 

H.  Patty Mississippi 6  mos 

Robert  P.    Duncan Clarksdale,  Miss.  ...  6  mos 

Most  of  the  above  named  are  young  men,  and  it  may  safely  be  said 
that  no  bar  in  the  co^.  '^•y  can  produce  a  set  of  more  sober,  industrious, 
energetic,  active,  brainy  young  lawyers.  Many  of  them  are  able  lawyers 
already,  and  still  others  need  nothing  more  than  experience  and  age  to 

insure  them  fame  and  fortune. 

'^^'/''^yy>'^/f//^^  "-»'-'.'- 

J\)e  /r\edieal  profession. 

JOHN    D.    S.    i)AVIS,    M.    D. 


The  medical  history  of  Jones  Valley  dates  from  the  year  1819,  one 
year  previous  to  the  formation  of  Jefferson  County.  Until  the  year  181 5 
the  territory  of  Jefferson  County  was  known  as  the  favorite  hunting 
ground  of  a  few  Creek,  Choctaw,  and  Cherokee  Indians,  who  lived  on  the 
banks  of  the  Warrior  and  Cahaba  Rivers.  If  these  Indians  had  their 
medicine  man,  the  war  records  give  no  account  of  him.  About  the  year 
18 1 5,  a  small  party  of  whites  made  the  first  settlement  near  old  Jones- 
boro,  about  twelve  miles  south-west  of  Birmingham,  and  began  the 
development  of  the  Valley,  which  took  its  name  from  one  of  the  settlers. 
Until  the  year  18 19,  when  a  member  of  the  party  would  become  ill  some 
one  of  his  friends  would  administer  a  purgative  or  bleed  him,  and  leave 
him  to  Nature  for  the  rest.  In  the  year  18 19,  Dr.  Peyton  King,  a  grad- 
uate of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  located  near  old  Jonesboro  and 
began  the  practice  of  his  profession.  He  continued  to  practice  in  that 
section  until  the  year  1833,  when  he  emigrated  to  Pickens  County,  Ala- 
bama. Dr.  James  Keller  was  the  first  to  locate  in  the  Valley  after  the 
formation  of  Jefferson  County  in  the  year  1820.  He  located  near  the 
Smith  place,  where  Wheeling  is  now  situated.  He  was  a  first-course 
student  from  Lexington,  Ky.,  and  never  took  a  second  course  of  lectures. 
He  did  a  large  practice  in  that  section  for  twenty  years. 

fefferso)i    Coioity. 

Of  the  successful  practitioners  of  medicine  in  Jefferson  County  during 
the  early  history  of  the  county,  who  were  non-graduates  of  medicine, 
were  Drs.  Samuel  S.  Earle,  of  Elyton,  and  Daniel  Davis,  of  Davis  Place. 
The  first  of  these,  Dr.  Samuel  S.  Earle,  attended  one  course  of  lectures 
at  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  in  the  winter  of  i8 18-19.  ^^  '^^^  ^ 
native  South  Carolinian,  of  honorable  birth  and  good  education.  He  was 
one  of  the  most  prominent  citizens  of  the  county  for  fifty  years.  He 
was  born  in  1799,  and  came  to  Alabama  in  1820.  He  represented  the 
county  in  the  legislature  in  the  years  1832-42.  His  high  literary  attain- 
ments, his  polished  manner,  his  practical  good  sense,  and  many  excellen- 
cies of  character  soon  gave  him  prominence.  The  Elyton  Sun  of  Dec. 
21,  1870,  contained  the  following  on  his  death  :  "  Dr.  Earle  died  Tuesday, 
the  20th  of  December,  at  7  o'clock  p.  m.  Dr.  Earle  has  been  for  fifty 
years  past  the  most  prominent  citizen  of  Jefferson  County,  and  his  death 
obliterates  one  of  the  very  few  landmarks  which  now  connect  the  present 
with  the  far-distant  past  of  fifty  years.  He  was  a  man  of  grace,  of  cul- 
ture, of  literary  attainments  unusual,  of  rare  medical  skill  and  science, 
and  of  qualities  of  both  head  and  heart  that  rendered  him  a  distinguished 
and  exceptional  man  in  any  land  and  amongst  any  people.  *  *  *  He 
lived  to  the  ripe  old  age  of  seventy-one  years,  and  his  death  was  caused 
more  from  worn-out  nature  than  from  any  specific  disease."  It  was  said 
of  him  by  the  rich,  the  poor,  the  high,  the  low,  the  good  and  bad,  that 
"he  was  to  all  alike."  Though  he  had  but  poor  advantages  in  the  prose- 
cution of  his  studies  in  medicine,  he  never  remained  idle  or  lingered  in 
the  field  of  study  and  investigation  until  his  knowledge  of  medicine  was 
unexceptionally  thorough.  In  the  practice  of  his  profession  he  was  hon- 
orable, in  politics  he  was  noted  as  fair  and  correct,  and  in  private  life  a 
congenial  companion.  His  conversational  powers  were  exceptional. 
Having  a  brain  guided  by  a  pure  heart  he  truly  lived  a  life  of  honor  and 
usefulness.  Brewer's  Sketch  of  Public  Men  of  Alabama  closes  the  sketch 
of  his  life  in  these  words:  "To  add  greater  honor  to  his  age  than  man 
could  give  him,  he  died  fearing  God." 

The  last  of  the  men  of  this  period  was  Dr.  Daniel  Davis.  Dr.  Davis 
moved  to  Alabama  from  North  Carolina  in  the  year  1818,  and  settled  in 
Tuscaloosa.  In  1820  he  returned  to  South  Carolina  to  marry.  After 
his  marriage  he  came  to  Tuscaloosa,  where  he  began  the  practice  of  m.edi- 
cine,  after  a  course  of  home  study.  He  came  to  Jefferson  County  in  the 
year  1822,  and  did  a  successful  practice  until  the  year  1844.  He  was  one 
of  the  pioneers  of  this  country.  He  left  a  home  of  culture,  luxury,  and 
ease  to  cast   his  lot  with  the  adventurist — I  say  adventurist,   for  it  was- 

Tlie  Medical  Profession.  99 

nothing  less.  In  Alabama,  with  his  cultivation,  in  the  midst  of  a  new  and 
ambitious  people,  he  applied  the  skill  of  his  ingenuity  to  the  development 
of  the  country.  It  was  not  his  pleasure  to  practice,  nor  was  it  a  neces- 
sity, as  he  had  of  money,  lands,  and  negroes  a  sufficiency,  and  far  beyond 
that  possible  for  his  professional  income  to  supply ;  but  realizing  the  great 
need  of  medical  aid  in  the  country  to  direct  hygienic  regulations  and  to 
administer  to  the  suffering,  he  was,  from  a  sense  of  duty  to  his  friends, 
persuaded  by  them  to  resume  the  practice  of  medicine  in  Jefferson 
County.  And  he  gave  it  his  time  and  study  as  though  his  living  was  in 
it.  He  was  popular  among  his  medical  associates,  and  no  greater  eulogy 
can  be  paid  to  his  memory  than  the  words  uttered  by  Dr.  Jos.  R.  Smith, 
while  in  conversation  with  the  writer  a  few  days  ago.  Dr.  Smith  said  : 
"  Dr.  Davis  was  the  young  man's  friend  and  the  people's  servant.  When 
I  came  to  the  county  in  1841  he  was  doing  the  practice  of  the  neighbor- 
hood gratis.  He  gave  me  my  first  case  at  Bucksville,  and  aided  me  in 
my  first  attempt  at  surgery  in  the  dressing  of  a  fracture  of  the  neck  of 
the  femur,  in  which  he  gave  me  the  consideration  which  he  would  have 
accorded  to  any  surgeon  in  the  land."  Once  a  young  man,  he  knew  the 
feelings  of  an  aspiring  boy,  and  never  failed  to  assist  him.  This  was  not 
confined  to  his  profession  alone,  but  was  evinced  many  times  in  other 
fields.  I  remember  one  occasion  (as  related  to  me)  when  a  nephew  left 
his  father's  home,  in  an  Eastern  State,  Mr.  Davis  received  a  letter  from 
his  sister  requesting  him  to  refuse  her  son  shelter  and  force  his  return 
home.  The  boy  sneakingly  approached  the  house  of  Dr.  Davis,  and 
when  discovered  Dr.  Davis  opened  his  arms  and  home  and  took  the  boy 
in  with  a  loving,  familiar  and  fatherly  "  God  bless  you."  It  was  so  differ- 
ent to  the  reception  which  he  had  been  in  the  habit  of  receiving  that  he 
was  inspired  to  new  effort,  and  receiving  an  education  at  the  hands  of  Dr. 
Davis  became  a  very  successful  physician,  and  when  he  died  at  the  age 
of  forty  years  he  left  an  estate  worth  over  $200,000.  Dr.  Davis  was 
widely  renowned  for  his  extensive  knowledge  and  profound  learning.  In 
another  department  of  this  work  will  be  paid  a  tribute  to  his  intellect  and 
culture,  more  fitting  than  can  naturally  be  expected  of  a  grandson.  Of 
a  large  family  of  sons  and  daughters,  he  had  two  sons  to  select  the  chosen 
profession  of  their  father.  The  elder,  Elias,  was  the  father  of  Drs.  J.  D. 
S.  and  W.  E.  B.  Davis,  now  of  Birmingham,  and  the  younger,  Ralph, 
now  resides  at  Montevallo,  Alabama,  and  is  doing  a  large  practice.  Dr. 
Davis'  ancestry  dates  back  to  Dr.  Daniel  Davis,  a  Welshman  by  birth, 
who  practiced  medicine  in  London,  England,  during  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury.    To  meet  Dr.  Davis  was  not  only  to  see  the  polished  exterior  of  a 

Jefferson    County. 

gentleman,  but  to  soon  learn  that  he  was  in  truth  a  gentleman.  In  the 
year  1861  he  fell  from  the  platform  of  his  plantation  ginhouse  and  broke 
his  right  forearm,  from  the  effects  of  which  he  never  recovered.  He  was 
characterized  with  the  faith  of  a  true  believer  in  Christ,  and  ever  rejoiced 
in  a  hope  of  the  future.  From  pneumonia,  on  the  12th  of  July,  1S69, 
like  the  full  blown  leaf  that  has  lived  and  fluttered  away  its  spring  and 
summer,  and  has  lived  out  its  full  life  drops  in  autumn,  draped  in  gor- 
geous funeral  robings,  like  the  fruit  which  has  ripened  and  fell,  he  passed 
away  to  the  realms  beyond. 

Dr.  John  Spearman  Edwards  came  to  this  county  in  the  year  1830 
to  engage  in  the  practice  of  medicine.  He  located  at  Elyton,  and  soon 
afterward  removed  to  Trussville,  twelve  miles  north-east  of  Birmingham. 
He  was  one  of  the  wealthiest  men  in  North  Alabama,  of  good  South 
Carolina  birth,  of  fine  education  and  pleasing  address.  He  was  a  true 
type  of  manhood,  culture,  and  honor.  Soon  after  beginning  the  practice 
of  medicine  in  Alabama  his  health  gave  way,  and  he  retired  from  the 
active  service  of  professional  and  business  life.  He  had  four  children, 
one  son  and  three  daughters.  The  son,  Merideth,  a  respected  farmer, 
still  lives  at  Trussville,  and  has  a  son.  Dr.  R.  S.  Edwards,  who  has  selected 
the  profession  of  his  grandfather;  the  eldest  daughter,  Georgiana,  died  at 
the  age  of  fourteen  years ;  the  second  daughter,  Pollie,  married  George 
Robinson,  and  had  a  son,  Dr.  J.  B.  Robinson,  of  Woodlawn,  Alabama, 
to  follow  in  the  footprints  of  his  ancestor;  the  youngest  daughter,  Rhoda 
T. ,  married  Sinkler  Lathem,  of  South  CaroHna,  and  left  a  family  of  three 
children,  a  son  and  two  daughters — John  E.  T.  Lathem,  a  planter,  mar- 
ried the  granddaughter  of  Dr.  Zachariah  Hagood,  of  this  county ;  the 
eldest  daughter,  Sarah  T.,  married  Dyer  Talley,  and  after  a  widowhood 
of  fifteen  years  from  his  death  she  married  Alfred  Griffin,  and  both  died 
in  the  year  1885  ;  the  youngest  daughter,  Rhoda  Georgiana,  married  Dr. 
Elias  Davis,  the  son  of  Dr.  Daniel  Davis,  and  is  the  mother  of  the  Drs. 
J.  D.  S.  Davis  and  W.  E.  B.  Davis,  of  Birmingham.  Dr.  Edwards  came 
to  Alabama  to  invest  his  wealth  and  to  practice  his  profession.  He  was 
simple,  yet  brilliant  in  literature  and  in  science ;  he  was  pure,  and  ever 
held  up  a  high  standard  of  medical  ethics;  he  was  practical  as  well  as 
theoretical.  Though  prevented,  by  reason  of  bad  health,  from  following 
the  profession  of  his  selection,  he  did  not  fail  to  stamp  his  impress  upon 
the  profession  of  that  age.  Many  of  his  papers  on  medical  subjects  are 
now  in  the  library  of  his  great-grandsons,  the  Drs.  Davis,  in  Birmingham. 
They  show  the  results  of  a  progressive,  investigative,  and  logical  mind. 
Dr.  Edwards  was  born  January  ist,  1791.  and  died  January  i8th,  1841. 


Tlie  Medical  Profession.  103 

The  following  are  the  names  of  the  physicians  who  practiced  in  the 
county  before  the  year  1850:  Dr.  Nimrod  Randolph  (non-graduate),  who 
was  located  four  miles  south-west  of  Birmingham  at  a  place  called  Car- 
rollsville,  the  county  seat,  now  known  as  the  Mrs.  Nabor's  place.  He 
practiced  from  1823  to  1827.  He  died  in  the  year  1829.  Dr.  William 
English  (non-graduate)  came  to  the  county  in  the  year  1830,  and  removed 
after  one  year  to  Talledega,  Alabama.  Dr.  VVeaks  practiced  in  the 
■county  from  1843  to  1845.  Dr.  Jones  Hay  from  1843  to  1856.  Dr. 
Lipsicum  at  Jonesboro  from  1841  to  1842.  Dr.  Bagsdale  on  Cahaba 
River,  near  the  place  of  the  old  Indian  town  called  "  Mudd  Town,"  in 
the  year  1850,  and  afterward  practiced  in  St.  Clair  a  number  of  years, 
and  then  returned  to  Trussville  in  the  year  1864,  and  remained  until  the 
year  1870,  when  he  went  to  Texas  and  died  of  malarial  fever.  Dr.  Zacha- 
riah  Hagood  lived  and  practiced  at  Hagood's  Crossroads,  in  the  north-east- 
ern part  of  Jefferson  during  the  years  from  1840  to  1856. 

It  now  becomes  my  duty  to  record  the  history  of  Dr.  Jos.  R.  Smith, 
the  most  remarkable  practitioner  and  successful  business  man  this  county 
has  ever  been  blessed  with.  It  is  no  desire  of  the  writer  to  attempt  any- 
thing like  fulsome  laudation  of  a  friend,  nor  is  this  a  tribute  presented 
with  the  hope  of  adding  to  the  fame  of  one  whose  life  has  been  devoted 
to  active,  fruitful  industry  in  usefulness  to  his  fellowmen,  governed  by  a 
singlemindedness  to  truth,  and  unswerving  fidelity  to  the  discharge  of 
every  duty  pertaining  to  his  position  as  a  citizen,  a  genuine  philanthropist, 
and  a  much-beloved  and  highly-accomplished  physician.  Dr.  Smith's 
fame  is  written  in  the  annals  of  scientific  medicine,  and  though  retired  he 
yet  exerts  an  influence  upon  the  members  of  the  profession  which  he  has 
done  so  much  to  advance.  In  him  we  find  a  rare  type  of  exalted  man- 
hood. My  father.  Dr.  Elias  Davis,  once  s^id  of  him,  "He  is  honor," 
and  he  spoke  the  whole  truth.  Dr.  Smith  graduated  at  the  Transylvania 
Medical  College  of  Lexington,  Ky.,  in  the  year  1841.  He  was  given  his 
first  case  by  Dr.  Daniel  Davis,  whom  Dr.  Smith  ever  recognized  as  a 
friend  and  honored  companion.  Dr.  Smith  attended  a  course  of  lectures 
in  New  Orleans,  Louisiana,  in  the  winter  of  1846,  and  during  the  Mexi- 
can war  he  was  present  and  saw  Generals  Scott  and  Butler  leave  the  St. 
Charles  Hotel  for  Mexico.  Dr.  Smith  was  very  successful  in  the  practice 
of  his  profession,  and  performed  many  operations  in  surgery.  His  sound, 
practical  method  of  dealing  with  all  cases,  together  with  his  success  as  an 
operator,  gave  him  the  reputation  of  the  surgeon  of  the  county.  Dr. 
Smith  is  truly  a  medical  philosopher.  A  mere  glance  at  the  list  of  his 
contributions  to  medical  literature  will  show  the  versatility  of  his  genius. 

I04  Jefferson   County. 

Most  of  his  papers  are  to  be  found  in  the  volumes  of  the  Western  Lancet 
and  New  Orleans  Medical  and  Surgical  Journal.  The  following  papers 
were  from  his  pen:  "Typhoid  Fever  and  its  Treatment,  with  reference 
to  an  epidemic  which  prevailed  in  Elyton  and  vicinity  during  the  spring 
of  1858,"  "Iodine  in  Snake  Bite,"  "Removal  of  an  Iron  Scale  from  the 
Eye  by  Chemical  Solution,"  "  Notes  of  a  case  of  Dropsy,  where  paracen- 
tesis abdominis  was  performed,  and  after  the  operation  a  silver  tube 
introduced,"  and  others.  In  the  practice  of  medicine  he  was  noted  for 
his  unmeasured  scorn  and  contempt  for  the  impostor  and  polypharmacist. 
In  the  study  of  the  natural  history  of  disease  he  was  a  very  close  observer, 
and  possessing  a  strong  and  analytical  mind  naturally  became  the  leader 
of  the  profession  in  the  county.  Every  prescription  he  made  was  with  a 
definite  purpose,  guided  by  a  remarkably  charming  simplicity,  and  may 
he  live  to  see  the  "shot-gun"  prescription  of  modern  times  buried 
beneath  the  slow  lashing  waves  of  oblivion.  As  a  citizen  his  life  has  been 
one  of  exemplary  habits ;  of  this,  however,  the  reader  will  learn  more 
from  another  department  of  this  work.  There  are  few  men  in  this  county 
who  have  become  so  endeared  to  the  people  as  Dr.  Smith.  May  he  live 
long  and  enjoy  the  wealth  of  his  toil,  the  experience  of  his  age,  and  feast 
on  the  hope  for  the  future. 

Dr.  Elias  Davis,  a  son  of  Dr.  Daniel  Davis,  read  medicine  at  Elyton 
with  Dr.  Joseph  R.  Smith  in  1852-53,  and  graduated  from  the 
Medical  College  of  Georgia  in  1856,  and  located  at  Trussville,  where  he  did 
a  large  and  successful  plantation  practice  until  the  year  1861,  when  he 
volunteered  for  the  Confederate  service.  In  all  things  Dr.  Davis  was  a 
man  of  marked  independence  and  fearlessness — not  that  so-called  inde- 
pendence and  fearlessness  which  manifest  themselves  in  acts  of  turbulence 
and  indifference  to  public  opinion,  right  or  wrong,  but  they  were  of  that 
character  which  animate  chivalrous  manhood  and  dare  to  brave  public 
censure  when  panoplied  with  truth  and  right.  In  the  secession  move- 
ment of  1 86 1  he  promptly  offered  his  services  to  the  Confederate  Govern- 
ment and  went  on  duty.  It  was  said  of  him  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  J.  J.  D. 
Renfro,  Chaplain  of  the  Tenth  Alabama  Regiment:  "He  discharged  his 
duties  with  an  efficiency  and  noble  daring  unsurpassed  by  any  son  from 
Alabama.  *  *  *  Many  hard-fought  battles  all  conspire  to  attest  his 
devotion  to  the  cause  and  his  gallantry  in  action." 

While  an  eminent  and  dearly-beloved  physician,  he  possessed  a  mind 
of  varied  and  rare  endowments  for  philosophy  and  history.  His  assiduous 
and  systematic  study  during  the  years  of  his  college  course  and  short  pro- 
fessional career  made  him  quite  proficient  in  these  branches  as  well  as  in 

c/ui  -      }l^c^---,Ji/^-a-yL^         ^(^ .    oc/- 

Tlie  Medical  Profession.  107 

medicine.  He  was  a  surgeon  of  no  small  ability,  and  had  an  unmeasured 
contempt  for  the  surgical  jobber — dexterous  in  using  the  knife,  but  ignor- 
ant of  the  higher  and  better  parts  of  the  science.  During  his  private 
career  as  a  practitioner  of  medicine  and  surgery,  as  well  as  when  called 
upon  to  serve  his  poor  wounded  companions,  he. was  never  known  to 
attempt  the  so-called  brilliant  operations,  but  he  proceeded  under  all  cir- 
cumstances slowly,  with  a  conscientious  view  to  the  best  interest  of  the 
patient.  He  would  make  all  possible  preparation,  and  then  taking  the 
knife  would  proceed  slowly  and  systematically  to  the  work,  the  results 
showing  a  marvelous  skill.  He  never  contributed  to  medical  periodicals, 
but  he  left  in  his  library  many  valuable  papers.  These  papers,  which 
were  the  fruits  of  a  clear,  logical,  and  analytical  mind,  prove  the  constant 
and  steady  progress  of  the  student  and  physician.  His  papers  have  been 
bound,  and  are  in  the  library  of  his  only  sons,  Drs.  J.  D.  S.  and  \V.  E. 
B.  Davis,  of  Birmingham. 

He  never  made  merchandise  of  principles  in  order  that  popular 
approval  might  signalize  his  efforts.  He  was  benevolent,  and  his  donations 
to  charitable  institutions  were  always  liberal.  He  was  ever  ready  and 
willing  to  help  the  needy,  and  it  is  remarkable,  nevertheless  true,  that  no 
applicant  for  aid  ever  left  his  presence  unprovided  for.  He  was  warm- 
hearted, friendly,  hospitable,  and  generous  to  a  fault.  In  his  treatment 
of  classes  he  displayed  to  all  alike  such  a  gentleness,  tenderness,  and  sym- 
pathy that  the  patient  soon  saw  that  he  was  in  the  hands  of  a  wise, 
prudent,  and  considerate  friend.  He  delighted  in  argument,  and  was 
always  prepared  to  maintain  a  thesis,  and  above  all  a  paradox,  with  logic 
which  few  could  answer  and  wit  which  fewer  could  emulate.  He  seldom 
failed  to  conquer,  but  perhaps,  almost  as  rarely  to  convince.  He  was 
eager  to  persuade,  and  hard  to  be  persuaded.  Though  somew^hat  impulsive, 
his  wit  was  such  as  "loves  to  play,  not  wound,"  and  an  antagonist  left 
him  with  increased  esteem  and  respect. 

In  the  year  1857  he  was  married  to  Miss  Rhoda  Georgiana  Lathem, 
whose  ambition  for  his  success  was  unexcelled  in  the  history  of  the  true 
Southern  women.  No  loftier  type  of  honor  ever  blended  than  in  this 
marriage.  Miss  Mary  Gordon  Duffee's  tribute  to  Mrs.  Davis'  memory 
and  devotion  to  her  love  is  beautiful  and  true :  "She  was  in  her  youthful 
days  '  divinely  tall  and  most  divinely  fair,'  with  a  modest  timidity  of  man- 
ner peculiarly  becoming  and  graceful,  and  the  kindest  of  hearts.  Two 
little  boys  were  left  her  by  the  war  that  made  them  fatherless,  and  set  the 
chrism  of  perpetual  heartache  and  regret  upon  her  fair  young  brow.  She 
has  watched  and  wept  over  their  lives,  and  trained  them  up  to  the  worthy 

1 08  Jefferson    CoiDity. 

standard  of  their  noble  sire,  until  now  they  stand  forth  on  the  threshold 
of  a  superb  and  useful  manhood  as  physicians  of  Birmingham,  alike 
noted  for  their  morality  as  for  their  talent  and  culture.  Truly,  she  is  a 
widow  indeed,  rich  in  patience  and  resignation  ;  steadfast  in  the  faith  of 
the  saints,  prayerful  and  strong  in  works  of  charity,  like  those  few  right- 
eous ones  who  have  kept  their  souls  clear,  '  and  shall  walk  with  him  in 
white.'  " 

On  the  2ist  of  August,  1864,  while  commanding  a  company  of  a 
battalion  of  sharpshooters  of  the  Tenth  Alabama  Regiment  in  that  bloody 
battle  on  the  Weldon  Railroad,  in  a  moment,  in  the  twinkling  of  an  eye, 
he  was  snatched  from  the  din  of  battle  and  from  the  career  of  a  Confed- 
erate soldier  to  appear  before  the  Great  Physician  and  Officer  beyond, 

"  Where  the  Great  Physician  heals. 
Where  the  Heavenly  armies  sing." 

Dr.  Renfro  says  he  was  "a  man  of  fine  native  mind,  a  well-informed 
and  accomplished  physician  and  gentleman,  a  man  of  fine  personal  appear- 
ance, a  brave  soldier,  a  competent  and  faithful,  yet  mild  and  affectionate 
officer,  and,  above  all,  a  meek  and  devout  Christian.  It  was  not  aston- 
ishing that  he  was  the  pride  and  idol  of  his  company,  that  he  was  honored 
by  the  regiment,  and  that  he  died  leaving  his  praise  in  the  mouths  of  all 
who  knew  him." 

Dr.  Francis  M.  Marshall  read  medicine  under  Dr.  Rufus  Haywood, 
of  Tuscaloosa,  in  the  year  1849;  graduated  from  the  University  of 
Louisiana  in  New  Orleans  in  the  year  1852  ;  located  at  Trussville  in  1852, 
and  did  a  good  practice  for  twelve  years  with  assiduity  and  success.  In 
the  year  i860  he  moved  to  Hagood's  Crossroads,  where  he  continued 
his  practice  for  four  or  five  years.  Early  after  his  removal  to  Hagood's 
Crossroads  his  health  began  to  give  way,  and  he  gave  up  the  practice 
of  medicine.  Since  that  time  he  has  taught  school  when  in  a  state  of 
health  to  allow.  He  is  a  natural  poet,  and  his  song  on  "The  Lost  Life," 
in  stately  verse,  gives  true  evidence  that  in  this  poem  he  mastered  the 
"  stately  verse  "  as  completely  as  did  Byron.  In  the  failure  of  his  health 
the  people  have  lost  a  benefactor,  and  the  profession  a  ray  of  genius  which 
would  have  reflected  its  light  into  remote  ages.  But  the  arm  of 
disease  and  family  troubles  have  stretched  their  gigantic  forms  to  blast 
and  darken  a  brilliant  and  prosperous  career.  His  life  has  been  one  of 
adventure  and  disaster,  upon  which  volumes  could  be  written.  In  all  his 
misfortunes  and  troubles  he  has  held  himself  aloof  from  the  corruption  of 
the  world,  and  is  untouched  by  the  stain  of  dishonor.      His  health  is  much 

Tlie  Medical  Profession.  109 

improved,  and  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  he  will  yet  be  in  a  condition  to  reach 
that  acme  of  fame  he  so  much  desired. 

Dr.  G.  T.  Deason  practiced  at  Elyton  from  1859  to  1861,  when  he 
joined  the  Confederate  army.  After  the  war  he  returned  to  Elyton  and 
practiced  until  his  death,  which  was  caused  by  small-pox. 

Dr.  Nathaniel  Hawkins  graduated  from  the  University  of  New  York 
in  the  year  1846,  and  practiced  at  Elyton  from  1847  to  1877,  the  year  of 
his  death.     He  was  a  successful  practitioner. 

Dr.  James  E.  Kent  came  to  Jefferson  County  from  Selma,  Ala.,  in 
the  year  1874,  and  located  at  Oxmoor.  He  did  a  large  country  practice 
for  two  years.  He  represented  the  county  in  the  legislature  two  years. 
He  died  in  the  year  1882  in  Birmingham. 

Dr.  J.  B.  Vann  graduated  from  the  University  of  Louisiana  at  New 
Orleans  in  the  year  i860.  He  practiced  in  Montevallo,  Ala.,  about  six 
months,  at  Trussville  about  six  months,  and  then  located  at  Elyton,  where 
he  practiced  successfully  for  fifteen  years,  and  had  to  retire  to  farm  life 
on  account  of  bad  health.  In  1885  he  came  to  Birmingham  and  went 
into  the  undertaking  business.  He  is  now  in  the  real  estate  business  in 

Dr.  Ralph  Davis,  a  son  of  Dr.  Daniel  Davis,  graduated  from  the 
Medical  College  of  Georgia  in  the  year  1858,  and  practiced  a  few  years 
in  Jefferson  County,  about  fourteen  miles  south-west  of  Birmingham.  He 
is  now  doing  a  large  and  successful  practice  at  Montevallo,  Ala. 

The  first  medical  society  organized  in  the  county  was  formed  in  the 
year  1865,  with  Dr.  Joseph  R.  Smith  President,  and  Dr.  G.  T.  Deason 
Secretary.  In  1869  the  Jefferson  County  Medical  Society  was  organ- 
ized under  the  old  constitution,  with  Dr.  F.  M.  Prince,  of  Jonesboro, 
President,  and  Dr.  R.  N.  Hawkins,  now  of  Shelby  County,  Secretary. 
The  organization  did  but  little  more  until  the  year  1873.  It  was  revived 
to  active  work  during  the  cholera  epidemic.  The  members  of  the  society 
did  faithful  and  honorable  service  in  the  relief  of  suffering  humanity  in 
Birmingham.  The  society  records  and  transactions  of  the  Medical  Asso- 
ciation of  Alabama  can  show  the  true  activity  of  this  .society  at  the  time. 
I  cannot  pass  this  period  in  the  history  of  the  profession  without  making 
honorable  mention  of  the  heroes  who  stood  the  test  during  the  cholera 
epidemic  of  1873  in  Birmingham.  Some  of  these  were  Drs.  J.  B.  Luckie, 
J.  VV.  Sears,  M.  H.  Jordan,  and  W.  P.  Taylor,  deceased.  The  latter 
mentioned  gentleman,  who  worked  in  concert  with  his  co-laborers  in 
that  fearful  scourge  of  1873,  died  at  his  home  in  Birmingham  in  the  year 
1883.      He  was  a  man  of  remarkable  culture,  and  of  that  polished  gentle- 

Jeffe7'Son    County. 

manly  appearance  and  gallant  bearing  that  won  for  him  friends  among 
every  class  of  people.  The  other  three  have  been  honored  and  exalted 
by  the  people  and  profession  from  time  to  time.  They  still  live  to  enjoy 
the  praises  of  an  appreciative  people. 

Dr.  Sears  has  been  President  of  the  Board  of  Medical  Examiners  of 
Jefferson  County  for  nearly  ten  years. 

Dr.  Luckie  has  been  a  member  of  said  board,  and  filled  the  position 
with  dignity  and  impartiality.  He  represented  the  county  in  the  State 
Senate  in  1881-82.  While  in  the  Senate  he  made  no  offensi%'e  display  of 
learning;  no  dogmatic  prejudices,  pedantr}',  or  egotism  ever  deformed 
his  character.  He  developed  no  adventurous  spirit,  but,  on  the  contrary, 
that  conservatism  that  would  safely  keep  and  justly  administer  what  was 
already  achieved.  It  was  mainly  through  his  efforts  that  a  bill  was  passed 
through  the  legislature  of  Alabama  authorizing  Birmingham  to  issue  bonds 
for  sewerage,  and  the  present  system  of  sewerage  in  Birmingham  was 
introduced  by  him.  When  representing  the  people  he  was  just  to 
the  country,  just  to  himself,  and  just  to  his  office.  He  was  defeated 
for  the  mayoralty  in  Birmingham  in  1886  by  Hon.  A.  O.  Lane. 
We  feel  that  if  he  had  been  elected  he  would  have  treaded  the  walks 
•of  such  a  station  with  true  judicial  dignity,  proving  himself  just  and 

Dr.  Jordan  has  filled  every  office  in  the  Jefferson  County  Medical 
Society,  been  a  member  of  the  State  Board  of  Medical  Examiners,  and 
was  made  president  of  the  Medical  Association  of  Alabama  in  1883.  He 
has  made  many  valuable  contributions  to  medical  literature.  In  October, 
1886,  he  was  elected  to  the  Chair  of  Materia  Medica  in  the  Alabama 
Medical  College  at  Mobile,  Ala.  He  has  ever  been  an  earnest  man,  with 
an  earnest  work  to  do.  He  is  a  social  favorite,  and  full  of  humor.  To  be 
associated  with  him  is  to  be  pried  up  by  his  witticisms,  be  shocked  with 
laughter  until  your  eyes  are  closed,  sides  split,  and  prayers  offered  for  a 
solid  brace  to  prevent  an  explosion.  He  is  a  hard  worker,  and  while 
much  of  his  time  is  spent  in  serving  jokes  in  all  kinds  of  dishes,  with 
them  we  see  the  foaming,  sparkling  crest  of  the  ocean  that  carries  upon 
its  bosom  a  magnificent  cargo.  He  is  a  very  entertaining  man,  and  we 
trust  that  as  he  goes  from  us  to  refresh  and  build  up  his  feeble  constitu- 
ti  onin  the  institution  of  medical  learning  in  Mobile  he  will  help  mold  and 
shape  the  hearts  and  intellects  of  Alabama's  medical  students. 

In  the  year  1873  Dr.  J.  W.  Sears  was  elected  President  of  Jefferson 
County  Medical  Society,  and  Dr.  M.  H.  Jordan  Secretary.  Dr.  Sears 
filled  the  chair  of  President  until  1879,  and  Dr.  Jordan  remained  Secretary 

Tiie  Medical  Professiofi. 

until  the  year  1878,  when  S.  M.  Gillespie,  Ph.  D.,  was  elected  to  serve 
until  the  year  1879. 

In  the  year  1879  D""-  ^^-  P-  Taylor  was  elected  President  and  Dr. 
W.  H.  Cook  Secretary.  This  last  election  was  under  the  new  constitu- 
tion of  the  Medical  Association  of  Alabama.  Dr.  Taylor  remained 
President  until  the  year  1881.  Dr.  Cook  was  Secretary  one  year,  and 
Dr.  S.  L.  Ledbetter  was  elected  for  the  year  1880. 

In  the  year  1881  Dr.  M.  H.  Jordan  was  made  President  and  Dr. 
Ledbetter  reelected  Secretary.  Dr.  Jordan  remained  President  until 
1883,  when  Dr.  Henry  N.  Rosser  was  elected  to  the  Presidency  and  Dr. 
Ledbetter  reelected  Secretary. 

In  1884 — Dr.  H.  P.  Cochran,  President;  Dr.  A.  J.  Douglass,  Sec- 

In  1885— Dr.  J.  C.  Dozier,  President;  Dr.  B.  G.  Copeland,  Sec- 

In   1886— Dr.  Charles  Whelan,  President;   Dr.  E.  P.  Earle,  Secretary. 

In  1887— Dr.  John  D.  S.  Davis,  President;  Dr.  R.  L.  Wyman, 


The  above  Association  was  organized  December  15,  1886,  in  Bir- 

In  November,  1886,  in  the  office  of  the  Drs.  Davis,  Dr.  Henry  N. 
Rosser  and  Drs.  J,  D.  S.  Davis  and  W.  E.  B.  Davis,  in  consultation, 
decided  to  organize  an  association  to  advance  the  science  of  Surgery  and 
Gynecology  in  Alabama  and  the  South.  These  three  gentlemen  called  a 
meeting  of  a  few  of  the  physicians  of  Birmingham  and  Pratt  Mines  to 
take  the  preliminary  steps  to  organize  such  an  association  necessary  to 
advance  these  sciences.  An  enthusiastic  meeting  was  held  November  14, 
1886,  and  a  temporary  organization  was  effected  by  the  election  of  Dr. 
H.  N.  Rosser,  of  Birmingham,  Chairman,  and  Dr.  W.  E.  B.  Davis,  of 
Birmingham,  Secretary.  December  15,  1886,  was  the  day  appointed  for 
permanent  organization.  The  association  was  organized  and  elected  the 
following  officers,  committees,  and  honorary  members  : 

Drs,  H.  N.  Rosser,  of  Birmingham,  President ;  C.  Toxey,  of  Mobile, 
First  Vice-President ;  Benjamin  H.  Riggs,  of  Selma,  Second  Vice-Presi- 
dent; W.  E.  B.  Davis,  of  Birmingham,  Secretary;  H.  P.  Cochran,  of  Bir- 
mingham, Treasurer. 

Jejferson    Co?tnty. 

Orator  for  the  next  annual  convention,  Benjamin  J.  Baldwin,  of 

Judicial  Council — J.  D.  S.  Davis,  Birmingham,  for  five  years  ;  J.  F. 
Heustis,  Mobile,  for  four  years  ;  J.  H.  McCarty,  Birmingham,  for  three 
years  ;  R.  D.  Webb,  Livingston,  two  years  ;  Benjamin  H.  Riggs.  Selma, 
one  year. 

Publication  Committee — W.  E.  B.  Davis,  Birmingham  ;  Peter  Bryce, 
Tuscaloosa;  Benjamin  J.  Baldwin,  Montgomery. 

Committee  on  Arrangements — J.  B.  Luckie,  B,  G.  Copeland,  E.  H. 
Sholl,   of  Birmingham. 

Committee  on  Voluntary  Essays — Peter  Bryce,  Tuscaloosa ;  C. 
Toxey,  Mobile;  W.  Locke  Chew,  Birmingham;  Benjamin  H.  Riggs, 
Selma  ;   Frank  Prince,  Jonesboro. 

Essayists  for  Next  Convention — J.  F.  Heustis,  Mobile;  Charles 
Whelan,  Birmingham;  John  C.  Parham,  Gainesville;  O.  L.  Shivers, 
Marion ;  J.  R.  Hoffman,  Athens. 

Committee  to  Obtain  a  Charter — Frank  Prince,  J.  B.  Luckie,  C. 

Honorary  Members — Robert  Battey,  Rome,  Ga. ;  H.  F.  Campbell, 
Augusta,  Ga. ;  W.  F.  Westmoreland,  V.  N.  Taliaferro,  Wm.  Abram 
Love,  Atlanta,  Ga.;  W.  T.  Briggs,  Duncan  Eve,  W.  D.  Haggard,  Nash- 
ville, Tenn.;  D.  W.  Yandell,  W.  H.  Wathen,  Louisville,  Ky.;  Dr.  Maury, 
Memphis,  Tenn.;  J.  F.  Y.  Payne,  Galveston,  Te.xas  ;  A.  B.  Miles,  E.  S. 
Lewis,  New  Orleans,  La. 

The  following  letter  to  Drs.  J.  D.  S.  and  W.  E.  B.  Davis,  editors 
of  The  Alabama  Medical  and  Surgical  Journal,  December,  1886,  gives 
good  evidence  of  the  thorough  work  being  done  by  the  profession  in 
Jefferson   County : 

"  Editors  Alabama  Medical  and  Surgical  Journal  :  When  I 
received  the  first  number  of  your  valuable  journal  last  July,  I  predicted 
for  Alabama  a  new  era  in  her  medical  literature.  That  prediction  is 
beginning  to  be  realized.  In  the  November  issue  of  the  Journal  I  see  a 
notice  of  the  temporary  organization  of  the  Alabama  Surgical  and 
Gynecological  Association.  Originating  in  the  office  of  The  Alabama 
Medical  and  Surgical  Journal,  and  supported  by  such  surgeons  and 
gynecologists  as  Birmingham  affords,  means  much  for  these  sciences  in 
Alabama.  It  is  apparent  that  these  branches  have  long  been  neglected 
in  Alabama,  and  while  our  State  Medical  Association,  from  year  to  year, 
gives  us  some  valuable  contributions  to  medical  literature,  very  little  is 
said  and  done  for  the  sciences  of  surgery  and  gynecology.      No  profession 

The  Medical  Profcssioft.  113 

in  the  Union  is  so  well  organized  as  Alabama's,  and  yet  the  medical 
literature  of  Alabama  is  far  in  the  rear.  The  founding  of  the  Journal 
for  Alabama  was  the  stepping-stone  to  her  future  attainments.  Evidently 
so,  for,  as  a  result  of  that  move,  we  have  the  Surgical  and  Gynecological 
Association.  I  congratulate  the  originators  of  this  Association  for  invit- 
ing only  fifty  of  Alabama's  doctors  to  become  charter  members.  It  is 
too  often  the  case  that  a  new  organization  is  stagnated  by  the  too  large- 
ness of  its  membership.  With  the  contemplated  charter  membership  of 
fifty  plans  can  be  perfected  for  a  grand  and  glorious  work  for  Alabama 
doctors.  I  infer  from  your  notice  that  the  membership  will  not  be 
restricted  to  numbers,  but  to  qualification,  which,  I  think,  is  a  display  of 
wisdom  and  policy.  The  selection  made  for  the  charter  membership  is  as 
good  as  possible  to  make  it. 

I  feel  honored  and  flattered  to  be  remembered  in  the  invitation 
extended  by  the  committee  on  membership.  I  am  eager  to  see  this  work 
pushed  to  success.  I  will  be  present  at  the  permanent  organization 
December  15,  1 886,  and  you  can  count  on  me  in  every  movement  look- 
ing to  the  elevation  of  the  profession  of  Alabama. 

Wishing  your  journal  every  success,  and  thanking  you  for  your  hon- 
orable efforts  to  do  something  for  the  medical  profession  of  Alabama,  I 
subscribe  myself,  A  Friend  to  The  Alabama  Surgical  and  Gyneco- 
logical Association." 

Below  is  a  list  of  the  members  of  the  profession  in  the  county,  with 
their  colleges,  dates  of  graduation,  offices  filled  by  each,  and  post-office 
addresses,  who  are  members  of  the  Jefferson  County  Medical  Society: 

Dr.  Tillman  Purifoy  Burgamy,  Jefferson  Medical  College,  1845,  Bir- 

Dr.  William  Dudley  Cooper,  Jefferson  Medical  College,  1869,  Bir- 

Dr.  Hardin  Perkins  Cochrane,  University  of  New  York,  1874,  Bir- 
mingham.    President  Jefferson  County  Medical  Society  in  1884. 

Dr.  Benjamin  Grigsby  Copeland,  Jefferson  Medical  College,  1883,  Bir- 
mingham. Secretary  Jefferson  County  Medical  Society  in  1884  and  1885. 
Dr.  John  Daniel  Sinkler  Davis,  Georgia  Medical  College,  1879,  Bir- 
mingham. Member  of  the  American  Medical  Association ;  Censor  in 
St.  Clair  County  in  1879  and  1880;  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Alabama 
Surgical  and  Gynecological  Association  ;  one  of  the  founders  of  The  Ala- 
bama Medical  and  Surgical  Journal ;  member  of  the  Council  of  the  Ala- 
bama Surgical  and  Gynecological  Association  for  1887  to  1892  ;  President 
of  Jefferson  County  Medical  Society  in  1887. 

114  Jefferson   County. 

Dr.  William  Elias  Brownlee  Davis,  Bellevue  Hospital  Medical  Col- 
lege, 1883,  Birmingham.  Member  of  the  American  Medical  Associa- 
tion ;  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Alabama  Surgical  and  Gynecological 
Association  ;  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Alabama  Medical  and  Surgical 
Journal ;  Secretary  of  the  Alabama  Surgical  and  Gynecological  Asso- 
ciation, and  Chairman  of  its  Publishing  Committee  for  five  years, 
from  1887  to  1892 ;  Treasurer  of  Jefferson  County  Medical  Society 
in   1886. 

Dr.  John  Calhoun  Dozier,  University  of  Nashville,  1858,  Birming- 
ham. President  of  Jefferson  County  Medical  Society  in  1885  ;  Health 
Officer  of  Jefferson  County  in  1887. 

Dr.  Charles  Drennen,  Alabama  Medical  College,  1880,  Birmingham. 

Dr.  Edward  Pickens  Earle,  Medical  College  of  South  Carolina,  1880, 
Birmingham.  Secretary  of  Jefferson  County  Medical  Society  in  1886, 
and  Censor  for  1887  and  1888. 

Dr.  Robert  Smith  Edwards,  Georgia  Medical  College,  1871,  Truss- 

Dr.  John  Moore  Hayes,  Nashville  Medical  College,  1857,  Pratt 
Mines.     State  Physician. 

Dr.  Albert  Thomas  Henley,  University  of  New  York,  1869,  Bir- 
mingham.    State  Physician. 

Dr.  Brice  Martin  Hughes,  University  of  Louisiana,  1S82,  Birming- 
ham.     Censor  from  1S82  to  1886. 

Dr.  Mortimer  Harry  Jordan,  Miami  Medical  College,  1868,  Birming- 
ham. Secretary  Jefferson  County  Medical  Society  in  1873  and  1874,  and 
President  in  1882  and  1883  ;  Censor  in  1885  and  1886;  Senior  Counselor 
in  Alabama  Medical  Association  ;  member  State  Board  of  Censors  in 
1881  and  1882;  President  Alabama  Medical  Association  in  1883. 

Dr.  Edward  P.  Lacy,  Vanderbilt  University,  1883,  Wheeling. 

Dr.  Samuel  Leonidas  Ledbetter,  University  of  Louisville,  1869,  Bir- 
mingham. Secretary  of  Jefferson  County  Medical  Society  for  1881,  1882, 
and  1883. 

Dr.  James  Buckner  Luckie,  University  of  Pennsylvania,  1853,  Bir- 
mingham. Health  Officer  for  Jefferson  County  from  1881  to  18S4;  Cen- 
sor for  1885  and  1886. 

Dr.  Percy  Bradford  Lusk,  University  of  Louisiana,  1883,  Birming- 

Dr.  James  Henry  McCarty,  Atlanta  Medical  College,  1880,  Birming- 
ham. Professor  of  Anatomy  in  the  Atlanta  Medical  College  in  1881  and 
1882;  Member   of  the  Judicial   Council    of  the  Alabama  Surgical  and 

The  Medical  Professio7i.  1 1 5 

Gynecological  Association  ;  Vice-President  of  Jefferson  County  Medical 
Society  in  1886. 

Dr.  John  Mortimer  Naff,  Vanderbilt  University,  1885,  Pratt  Mines. 

Dr.  Francis  Marion  Prince,  Jefferson  Medical  College,  1849,  Jones- 
boro.  President  of  Jefferson  County  Medical  Society  in  1869,  and  Vice- 
President  of  the  Alabama  Medical  Association  in  1877  and  1878. 

Dr.  Thomas  F.  Robinson,  Vanderbilt  University,   1881,  Jonesboro. 

Dr.  Henry  N.  Rosser,  Atlanta  Medical  College,  1869,  Birmingham. 
President  of  Jefferson  County  Medical  Society  in  1883  ;  one  of  the  found- 
ers of  the  Alabama  Surgical  and  Gynecological  Association,  and  made 
its  first  President  in  1887  ;  Censor  of  Jefferson  County  Medical  Society 
from  1887  to  1890. 

Dr.  John  William  Sears,  University  of  Pennsylvania,  1850,  Birming- 
ham. President  of  Jefferson  County  Medical  Society  in  1S79;  Censor  of 
Jefferson  County  Medical  Society  for  ten  years,  and  Counselor  of  Ala- 
bama Medical  Association. 

Dr.  Wooster  Ney  Shoemaker,  Columbus  Medical  College,  1878,  Bir- 
mingham. Treasurer  of  Jefferson  County  Medical  Society  for  1883,  1884, 
and  1885. 

Dr.  Edward  Henry  Sholl,  Pennsylvania  Medical  College,  1856,  Bir- 
mingham. -Orator  for  Alabama  Medical  Association  for  1883  ;  Counselor 
in  Alabama  Medical  Association,  and  Censor  in  Jefferson  County  Medical 
Society  from  1884  to  1887. 

Dr.  Henderson  Stallwart  Duncan,  Vanderbilt  University,  1880,  Bir- 

Dr.  Charles  VVhelan,  University  of  Louisiana,  1866,  Birmingham. 
President  of  Jefferson  County  Medical  Society  in  1886;  Censor  of  the 
Society  of  Jefferson  for  five  years,  and  Counselor  of  the  Alabama  Medi- 
cal Association. 

Dr.  Cunningham  Wilson,  University  of  Pennsylvania,  1884,  Bir- 

Dr.  B.  L.  Wyman,  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  N.  Y. ,  18 — , 
Birmingham.      Secretary  of  Jefferson  County  Medical  Society  in  1887. 

Dr.  Henry  Jasper  Winn,  University  of  Louisiana,  1858,  Birming- 
ham. Health  Officer  of  Jefferson  County  in  1884  and  1885  ;  now  Post- 
master of  Birmingham. 

Dr.  Samuel  Harvey  Wooleston,  University  of  Pennsylvania,  1880, 

Dr.  Joseph  B.    Robinson,  Vanderbilt  University,    1882,  Woodlawn. 

1 1 6  Jefferson    County. 


Dr.  John  Pattisoii  Abercrombie,  Alabama  Medical  College,  1880, 
Cedar  Grove. 

Dr.  Barwell  Gideon  Abernathy,  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons, 
Baltimore,   1879,  Birmingham.      Recently  removed  to  Florida. 

Dr.  Jones  Cadwallader  Abernathy.  University  of  Louisiana,  1859, 
Birmingham.      Surgeon  in  the  Confederate  Army. 

Dr.  Samuel  W.  Acton,  Alabama  Medical  College,  i860,  Trussville. 

Dr.  James  Madison  Bevans,  certificate  of  the  Madison  County 
Board,  1871,  Warrior. 

Dr.  Andrew  Jackson  Brewster,  Alabama  Medical  College,  1880,  Bir- 

Dr.  George  Washington  Brown,  Atlanta  Medical  College,  1877, 
Pratt  Mines. 

Dr.  Thomas  Jefferson  Brown,  Vanderbilt  University,  1885,  Pratt 

Dr.  Samuel  Mardis  Cross,  Georgia  Medical  College,  i860.  Wood- 

Dr.  Andrew  Jackson  Crow,  Atlanta  Medical  College,  1868,  Warrior. 

Dr.  Russell  McWhorter  Cunningham,  Bellevue  Hospital  Medical 
College,  1879,  Pratt  Mines. 

Dr.  Gideon  Wesley  Ellis,  certificate  Elyton  Botanical  Association, 
1872,  Morris. 

Dr.  Albert  Gallatin  Douglass,  Vanderbilt  University,  1881,  Birming- 

Dr.  A.  C.  Pidwards,  ,  Birmingham. 

Dr.  Ezeva  Foster,  certificate  County  Board,  1880,  Toadvine. 

Dr.  Robert  Smith  Green,  Alabama  Medical  College,  i860.  New 

Dr.  F.  P.  Lewis, ,  Coalburg. 

Dr.   John  P.  Gillespie,    Miami  Medical  College,    1883,  Birmingham. 

Dr.  Robert  Julius  Mathews,  Georgia  Medical  College,  18 — ,  Warrior. 

Dr.  J.  W.  McClendon, ,  Irondale. 

Dr.  D.  D.  Oates,  University  of  Pennsylvania,   i860,  Leeds. 

Dr.  William  Felix  Posey,  Alabama  Medical  College,  185 1,  Mt. 

Dr.  Milton  Rag.sdale,  Medical  College  of  Atlanta,   18—,    McCalla. 

The  Medical  Profession.  1 1 7 

Dr.  Martin  Roberts,  certificate  County  Board,  1878,  Hagood's  Cross- 

Dr.  J.  J.  Duncan,  Kentucky  School  of  Medicine,  1886,  Birmingham. 


Dr.  Albert  E.  Meadows  (homeopathist),  Hahnemann  Medical  College, 
1883,  Warrior. 

Dr.  Julius  J.  Faber  (homeopathist),  Homeopathic  Hospital  Medical 
College,  1884,  Birmingham. 

Dr.  A.  L.  Monroe  (homeopathist),  now  in  Louisville,  Ky.  Practiced 
in  the  county  during  the  years  1883  and  1884. 


W.  A.  Cook,  University  of  Louisiana.     Removed  to  Atlanta,  Ga. 

T.  D.  Nabors.     Now  in  the  drug  business  in  Birmingham. 

George  W.  Morrow,  Miami  Medical  College,  Ohio,  1868.  Now  in 
the  drug  business  in  Birmingham. 

J.  W.  Maddox. 

M.  S.  Sykes,  University  of  Louisiana,  18 — .  Removed  from  the 

T.  W.  Garner,  Vanderbilt  Medical  College,  1880.  Removed  to  St. 
Clair  County. 

James  Bird  Vann,  University  of  Louisiana,  i860.  Now  in  the  real 
estate  business. 


Arthur  R.  Jones,  Miami  Medical  College,  Jonesboro.  Dr.  Jones 
died  in  the  year  1883  while  on  his  knees  reading  a  mock  prayer.  He  was 
■a  man  of  culture,  and  had  every  advantage  to  train  his  mind  in  several 
of  the  sciences.  During  his  college  course  his  mind  took  a  strange  line 
of  skepticism,  which  resulted  in  making  him  an  infidel.  He  did  much  to 
influence  his  friends  and  associates  to  follow  in  his  footprints  and  accept 
his  theories,  but  with  little  success.  His  name  has  been  flashed  to  every 
civilized  land  on  account  of  the  memorable  circumstances  surrounding 
his  last  moments.  I  can  but  paint  his  life  as  one  of  night,  his  death  of 
night,  his  future  of  night.  What  a  solemn  thing  is  night  in  the  wilder- 
ness of  skepticism  !     Night  among  the  mountains  of  temptation  !     Night 

I  I S  Jefferson    Cotinty. 

on  the  sea  of  learning !  Frightful  night  among  tropical  groves !  Flash- 
ing, fearful  night  amid  Arctic  severities  !  No  calm  night  on  Roman  Cam- 
pagna!  No  glorious  night  'mid  sea  after  a  tempest!  Oh,  thou  blind 
mariner,  with  so  many  beaming,  burning,  flaming,  glorious  truths  to 
guide  you,  you  failed,  I  fear,  to  find  your  way  into  the  harbor. 

Dr.  Joseph  M.  Burton,  Nashville  Medical  College,  1877.  Died  near 
Birmingham  in  the  year  1S84.  He  had  done  a  successful  practice  in  the 
county  for  several  years. 

Dr.  H.  P.  Heard,  graduate  of  the  Georgia  Medical  College  at  Augusta, 
1857.      Practiced  one  year  in  Birmingham,  and  died  of  angina  pectoris. 


The  profession  of  Jefferson  County  has  ever  shown  a  spirit  of  progress, 
and  it  has  given  to  Alabama  the  first  and  only  medical  and  surgical  jour- 
nal. Its  editors  are  Drs.  J.  D.  S.  Davis  and  W.  E.  B.  Davis.  We  mod- 
estly refer  to  the  following  extracts  on  the  journal : 

The  Alabama  Medical  and  Surgical  Journal. — This  is  just  such 
a  journal  as  we  should  expect  from  a  land  hallowed  by  the  footsteps  of  J. 
Marion  Sims.  It  is  essentially  different  from  any  other  journal  on  our  table. 
There  are  forty-six  pages  of  original  communications,  embracing  such 
articles  as  "Pelvic  Inflammations,"  "A  Case  of  Meniere's  Disease," 
"The  Immediate  Restoration  of  Parts  to  their  Normal  Position  after 
Tenotomy,"  "Boric  Acid,"  "Spontaneous  Rupture  of  a  Large  Multiloc- 
ular  Ovarian  Cyst,"  "A  Case  of  Opium  Poisoning,"  "Simultaneous 
Double  Primary  Amputation  Complicated  with  other  Injuries, "  "  Destruc- 
tion of  an  Eye  by  Calomel."  Each  of  these  articles  is  ably  presented, 
and  there  is  a  tendency  throughout  to  simplicity  in  style.  The  good  old 
Anglo-Saxon  words  are  used  far  more  plentifully  than  we  find  them  used 
in  any  of  the  Northern  journals.  Of  course,  this  is  an  element  of  vigor. 
It  is  a  comfort  to  read  articles  in  which  the  writer  is  telling  facts  with  as 
little  fuss  as  possible. 

We  find  a  page  and  a  half  devoted  to  original  translations,  and  eight 
pages  to  society  proceedings. 

In  the  salutatory  a  fine  tribute  is  paid  to  literature,  and  afterward  the 
importance  of  medical  literature  is  pointed  out. 

The  editorial  department  has  the  following  under  "  Criminal  Abor- 
tion:" "The  low  muttering  thunders  of  destruction  and  roaming  blizzard 
of  the  birth-strangled  babe  have  just  swept  over  our  sister  city,  Atlanta, 
and  now  begin  to  disturb  the  gentle  zephyrs  of  the  Magic  City.     It  is 

The  Medical  Profession.  119 

rumored  that  a  lady  (?)  of  Birmingham,  who  contemplates  marriage  at  an 
early  date,  had  an  abortion  committed  on  her  about  the  20th  of  May. 
The  infamous  scoundrel  and  she  devil  who  are  guilty  of  this  heinous  crime 
will  be  remembered  and  watched.  They  have  been  cunning  and  sly,  but 
our  promise  for  it,  if  they  are  not  careful,  law  and  public  sentiment 
enough  will  yet  be  stirred  up  to  get  a  verdict  of  guilty.  May  something 
be  done  to  eradicate  this  wholesale  slaughter  of  the  helpless!"  Amen 
and  Amen. 

Here  is  the  very  place  where  the  chivalry  of  the  South  and  North 
can  unite  and  work  for  a  grand  good.  This  journal  is  good  in  its  youth  ; 
it  will  be  grand  in  its  old  age. — Denver  Medical  Journal, 

The  Alabam.\  Medical  and  Surgical  Journal. — Filled  with  pro- 
fessional patriotism  and  State  pride,  Messrs.  Davis  undertook  to  supply 
the  State  of  Alabama  with  a  first- class  periodical,  devoted  to  the  interests 
of  the  medical  profession  of  that  State.  The  effort  has  been  successful 
beyond  the  average ;  it  has  the  real  stamp  of  enterprise  and  editorial 

One  of  the  leading  features  of  interest  may  be  found  in  the  depart- 
ment of  diseases  of  the  eye,  conducted  by  Ben.  J.  Baldwin,  M.  D.,  of 
Montgomery.  Dr.  Baldwin  is  an  accomplished  physician  and  a  graceful 

The  Alabama  Journal  came  into  existence  at  the  same  time  Progress 
made  its  first  appearance.  We  submit  it  to  the  profession  that  Progress  and 
the  Alabama  Journal  have  already  attained  a  growth  and  development 
amply  sufficient  to  establish  their  claims  to  a  perpetual  existence. — 
Progress,  of  Louisville,  Ky. 

1         1         III 




1        1            1 



Q^aVly  Ra(lyo^A  Bo<l^<n|- 



Universal  prosperity  and  content  prevailed  in  Alabama  in  the  decade 
of  1850-60,  No  recognized  premonition  of  the  great  revolution  disturbed 
the  supreme  confidence  of  the  whole  people  in  the  virtue  and  stability  of 
their  industrial  and  social  organization.  In  this  decade  the  value  of  real 
and  personal  property  in  the  State  increased  1 17.01  per  centum.  Bank 
deposits  were  fourfold  at  the  end  as  compared  with  the  beginning  of  the 
period :  one  hundred  and  thirty-seven  miles  of  railroad,  at  the  beginning, 
had  increased  to  nearly  eight  hundred ;  the  river  traffic  had  increased 
greatly  ;  agriculture  had  increased  its  products  near  threefold ;  there  had 
been  an  addition  of  24.96  per  centum  of  population. 

David  Hubbard,  a  cotton  planter  of  the  Valley  of  the  Tennessee,  had 
read  of  the  new  method  of  transportation,  a  short  line  of  railroad,  just 
built  in  the  interior  of  Pennsylvania  as  an  experiment.  He  went  expressly 
to  see  it,  with  the  purpose  of  determining  its  availability  to  overcome  the 

Early  Railroad  Building. 

obstruction  to  freight  traffic  on  the  Tennessee  River,  caused  by  the  Mussel 
Shoals.  As  a  result  of  his  investigation  the  legislature  of  Alabama  was 
applied  to,  in  1830,  to  grant  a  charter  to  a  line  of  railroad  running  from  a 
point  opposite  the  town  of  Florence,  where  the  new  iron  manufacturing 
town  of  Sheffield  now  is,  to  Tuscumbia,  two  miles  southwardly  from  the 
river.  This  point  is  the  lower  terminus  of  the  Mussel  Shoals.  Cars  were 
placed  upon  the  road  drawn  by  mules.  Two  years  later,  in  1832,  the 
Tuscumbia,  Courtland  &  Decatur  Railroad  was  chartered  to  make  a  line 
forty-six  miles,  running  along  the  west  side  of  the  river  and  terminating 
at  Decatur,  the  upper  terminus  of  the  Shoals.  Benjamin  Sherrod,  a  cot- 
ton planter  of  great  wealth,  was  made  president  of  a  company  of  cotton 
planters  who  undertook  to  build  one  of  the  principal  railroads  of  the  Union 
at  that  day.  The  grades  were  light,  and  the  roadbed  was  completed  inside 
of  the  estimated  cost  of  $5,000  per  mile.  But  the  cost  of  equipment,  even 
with  bar  iron  placed  on  parallel  wooden  stringers,  proved  very  burdensome 
to  an  agricultural  population.  The  president  found  it  necessary  to  support 
the  fortunes  of  the  road  by  his  individual  endorsement  of  its  obligations. 
He  lost  a  large  part  of  his  fortune  as  the  penalty  exacted  of  his  generosity. 
The  cars  along  the  whole  line  were  for  many  months  propelled  by  mules. 
This,  the  earliest  of  the  railroads  of  Alabama,  is  now  a  part  of  the  line 
of  the  Memphis  &  Charleston. 

The  Tuscumbia,  Courtland  &  Decatur  Railroad  was  built  in  the 
interest  of  the  cotton-planting  industry  of  that  magnificent  part  of  the 
Valley  of  the  Tennessee  traversed  by  it.  Now  there  is  a  railroad  just 
completed  running  southward  from  Sheffield,  the  spot  where  the  original 
short  line  initiated,  into  the  iron-ore  beds  and  coal  seams,  some  forty  miles 
distant.  Had  these  mineral  resources  been  reached  in  1832  by  railroad, 
their  unparalleled  richness  and  the  ease  of  their  development,  taken  in 
connection  with  the  wealth  of  the  Southern  Valley  of  the  Mississippi  at 
that  period,  would  have  created  conditions  which,  apparently,  must  have 
located  on  the  Tennessee,  rather  than  later  at  Pittsburg,  the  iron  manu- 
facturing center  of  the  United  States.  The  Valley  of  the  Tennessee 
would,  in  that  event,  have  now  been  to  the  iron  manufactories  of  Alabama 
as  the  agricultural  counties  of  York  and  Lancaster  are  to  those  of 
Pennsylvania.  Had  this  other  direction  been  given  to  the  railroad  of 
the  Sherrods,  Hubbards,  Deshlers,  and  the  cotton  planters  of  the  Valley, 
into  what  other  channel  must  that  determining  force  have  carried  the 
industrial  and  political  history  of  Alabama!  At  the  period  of  the 
initiating  of  this  first  railroad  in  the  Valley  of  the  Tennessee,  the  indus- 
trial revolution  originated  by  the  cotton  gin    had  begun  to  overturn  the 

Jefferson    Cozmty. 

emancipation  sympathies  fixed  in  the  South,  by  the  well-known  views  on 
slavery  held  by  Jefferson  and  practiced  by  John  Randolph,  of  Roanoke. 
Had  iron  manufacture  by  free  labor  been  safely  established  in  1832  in  the 
center  of  the  South- Western  Cotton  States  upon  the  bank  of  the  Tennessee 
in  Alabama,  to  be  supported  by  the  unparalleled  resources  of  the  Alabama 
mineral  region,  it  would  have  been  wholly  within  the  probabilities  of 
cause  and  effect  that  the  "  irrepressible  conflict  between  free  labor  and 
slave"  of  i860  must  have  been  anticipated  by  thirty  years.  Instead  of 
developing  itself  as  a  sectional  issue,  as  in  i860,  it  must  have  matured  as 
a  local  issue.  The  mutually  supporting  industries  of  the  mines  and  of  the 
cotton  fields  of  the  same  State  and  the  same  section  must  have  been 
reconciled  by  the  influence  of  the  railroad. 

The  presence  of  iron  ores  in  Jefferson  County  had  been  known  to 
capitalists  in  Alabama  for  many  years  prior  to  i860,  but  it  was  only  in 
the  decade  from  1850  to  i860  that  organized  effort  was  made  looking 
toward  railway  connection  with  them.  The  six-horse  stage  line,  carrying 
the  mail  and  travel  from  Montgomery  via  Elyton,  the  county  seat  of 
Jefferson,  to  Huntsville,  passed  over  Red  Mountain,  and  the  iron  ties  of 
the  wheels  and  the  iron  shoes  of  the  coach  horses  had  aided  the  farm 
wagons  and  cattle's  feet  to  crush  the  surface  ore  of  the  roadbed  for  miles, 
exposing  its  dazzling  red  dust  to  view,  but  seldom  exciting  a  serious 
inquiry  respecting  the  import  of  a  long  neglect. 

It  is  strange  nobody  thought  of  running  a  railway  out  from  the 
Tennessee,  opposite  the  old  town,  Florence,  where  Sheffield  now  is, 
toward  Russellville,  to  get  coal,  at  least  known  to  be  there,  which  railway 
need  not  have  been  over  thirty-five  or  forty  miles  long. 

Early  Railroad  Building. 

5f?e  )N(ortt7-Ea5t9SoiJtl7-U/e5t  l^ailroad. 


Michael  Tuomey — The  Revelations  of  Geology- 
Two  Great  Railroads — The  Elyton  Convention — 
Dr.  Garland  First  President — Robert  Emmet  Rodes — 

Land  Grants — A  Beautiful  Country — Commissioner  Anderson. 

Two  lines  of  railroad — first  the  North-East  &  South-West  (now  the 
Alabama  Great  Southern)  and  the  Alabama  Central  (now  the  South  & 
North) — had  been  projected  to  penetrate  the  mineral  region  in  1850-60. 
A  general  interest  throughout  the  State  had  now  manifested  itself  in 
railroad  building,  and  especially  in  those  lines  which  promised  to  open  to 
enterprise  the  mineral  wealth  believed  to  exist  in  this  section  of  the  State. 
It  is  true  very  vague  and  indefinite  ideas  prevailed  everywhere  respecting 
the  proportion,  or  the  commercial  value,  of  the  Coal  Measures  or  iron- 
ore  deposits.  Professor  Michael  Tuomey  was  one  of  the  early  disciples  of 
Lyell,  and  one  of  the  most  enthusiastic  devotees  of  the  science  of 
geology,  at  the  early  period  of  its  history  when  Southern  universities 
made  small  provision  for  the  study  of  its  peculiar  attractions  and  singular 
practical  importance  in  Southern  fields  and  forests,  prairies  and  mount- 
ains. Mr.  Tuomey  held  a  professorship  in  the  University  of  the  State  at 
Tuscaloosa.  He  had  succeeded  in  impressing  the  legislature  with  his  own 
belief  that  the  mountain  counties  abounded  in  mineral  wealth.  As  early 
as  1834  coal  had  been  mined  near  Tuscaloosa.  From  1850  to  i860  a 
considerable  trade  in  coal  had  been  established  at  points  along  the 
upper  Warrior  River  above  Tuscaloosa,  and  Demopolis,  a  town  at  the 
junction  of  the  Bigbee  and  Warrior  Rivers,  and  Mobile.  The  bed  of 
the  river  in  certain  localities  above  the  falls  runs  through  a  seam  of 
coal,  and  the  mineral  may  be  dumped  from  the  excavations  on  the 
banks  into  barges  on  the  water  below.     It  was  perilous  navigation  to 


124  Jefferson   Comity. 

carry  barges  laden  with  coal  through  the  rugged,  tortuous,  and  rapid 
channel  over  the  falls  of  the  Warrior.  It  could  only  be  attempted  in 
seasons  of  high  water.  The  boats  must  be  steered  by  poles,  and  none 
other  but  a  steady  hand,  brave  heart,  and  thoroughly  familiar  knowledge 
of  the  course  could  hope  to  carry  them  over  in  safety.  The  barges  were 
always  sold  along  with  their  cargoes. 

Professor  Tuomey  was  encouraged  by  a  small  appropriation  by  the 
legislature,  a  few  hundred  dollars  only,  to  spend  the  months  of  his 
summer  vacation  in  verifying  his  faith  in  the  mineral  wealth  of  the 
Alabama  mountains.  The  high  price  of  slaves  was  then  operating  to 
concentrate  the  limited  supply  of  this  kind  of  labor  in  the  hands  of  the 
already  richly-provided  planters.  As  plantations  grew  larger  in  the  hands 
of  a  gradually-reduced  number  of  planters,  the  profits  of  merchants, 
lawyers,  and  doctors  sought  the  banks.  The  presence  of  this  cash  capital, 
which  could  not  find  investment  in  negro  labor,  already  too  high  as  com- 
pared with  the  price  of  cotton,  suggested  the  further  investigation  into 
the  mineral  wealth  of  the  mountains. 

Toward  the  middle  of  the  decade  1850-60  the  Alabama  &  Tennessee 
Rivers  Railroad  was  chartered  and  the  construction  begun.  The  southern 
terminus  was  Selma,  and  the  northern  some  point  on  the  Tennessee  River, 
north-east  of  Selma,  the  road  to  pass  through  the  coal  seams  near  Monte- 
vallo.  The  road  had  been  built  beyond  these  mines  as  far  as  Oxford, 
Calhoun  County,  in  i860,  and  the  product  of  the  mines  had  then  entered 
the  Mobile  market  to  so  great  an  extent  as  to  materially  interfere  with 
Pennsylvania  and  English  coals  hitherto  relied  upon.  This  road  remained 
incomplete  until  some  years  after  the  war,  when  it  was  carried  forward 
into  Georgia,  and  now  forms  an  important  line  of  the  Virginia,  East 
Tennessee  &  Georgia  system. 

In  the  summer  of  1854  there  assembled  at  Elyton,  the  county-seat 
of  Jefferson,  a  mass-meeting  to  consider  the  building  of  the  North-East 
and  South-West  Railroad  to  connect  Chattanooga  with  the  Mobile  &  Ohio 
Railroad  at  a  point  near  Meridian.  Colonel  William  S.  Ernest,  a  citizen  of 
Jefferson  County,  was  very  active  in  the  initial  steps  to  call  this  conven- 
tion. When  the  day  of  assemblage  arrived  he  had  succeeded  in  preparing 
a  grand  subscription  barbecue,  under  the  noble  old  oaks  of  the  village,  for 
the  feasting  of  the  visitors  and  the  multitude.  A  barbecue  is  a  form  of 
feast  peculiar  to  the  South-West.  The  meats — fresh  beef,  veal,  pork, 
mutton,  and  poultry,  are  baked  by  being  laid  on  poles  stretched  across 
shallow  pits,  under  the  shade  of  the  trees,  in  which  very  hot  coals  are 
kept.      Constant    turning    and    seasoning    with    vinegar  and    condiments 

Early  Railroad  Ihiilding.  125 

during  the  process  of  baking  result  in  giving  to  them  a  delicious  fia\or  in 
no  other  manner  attainable. 

The  meeting  at  Elyton  was  attended  by  capitalists  from  different 
parts  of  the  State.  It  was  a  success.  The  scheme  to  introduce  the 
project  to  the  public  was  well  laid.  Canvassers  were  sent  out  to  obtain 
subscriptions,  and  in  a  short  time  the  grading  of  the  track  had  begun. 

Dr.  Garland,  occupying  a  chair  in  the  University  faculty,  was  made 
President  of  the  railroad  company.  Labor,  available  for  the  grading  of 
the  road,  was  almost  exclusively  negro  slave.  There  was  an  abundance 
of  labor  settled  among  the  mountains,  but  it  was  of  the  white  proprietary 
class  of  small  farmers  who  tilled  their  own  fields.  This  was  a  most 
peculiar  class  of  people.  With  no  definition  of  their  status  could  their 
native  pride  be  more  rudely  assailed  than  in  an  insinuation  that  they  were 
laborers.  They  were  ivliite  men,  and  negro  slaves  were  "  laborers."  They 
owned  their  land,  owned  the  "  critter"  which  drew  the  plow  in  the  week 
and  carried  the  "old  lady"  and  a  couple  of  the  younger  scions  of  the 
race,  astride  withers  and  croup,  to  "meeting"  on  Sunday.  The  fact  that 
the  males  of  the  family  held  the  plow  handles,  split  the  rails,  and  kept 
up  the  farm,  while  the  females  cooked,  took  out  the  weekly  wash  to  their 
own  tubs  at  the  spring  at  the  foot  of  the  hill,  and  indulged  in  like  domestic 
habits,  was  merely  a  personal  arrangement  which  any  white  family,  the 
"equal"  of  all  other  white  families,  might  enter  upon  at  will,  or  abstain 
from,  as  circumstances  favored  one  or  another  family  custom.  These 
white  men  had  been  held  at  arm's  length  from  the  blessings  of  wage-paid 
labor  by  the  institution  of  slavery.  There  was  no  place  for  them  in  the 
economy  of  the  cotton  plantation.  The  negro  was  not  only  physically 
the  more  robust  man  and  more  capable  plowman,  ditcher,  rail-splitter, 
and  the  like,  but  he  was  a  machine  in  effect,  and  his  prolific  race  qualities 
were  features  of  value  in  commerce.  There  was  no  labor  on  the  face  of 
the  earth  to  surpass  or  even,  we  venture  to  believe,  to  equal  the  slaves  of 
the  old  plantation.  They  were  bred  to  labor,  fed  to  labor,  trained  to 
labor  in  that  degree  which  reduced  every  individual  to  his  place  in  the 
farm  methods  and  economy,  and  whoever,  not  familiar  with  the  practical 
operations  of  the  old  plantation,  might,  in  this  later  time  of  emancipation 
and  reform,  imagine  that  the  negro  slave  was  a  degraded  man,  without 
ambition,  without  energy,  without  zeal,  born  of  a  soul-kindling  manhood, 
stands  with  conceptions  apart  from  facts.  The  negro  became,  under  the 
tutelage  of  the  plantation,  a  plowman  without  a  rival.  As  valet,  cook, 
barber,  as  the  divinity  of  the  family  nursery,  as  fast  friend  to  his  owner, 
or  his  owner's  friend,  in  sickness  and  in   health,  in   peace  or  in  war,  there 

1 26  Jefferson   Comity. 

was  never'safer,  truer,  or  better  friend  than  this  black  man.  We  wait 
upon  the  vicissitudes  of  fortune  through  many  generations,  we  of  the  free 
white  race,  for  that  disciph'ne  in  labor,  and  fidelity  to  our  parts  in  our  life 
work,  which  the  methods  of  the  plantation  gave  to  the  negro  sla\e,  and 
speedily  brought  forth  from  his  crude  nature  a  well-perfected  man  to  fill 
not  a  low  place  only,  but  a  high  place  as  well. 

We  say  the  negro  of  the  lowland  plantations  along  the  line  of  the 
projected  North-East  &  South-West  Railroad  had  kept  the  white  labor  of 
the  mountain  country  away  from  the  patronage,  the  training,  and  the 
blessings  of  wages.  Thus  when  the  time  came  that  capital  had  been 
augmented  by  the  profits  of  the  plantations,  and  had  begun  to  overflow 
the  plantation  borders  and  methods,  it  could  not  find  the  surplus  negro 
labor  it  needed  for  its  own  employment. 

When  the  planters  along  the  line  of  the  projected  railroad  were 
appealed  to  in  their  homes  by  the  canvassers  sent  out  from  the  Elyton 
meeting  to  subscribe  to  its  stock,  they  oftentimes  subscribed  the  ascer- 
tained value  of  a  fixed  amount  of  grading  to  be  done  by  their  own 
plantation  slaves  and  took  stock  to  cover  it.  The  work  was  contracted 
for  in  such  proportions  as  the  subscriber-planter  might  consider  con\  enient 
to  be  executed  by  his  able-bodied  men  in  spare  time,  now  and  then,  from 
the  crops  at  any  period  of  the  year.  While  some  planters  may  have 
given  more  regular  labor  than  this  to  their  contracts,  the  general  habit 
was  as  is  here  indicated,  and  slave  labor  alone  was  used. 

The  outbreak  of  the  war  of  1S61-65  resolved  all  other  enterprises 
in  Alabama  into  war  measures.  The  railroad  could  not  be  completed 
then.  The  slaves  were  called  home  to  make  corn  and  pork  for  the  army. 
The  railroad  abided  the  coming  of  peace;  and  when  the  season  again 
returned  for  the  restoration  of  the  work  of  construction,  the  slave  had 
become  free,  and  the  tide  of  prosperity,  destined  to  feed  the  railroad, 
had  been  turned  from  the  plantation  of  the  valle)'  to  the  region  of  the 

Robert  Emmet  Rodes 

Was  a  native  of  Lynchburg,  Va.,  and  a  graduate  of  the  \'irginia  Military 
Institute,  with  high  standing  in  his  class.  He  chose  the  profession  of 
civil  engineering,  and  after  several  years  of  experience  gained  in  other 
States,  came  to  Alabama  to  be  made  Chief  Engineer  of  the  North  East 
and  South- West.  Making  his  headquarters  in  Tuscaloosa  he  married 
the  acknowledged  belle  of  the  aristocratic  societ}-  of  that  University 
town.  Miss  Virginia  Woodruff. 

Early  Railroad  Building.  127 

The  war  opened  and  quickly  absorbed  the  young  engineer.  The 
man  and  the  occasion  had  met.  The  mihtary  record  of  Major-General 
Rodes  is  one  of  the  brightest  pages  of  the  history  of  the  grandest  and 
most  awe-inspiring  of  modern  wars.  He  loved  his  country,  and  war  was 
his  element  of  delight  and  glory.  He  neglected  nothing,  not  even  the 
smallest  details  which  go  to  create,  in  the  aggregate,  the  perfect  soldier. 
Routine  duty  as  a  task  to  be  half  done,  or  done  only  as  far  as  necessary, 
was  not  in  Rodes'  ideal.  His  chin  was  as  close  shaven  in  camp  as  in  the 
parlor ;  his  moustache  and  hair  as  well  dressed ;  his  spurs  and  their 
"bells"  were  always  burnished  bright;  his  horse  perfectly  groomed. 
Was  this  the  holiday  soldier  ?  Was  this  a  martinet?  Ah!  When  in 
the  thickest  of  the  last  of  his  many  great  battles  he  fell  dead  in  front  of 
his  advancing  lines,  those  near  by  concealed  from  his  followers  knowledge 
of  the  fate  of  their  young  leader  until  the  charge  should  be  ended.  That 
night  many  of  the  wounded  of  his  command  had  been  gathered  into  a  large 
warehouse  in  Winchester,  Va.,  near  the  battlefield.  None  had  suspected 
the  fate  of  their  great  leader.  Darkness  impenetrable  and  the  groans 
of  the  dying  prevailed.  Presently  another  ambulance  train  sent  in  to 
the  improvised  hospital  its  fresh  consignment.  These  brought  the  news 
that  "General  Rodes  had  been  shot  through  the  head,  dead,  on  the 
battlefield."  In  an  instant  every  voice  was  silent;  in  an  instant  hundreds 
of  voices  cried  out  in  sobs  of  mourning  that  General  Rodes  was  dead  ! 
and  long  into  the  night,  amid  such  a  scene  of  unutterable  physical  suffer- 
ing as  beggars  description,  the  cries  of  strong  men,  helpless,  resounded 
in  this  old  warehouse  bewailing  in  anguish  the  light  of  many  battlefields 
which  had  gone  out  forever. 

General  Rodes  was  born  a  soldier.  His  attitude,  his  voice,  the 
significance  of  his  yea  or  nay,  were  the  impersonation  of  authority,  zeal, 
and  courage.  Purpose  was  eloquently  expressed  in  his  bearing,  and  no 
troops  could  resist  his  persuasions. 

Land   Grants. 

The  North-East  &  South-West  and  Wills  Valley  system  of  railroads 
existed  on  paper  when  the  war  ended.  J.  C.  Stanton,  a  bold  and 
energetic  man  from  Boston,  came  to  its  relief  at  this  juncture.  He  was 
quick  to  see  the  ultimate  advantages  of  a  line  running  for  many  miles 
parallel  with  Red  Mountain  and  coal  fields  which  must  be  considered  a 
connecting  link,  on  almost  an  air  line,  between  the  mountain  of  ores  with 
Cincinnati  on  one   side  and  New  Orleans  on  the  other.     The   Western 

128  Jefferson    County. 

markets  for  Alabama  iron  and  inevitably  the  South  American  coal  and 
iron  trade  would  sooner  or  later  be  supplied  from  Alabama  through  the 
ports  of  New  Orleans  and  Mobile.  This  road  runs  upon  the  dividing  line 
between  the  Warrior  and  Cahaba  Coal  Fields.  It  bisects  an  agricultural 
country  of  unsurpassed  advantages.  These  lands  are  very  valuable.  It 
is  easier  to  make  a  substantial  and  pleasant  home  on  them  than, 
perhaps,  on  any  of  the  average  lands  of  the  United  States.  The  first 
consideration  to  a  farmer  in  selecting  a  home  is  healthfulness  of  location. 
After  this,  productiveness  of  soil,  availability  of  labor,  and  accessibilit}'  of 
produce  to  market.  Here  the  altitude  is  sufficient  to  secure  equability  of 
temperature  in  the  summer  season,  and  not  sufficient  to  allow  severe  cold 
in  winter.  The  nights  are  refreshing  after  the  longest  summer  days  ;  the 
heat  is  never  overpowering,  and  sunstroke  is  unknown.  Years  come 
and  go  without  any  snow,  and  occasional  snow-storms  never  cover  the 
ground  longer  than  two  or  three  days,  nor  at  greater  depth  than  two  or 
three  inches.  The  soil  is  a  sandy  loam,  naturally  drained  by  ceaseless, 
gentle  undulation.  There  are  ever-recurring  springs  of  the  clearest  and 
purest  water,  cool  in  the  heat  of  summer,  light  on  the  lips,  and  delightful 
to  drink.  The  springs  form  branches  which  afford  live  stock  an  abund- 
ance of  water.  The  boundless  forest  commons  make  excellent  ranges 
for  cattle,  sheep,  and  hogs  from  April  to  December.  Beech,  hickory, 
white  oak,  post  oak,  and  red  oak  mass  keep  hogs  fat  in  midst  of  winter. 
Deer,  foxes,  squirrels,  and  opossums  are  plentiful  to  hunt.  The  fertility 
of  the  soil  and  the  equability  of  the  climate  conspire  to  promote  a 
magnificent  agriculture,  rich  in  almost  limitless  variety. 

The  wild  clover  and  grasses  grow  in  the  forest  a  foot  high,  and  the 
forest  trees  are  numerous  in  kind  and  stately  in  size.  These  are  indica- 
tions of  what  we  may  expect  from  the  cultivated  crops  and  prove  what 
will  be  their  response  to  the  skill  of  the  farmer.  Red  clover  in  summer 
grows  two  to  three  feet  high  ;  vetch,  three  feet  high  in  winter  ;  yellow  and 
white  clover  cover  the  ground  in  mid-winter ;  turnips  and  onions  with 
green  tops  all  winter  in  the  fields  ;  wheat  is  seeded  as  late  as  December  ; 
January  is  the  favorite  season  for  seeding  spring  oats ;  green  (English)  peas 
are  sowed  in  January  and  February ;  there  are  hardly  two  consecutive 
days  in  winter  when  storms  would  interfere  with  the  grazing  of  live  stock 
upon  rye,  barley,  or  clover  pastures  ;  the  climate  has  been  tested  for  ensi- 
lage and  proved  itself  favorable  ;  strawberries,  raspberries,  blackberries, 
many  varieties  of  early  and  late  peaches,  pears,  nectarines,  quinces,  and 
pomegranates  grow  to  perfection  ;  the  apple  can  nowhere  in  the  United 
States  be  surpassed,  if  equaled,  as  we  find  it  on  these  lands.      All  kinds  of 

Early  Railroad  B7nlding.  1 29 

garden  vegetables  grow  to  the  highest  known  perfection.  We  can  safely 
estimate  the  practical  farmer's  returns  in  staple  crops  as  follows :  Wheat, 
fifteen  to  twenty  bushels,  with  soil  capacity  for  forty  bushels ;  corn, 
twenty  to  thirty  bushels,  with  soil  capacity  for  sixty  to  seventy-five 
bushels ;  potatoes,  three  hundred  and  turnips  three  hundred  bushels  per 
acre;  oats,  beets,  carrots,  millet,  clover,  and  various  other  grasses  maybe 
estimated  from  the  figures  we  cite,  and  which  we  pronounce  wholly 
within  the  realization  possible. 

A  beautiful,  picturesque  landscape ;  a  full  twelve  months  of  crop 
growing  and  crop  harvesting  (for  there  is  practically  no  cessation  of  either 
should  the  farmer's  enterprise  cover  the  variety  permitted  by  soil  and 
climate  for  his  crops) ;  a  surface  highly  favorable  to  good  wagon  roads  ; 
Chattanooga,  Birmingham,  Meridian,  Vicksburg,  all  growing  markets,  and 
the  entire  world  around  in  reach  ;  labor  attainable  without  extraordinary 
difificulties ;  an  economical  State  government  in  Alabama,  enlightened, 
and  founded  on  universal  suffrage,  with  constant  tendency  toward  reduc- 
tion of  taxation,  constant  progress  in  the  scope  and  significance  of  free 
public  education — these  are  prominent  among  the  recommendations  to 
settlement  and  the  establishment  of  domiciliary  interests  offered  by  the 
territory  along  the  line  of  the  Alabama  Great  Southern  Railroad. 

Mr.  Stanton  changed  the  original  name  of  his  road  to  the  "Alabama 
&  Chattanooga."  Under  this  nam^  it  was  completed  from  Chattanooga 
to  a  point  on  the  Mobile  &  Ohi>y  Road,  near  Meridian,  Mississippi,  a 
distance  of  two  hundred  and  ninety-five  miles,  about  the  year  1870. 
There  are  forty-eight  stations,  including  the  termini. 

The  lands  in  Alabama,  of  which  we  particularly  speak  now  as  the 
property  of  the  Alabama  Great  Southern,  were  granted  by  the  United 
States  to  the  road.  They  comprise  about  600,000  acres  and  lie  in  the 
counties  of  DeKalb,  Jackson,  Marshall,  Etowah,  Blount,  St.  Clair,  Jeffer- 
son, Shelby,  Tuscaloosa,  Bibb,  Greene,  Hale,  Sumter,  and  Choctaw. 
Some  of  these  are  mineral  lands,  but  have  not  been  geologically  surveyed 
to  fix  the  value  or  extent  of  their  mineral  deposits.  Timber  abounds  on 
all,  and  much  of  it  is  merchantable. 

Passing  beyond  Alabama  we  find  the  Queen  and  Crescent  s}'stem  of 
railroads,  of  which  the  Alabama  Great  Southern  is  a  part,  extends  from 
Cincinnati,  southward,  to  include  the  Vicksburg  &  Meridian,  and  the 
Vicksburg  &  Shreveport.  This  system  controls  upward  of  3,000,000 
acres  of  land,  the  great  bulk  being  agricultural.  They  lie  in  alter- 
nate sections  of  one  mile  square  (640  acres)  fifteen  miles  on  each 
side  of  the  line.     This  princely  domain  commences  at  the  dividing  line 

Jefferson    Coimty. 

between  the  States  of  Georgia  and  Alabama,  and  terminates  with  the 
dividing  line  between  Louisiana  and  Texas.  The  great  variety  of  soils 
contained  by  it  and  the  situation  it  maintains,  in  the  heart  of  the  civiliza- 
tion of  the  country,  give  it  rare  value. 

Frank  Y.  Anderson,  who  is  Land  Commissioner  of  this  great  land 
system,  resides  in  Birmingham,  where  the  headquarters  of  the  Land 
Department  are  located.  Mr.  Anderson  is  a  Marylander  by  birth,  his 
ancestors  being  of  English  extraction.  He  was  born  in  1847,  and  reared 
and  educated  in  Washington,  District  of  Columbia.  At  the  age  of  twenty- 
three  he  graduated  from  the  law  department  of  Columbia  College,  and  at 
once  entered  upon  the  practice  of  his  profession  in  Washington.  Two 
years  later  he  removed  to  Mobile,  and  gave  his  attention  to  the  division  of 
the  practice  respecting  lands.  After  eight  years  in  Mobile  he  came  to 
Birmingham.  As  an  efficient  agent  and  manager  of  great  corporate 
interests,  Mr.  Anderson  ranks  high.  The  land  he  controls  is  wholly 
owned  by  English  capitalists,  who  can  know  their  agent  only  by  the  worthy 
manner  in  which  he  discharges  his  trust. 

Mr.  Anderson  is  happily  established  in  the  societj*  of  Birmingham, 
not  alone  by  virtue  of  his  own  intelligence  and  public  spirit,  but  by  the 
long-fixed  influence  of  his  wife's  family  in  Alabama.  Mrs.  Anderson  is  a 
daughter  of  B.  F.  Paine,  of  DeKalb  County,  and  descended  from  the 
Winston  family,  so  distinguished  in  wealth  and  political  honors  in  the 

'6\)^  /Alabama  Qeptral. 

Governor  Moore  and  State  Aid — John  T.  Milner — A  Great  Work 

of   Engineering — The  Gulf  Commerce — 

Cullman  Colony. 

The  line  of  railroad  now  known  as  the  North  and  South  Division  of 
the  Louisville  &  Nashville  system  was  originally  projected  as  the  Ala- 
bama Central.  The  legislature  appropriated,  at  its  session  in  the  winter 
of  1858,  ^10,000  for  making  a  reconnoissance  for  a  route  for  a  railroad 
from  the  Tennessee  River    to  some  point  on  the  Alabama  &  Tennessee 

Early  Railroad  Building.  131 

Rivers  Railroad,  and  to  make  a  thorough  survey  of  the  most  practicable 
route  to  connect  the  Tennessee  River  with  the  navigable  waters  of  the 
Mobile  Bay  with  reference  to  the  development  of  the  mineral  regions  of 
the  State.  The  original  conception,  it  will  be  seen,  did  not  make  Mont- 
gomery, but  "some  point  on  the  Alabama  &  Tennessee  Rivers  Rail- 
road," now  the  Selma,  Rome  &  Dalton,  the  southern  terminus.  The 
original  plan  was  to  connect  the  Tennessee  River  in  Alabama  with  the 
Alabama  River  by  the  shortest  and  most  available  route  consistent  with 
the  proper  development  of  the  mineral  resources  of  the  State. 

The  Governor  wisely  appointed  John  T.  Milner,  Chief  Engineer,  to 
make  a  survey  and  to  report  to  him  respecting  the  cost  of  the  projected 
■road,  the  character  of  the  country  to  be  traversed,  the  value  of  the  min- 
erals to  be  reached  by  the  road,  and  the  general  recommendations  of  the 
public  policy  of  the  enterprise. 

John  T.  Milner  became,  from  that  time  until  now,  a  conspicuous 
character  in  the  industrial  revolution  in  Alabama.  He  has  been  emphat- 
ically a  leader  in  the  new  path  which  leads  to  that  greatness  of  develop- 
ment so  plainly  now  in  view.  Mr.  Milner  studied  nearly  four  years  at  the 
University  of  Georgia,  and  is  a  native  of  that  State.  He  had  pursued  the 
profession  of  civil  engineering  in  various  parts  of  the  Union,  even  as  far 
as  Oregon.  His  judgment  had  been  ripened,  and  his  faculty  of  observa- 
lion  quickened  by  long  and  wide  acquaintance  with  countries  and  with 
men.  So  varied  had  been  his  experiences  he  had  even  rolled  a  wheel- 
barrow and  worked  for  years  with  a  pick  and  shovel  in  a  California  gold 

When  Governor  Moore  selected  him  to  locate  a  line  for  the  new 
railroad,  there  was  a  condition  annexed,  as  we  have  said,  that  the  engineer 
should  report  to  the  Governor  his  impressions,  received  from  observation 
of  the  country  he  was  to  explore,  respecting  its  capacity  to  support  a 
railroad,  when  built. 

Mr.  Milner  wrote  to  the  Governor,  on  sending  in  his  report,  Novem- 
ber 1st,  1858,  "  It  was  my  first  duty  to  ascertain  where  the  mineral  region 
of  the  State  lay.  In  this  I  was  guided  mainly  by  the  valuable  and 
reliable  report  of  the  late  Professor  Tuomey,  State  Geologist." 

The  engineer  recommended  that  Decatur,  on  the  Tennessee,  be 
•selected  for  the  northern  terminus,  and  that  some  point  near  Montevallo 
be  made  the  southern  terminus  of  the  line  of  the  Central  Railroad. 

Finally  the  intersection  with  the  Alabama  &  Tennessee  Rivers  Road 
was  made  at  a  point  in  the  woods  seven  miles  east  of  Montevallo,  as  a 
legislative  compromise  between  Selma  and  Montgomery,  it  being  precisely 

132  Jefferson   County. 

the  same  distance  to  either  city  from  Calera.  At  the  crossing  a  village 
sprung  up,  called  Calera.  Calera  now  justly  entertains  aspirations  toward 
the  mission  of  a  city.  Streets  have  been  laid  off  by  a  land  company  ;  a 
good  hotel  has  been  built ;  the  most  extensive  manufactory  of  lime  in  the 
State  is  there,  and  a  company  has  been  organized  to  build  a  blast  furnace. 

But  the  engineer  explained  that  his  selection  of  "some  point  near 
Montevallo"  for  the  southern  terminus  of  the  survey  ordered  by  the 
Governor  had  an  ulterior  as  well  as  a  present  motive.  He  thought  the 
point  thus  selected  would  be  "  easily  accessible  by  railroad  from  Mont- 
gomery, and  from  South-East  Alabama,  and  also  from  Mobile,  via  Jackson, 
Uniontown,  Marion,  and  Centreville." 

The  line  has  been  extended,  as  we  have  seen,  in  a  straight  line  from 
Calera,  "near  Montevallo,"  to  Montgomery.  The  line  "from  Mobile, 
via  Jackson,  Uniontown,"  etc.,  is  now  being  built,  and  the  line  from  East 
Alabama  will  soon  be  under  contract.  "  Examine  the  map  of  Alabama 
herewith  submitted,  and  the  projects  thereon  indicated,  and  these  facts  will 
become  evident,"  wrote  the  engineer.  Birmingham  then  had  no  place  on 
this  map.  The  general  views  of  the  engineer  were  accepted  by  the 
Governor.  Now,  all  roads  in  Alabama  lead  to  Birmingham,  and  roads  of 
other  States  seek  connection  at  the  "  Magic  City"  with  the  original  Ala- 
bama Central. 

Engineer  Milner  stated  in  his  report  to  Governor  Moore,  when  his 
laborious  and  painstaking  surveys  had  been  completed,  that  he  had  been 
successful  in  obtaining  a  line  for  the  Alabama  Central  which  would  com- 
pare favorably  "in  cost,  grades,  alignments,  and  everything  else  with  the 
railroads  in  the  neighboring  States,  and  is  far  better  in  these  respects  than 
any  other  route  across  the  Alleghany  Mountains,  except,  perhaps,  the 
Georgia  State  Road."  He  considered  the  long  season  of  doubt  and  per- 
plexity, which  for  forty  years  had  embarrassed  and  confused  the  desires  of 
the  people  to  build  the  road,  finally  settled.  The  cost  would  be  moderate, 
say  823,000  in  round  numbers  per  mile;  the  air  line  would  be  one  hun- 
dred and  four  miles  and  the  surveyed  line  was  only  one  hundred  and 
twenty-one  miles.  The  difference,  per  cent.,  of  variation  from  the  airline 
in  the  Georgia  State  Road  was  more  than  double  the  variation  in  the 
Central  Alabama.  Having  offered  convincing  proof  of  the  practicability 
of  the  road,  at  moderate  cost,  he  proceeded  to  demonstrate  its  great 

When  the  engineer  set  out  in  obedience  to  the  instructions  of  the 
Governor  "to  locate  the  mineral  regions  of  the  State,"  which  might  be 
penetrated  most   profitably  by  a   line  of  railroad,  he  successfully  accom- 

Early  Railroad  Lhiildmg.  133 

plished  a  great  work,  the  importance  of  which  cannot  be  described.  He 
began  to  do  that  which  has,  at  last,  unlocked  the  greatest  mineral  wealth 
of  the  world,  contained  in  any  connected  area.  A  man  small  in  stature, 
taciturn,  as  strong  men  of  action  usually  are,  quiet  and  well  bred  in 
manner,  and  more  ready  to  hear  than  deliver  opinions.  Southern  born  and 
educated,  possessed  of  the  instincts  of  the  Southern  gentleman  in  his  walk 
among  men — this  is  the  man  who,  near  thirty  years  ago,  came  into  the 
wilderness  of  Alabama,  far  from  the  trails  of  commerce,  to  go  back  to  the 
State  capital  to  speak  the  portentious  words  to  the  Governor:  "  We  are 
now  at  the  beginning  of  the  development  of  gigantic  National  resources." 
He  wanted  the  Governor  to  press  forward  the  action  of  the  legislature  in 
the  project  to  aid  the  Central  Railroad.  "The  ports  of  the  Gulf  of 
Mexico  are  destined  soon  to  be  the  recipients  of  the  richest  commerce 
the  world  ever  saw.  Even  now  one  half  of  the  exports  of  the  United 
States  pass  over  this  inland  sea  of  ours."  These  eloquent  words  of  states- 
manship found  utterance  before  their  time.  In  1858  Alabama  was  more 
busily  engaged  in  discussing  "the  rights  of  the  South  in  the  Territories," 
than  in  the  line  of  Mr.  Milner's  explorations.  The  predominant  prosper- 
ity, great  as  it  was,  and  benign  in  its  influences,  did  not  see  that  it  was 
not  self-poised  or  self-sufficient.  Slavery  had  even  then  passed  the  "dead 
line."  The  battle  waged  for  its  perpetuation,  with  gunpowder  as  the 
arbitrament,  came  as  the  inevitable. 

The  pioneers  of  the  new  industrial  life  of  the  State,  the  civil  engineers, 
whose  weapons  were  compass  and  chain,  had  indeed  decided  the  problem 
of  slavery  by  preparing  the  way  for  its  most  insatiable  enemy,  the  manu- 
facture of  iron  by  free  labor.  "We  are  now  in  the  beginning  of  the 
development  of  gigantic  National  resources,"  Milner  warned  Alabama; 
so  gigantic  indeed,  that  the  disclosed  power  to  reverse- the  seat  of  National 
influence,  to  bring  it  South  from  the  North,  to  make  of  "the  ports  of  the 
Gulf  of  Mexico  the  recipients  of  the  richest  commerce  the  world  ever  saw. ' ' 

Tiiirty  years  ago  Engineer  MUner — the  young  Southerner,  silent, 
meditative,  and  enthusiastic,  told  the  Governor  of  Alabama,  for  publication 
to  the  world,  "we  can  safely  say  that  coal  can  be  delivered  by  the  Central 
and  connecting  roads  at  Mobile  and  Pensacola,  at  from  five  to  six  dollars 
per  ton."  This  high  price  for  coal  stood  as  an  argument  in  1858  in  favor 
of  railroad  connection  with  the  mineral  region.  We  find  the  Mobile 
Register  of  September  1st,  i860,  announcing  that  Alabama  (Montevallo) 
coals,  even  at  eight  to  twelve  dollars  per  ton,  were  fast  driving  out 
Pennsylvania  coal  from  that  market  and  had  materially  reduced  prices  by 

1 34  Jefferson    County. 

The  Central  Railroad  now  having  been  completed  and  become  a  part 
of  the  Louisville  &  Nashville  Railway  line,  and  the  way  opened  to  the 
half  score  of  great  coal  mines  opened  in  reach  of  it,  we  find  the  eng- 
ineer's estimated  prices  of  Alabama  coals  delivered  at  Mobile  to  be  not 
"five  or  six  dollars"  in  fact,  but  <bout  one  half  of  that  price,  with  the 
certainty  of  early  reduction. 

Referring  to  tlie  inevitable.  Engineer  Milner  told  the  Governor,  in  view 
of  Mr.  Jefferson  Davis'  scheme  for  building  a  railroad  from  San  Francisco 
to  the  Atlantic,  "the  Pacific  Railroad,  if  built  from  Vicksburg  to  San 
Francisco,  cannot  carry  freight  one  half  as  cheaply  to  the  last  named  city, 
or  to  China,  as  zna  Tehauntepec,  or  Panama.  The  greatest  drawback 
to  the  commerce  of  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  and  the  Pacific  is  the  cost  of  coal. 
Supply  this  fuel  at  a  cheap  rate  and  the  highway  of  commerce  will  be 
directly  over  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  and  through  some  one  or  more  of  the 
isthmian  connections  with  the  Pacific."  In  intimate  relations  with  the  Gulf 
commerce  in  coal,  Mr.  Milner  pointed  out  the  advantages  which  must  fol- 
low to  the  cotton  trade  with  Europe  and  the  North.  Alluding  to  New 
Orleans  he  said,  "  only  small  vessels  can  enter  that  port."  But  the  great 
social  and  political  revolution  which  was  destined  to  precipitate  the  opening 
of  the  mines  of  Alabama,  also  brought  to  the  attention  of  the  world  the 
hydraulic  engineering  talent  of  James  B.  Eads.  "  Eads'  Jetties,"  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Mississippi,  have  opened  the  port  of  New  Orleans  to  the 
largest  ocean  steamers.  This  was  one  preparatory  step  toward  that  gigantic 
development  in  close  connection  with  the  1858  survey  of  the  engineer, 
which  he  had  predicted  as  a  consequence  of  its  completion.  It  was  one, 
and  a  most  important  victory,  easy  to  win,  but  grand  to  plan  in  that  suc- 
cession of  circumstances  which  expose  the  attitude  of  Alabama  toward 
the  countries  around  the  central  basin  of  the  Western  Hemisphere — the 
Gulf  of  Mexico.  These  enumerated  circumstances  elevate  Alabama  into^ 
a  position  toward  all  the  States  of  the  Union  bordering  on  the  Gulf,  and  all 
the  country  of  Central  and  South  America  and  the  Pacific  States,  China, 
Japan,  and  the  Sandwich  Islands,  correspondent  to  the  position  of  Pennsyl- 
vania toward  the  Atlantic  States  and  Europe. 

The  work  of  Milner  and  Rodes  was  the  key  that  unlocked  the  sources 
of  the  greatness  of  Alabama.  All  honor  to  them  !  Southerners,  they 
were  prophets  of  labor;  broadened  into  the  realm  of  mind;  forerunners 
of  the  mighty  army  of  thinkers  who  catch  the  thought  of  the  Great  First 

The  two  railroads  having  been  crossed  on  the  site  of  Birmingham,  let 
us  inquire  into  their  direct  influence  in  promoting  the  interests  of  Alabama. 

Early  Railroad  Btiilding.  135 

When  the  line  of  the  Central  Railroad  had  been  laid  there  was  not  a 
single  village  between  Montgomery  and  Decatur,  its  full  length  of  over 
two  hundred  miles.  Now  there  are  numerous  towns  and  villages  which 
pay  a  large  part  of  the  State  taxes  and  stimulate  the  industries  of  the 
intervening  country.  The  landlocked  and  unequaled  wealth  of  the  mount- 
ains seek  this  artery  of  interstate  commerce,  which  carries  an  influence  as 
wide  as  the  Union  and  overflowing  the  bounds  of  the  Union.  The 
mountain  population  along  its  line,  which  before  had  been  limited  in  indus- 
try to  a  rude  agriculture  without  accessible  markets,  have  discovered  occu- 
pations more  enlarged  and  enlightening  in  the  mines  and  manufactures,  in 
the  railroad,  telegraph  .and  express  offices,  in  the  trading  shops,  hotels,  and 
the  like.  They  see  more  of  life,  hear  more  of  knowledge,  read  more,  and 
are  better  citizens  and  wiser  voters. 

The  agricultural  and  manufacturing  colony  called  Cullman  was  settled 
by  the  munificence  of  the  South  &  North  Railroad.  John  G.  Cullman,  a 
German  citizen  of  the  North-West,  contracted  about  1872  with  the  railroad 
to  take  several  thousand  acres  of  its  land,  part  of  Blount  and  other  counties 
lying  along  the  line  of  the  road.  This  done,  Mr.  Cullman,  with  prompt- 
ness and  energy,  brought  settlers  to  it  from  the  German  colonies  of  the 
North- Western  States  and  from  the  Fatherland  direct. .  When  the  coloniz- 
ation began,  the  taxes.  State  and  county,  of  the  area  now  embraced  in 
Cullman  County,  did  not  exceed  ;^500.  The  State  taxes  alone  now  reach 
the  sum  of  S5, 099.63. 

This  experiment  is  pursued  on  the  poorest  quality  of  land  in  Alabama. 
Yet  it  is  notably  successful.  The  colonists  are  industrious  and  contented. 
Their  farms  are  devoted  to  profitable  market  crops,  after  a  sufficiency  for 
home  consumption  has  been  made  safe.  At  the  State  Fair  of  1886  "the 
Paul  Mohr  Fruit  Company, "  of  Cullman,  exhibited  a  rare  and  beautiful 
display  of  fruit  brandies  of  many  kinds,  port  wines,  claret,  cordials, 
sirups,  etc.,  manufactured  from  fruits  and  grapes  grown  in  the  county  of 
Cullman.  The  exhibit  proved  conclusively  that  the  soil  will  produce  and 
the  climate  ripen  grapes,  the  wine-making  qualities  of  which  successfully 
compete  with  California. 

The  South  &  North  Alabama  Railroad  terminates  at  Decatur,  and 
crosses  the  Alabama  near  Montgomery.  Decatur  is  at  the  upper  end  of 
the  Mussel  Shoals  on  the  Tennessee  River.  So  soon  as  the  canal,  now 
nearing  completion,  shall  be  opened  to  navigation,  heavy  freights  from 
Birmingham  for  the  West  will  have  only  about  one  hundred  miles  rail 
transportation,  via  the  South  &  North  line,  to  reach  water  for  Paducah  and 
all  points  on  the  Mississippi  and  its  tributaries. 

XxsiXi-iy  lr\;lo^ri<:t5'- 



H.  M.  CALDWELL.      W.  J.  MILNER.      D.  S.  TROY. 





John  Turner  Milner  was  born  in  Pike  County,  Georgia,  September 
29,  1826.  His  father,  WiUis  J.  Milner,  was  a  native  of  Wilkes  County, 
Georgia,  and  his  mother,  Elizabeth  Milner,  ncc  Turner,  was  born  in 
Edgecombe  County,  North  Carolina.  His  grandmother,  on  his  father's 
side,  was  a  sister  of  the  Rev.  Joshua  S.  Calloway,  who,  in  his  lifetime, 
was  one  of  the  most  eminent  Baptist  divines  of  the  State  of  Georgia. 

The  Galloways  and  Milners  of  Georgia,  and  the  Turners  of  North 
Carolina,  were  plain,  matter-of-fact  people,  and  the  subject  of  this  sketch 
comes  honestly  by  his  simple  and   unpretentious  manners.     Like  most 

t  ,y.  ^^^ii^^^t^^A 

Initial  Influences.  139 

boys  of  his  part  of  the   State,  of  that   day  and   time,  he  went  to  school 
and  worked  on  the  farm  alternately. 

He  was  ten  years  old  when  his  father  moved  to  Lumpkin  County, 
Georgia,  to  engage  in  gold  mining.  This  date  records  the  beginning  of 
his  eventful  and  interesting  career.  It  commenced  in  the  following  inci- 
dent :  A  little  negro  boy,  a  year  older  than  himself,  and  who  had  been 
his  playmate  from  birth,  was  employed  as  a  laborer  in  rolling  the 
earth,  containing  the  precious  metal,  from  a  tunnel,  or  drift,  under  the 
mountain,  on  the  Pigeon  Roost  gold  vein.  This  naturally  led  to  a  desire 
on  his  part  to  be  similarly  engaged,  and  he  was  indulged  in  the  privilege 
of  taking  a  wheel-barrow,  suited  to  his  strength,  and,  joining  his  play- 
mate, learned  his  first  lessons  in  mining.  Learned  them,  too,  in  a  far 
more  practical  and  valuable  way  than  could  have  ever  been  gained  from 

In  the  interim,  from  his  twelfth  to  his  fifteenth  year,  his  father  was 
engaged  in  railroad  contracting,  on  an  extensive  scale,  in  Georgia,  and 
here  again  we  find  the  future  engineer  engaged  in  all  kinds  of  work  ren- 
dered necessary  in  railroad  construction,  not  even  refusing  to  lay  his  help-' 
ing  hands  to  anything  that  required  his  personal  superintendence.  He 
was  everywhere,  an  active  and  progressive  spirit,  and  the  valuable  experi- 
ence thus  attained  was  of  inestimable  service  to  him  in  the  labors  of  man- 
hood. He  attributes  his  great  success  in  later  enterprises  to  the  early- 
learned  value  of  a  day's  labor  by  the  actual  observation  and  personal 
experiences  of  his  youth.  Labor  is  the  source  of  all  wealth,  and  no  one 
can  direct  it  so  well  and  properly  as  he  who  has  performed  that  part  him- 
self which  he  directs  others  to  do. 

At  the  age  of  seventeen  young  Milner  is  again  found  in  the  gold 
mines  near  Dahlonega,  Georgia,  laboring  in  wet  and  mud  from  daylight 
until  dark.  This  is  not  exaggeration,  but  a  truthful  realization.  It  was 
impossible  for  one  to  have  become  a  practical  and  skillful  miner  without 
complying  with  such  hardships  and  fulfilling  such  conditions  as  fell  to  his  lot. 
While  engaged  in  this  work  one  of  those  incidents  which  seem  to  be  the 
premonition  of  fate,  and  which,  in  their  effects,  have  controlled  and  directed 
the  destinies  of  many  a  man,  was  encountered  by  this  youth.  To  the 
uninitiated  it  is  well  to  state  that  the  gold  in  placer,  or  deposit  mines,  lies 
usually  in  streaks  along  the  branches  or  creeks,  sometimes  running  along 
the  bed  of  the  creek,  and  again  on  the  one  side  or  the  other,  often  cross- 
ing from  side  to  side  in  a  zigzag  course.  The  Pay  streak,  on  the  south 
side  of  Cane  Creek,  at  the  mouth  of  Pigeon  Creek,  had  given  out  or  been 
lost,  or  was  covered  by  allu\-ium   from  twentj'   to   forty   feet  deep.     The 

1 40  Jefferson    Cotitity. 

father  had  a  suspicion,  but  only  a  suspicion,  where  it  lay.  _The  practical 
execution  of  his  theory  necessitated  a  deep  excavation,  and,  besides  cost- 
ing a  great  deal  of  money,  required  much  labor.  To  such  an  ardent 
spirit  as  the  subject  of  our  sketch,  however,  this  task  appeared  very 
inviting,  and  no  sooner  had  his  father's  idea  been  made  known  to  him 
than  he  set  about  to  attempt  its  practical  attainment.  He  took  four  old 
negroes,  who  by  age  were  incapacitated  for  active  and  hard  labor  on  the 
farm,  and  began  with  their  assistance  the  work  of  making  the  excavation. 
For  weeks  and  months  his  father  watched  the  progress  of  the  work  with 
patience  and  hope,  earnestly  promising  himself  and  his  God,  as  he  fre- 
quently afterward  told  his  son  and  his  family,  that  if  the  undertaking 
proved  a  success,  "  John  should  goto  college."  At  last  the  bottom  of 
the  excavation  was  reached  and  a  little  hole  was  scooped  out,  and  a  trial 
with  the  first  pan  of  earth  yielded  one  dollar,  showing  that  the  rich  Pay 
streak  had  been  struck.  Without  further  parley  the  old  negroes  were 
called  out  of  the  pit,  and  the  next  morning,  in  fulfillment  of  the  condi- 
tional promise,  John  went  to  Dahlonega,  had  two  suits  of  clothes  made, 
and  soon  left  for  Athens,  the  seat  of  the  University  of  Georgia.  It  was 
in  June,  near  the  Commencement  Exercises  of  the  institution,  and  he 
could  not  be  allowed  to  enter  any  of  the  college  classes  at  that  season. 
He  did  not  know  the  Greek  alphabet,  but  Professor  McCoy  undertook  to 
prepare  him  for  college,  and  in  August  he  entered  the  Freshman  class, 
and,  after  the  second  session,  stood  at  the  head  of  his  class,  where  he 
maintained  himself  for  nearly  three  years,  until  failing  health  forced  him 
to  leave  college. 

While  wandering  around  his  father's  home,  gloomy,  disappointed, 
and  in  wretched  health,  he  met  the  late  George  H.  Hazlehurst,  the  dis- 
tinguished civil  engineer,  then  engaged  on  the  Macon  &  Western  Rail- 
road, under  the  presidency  of  the  late  General  Daniel  Tyler.  The.  mag- 
netic manner  of  Mr.  Hazlehurst  was  irresistible,  and  young  Milner 
immediately  went  to  work  for  him,  beginning  at  the  bottom,  cutting 
bushes  and  carrying  the  chain.  His  advancement  here  was  rapid,  for  in 
less  than  two  years  we  find  him  locating,  as  the  principal  assistant  engi- 
neer, the  Muscogee  Railroad,  now  a  part  of  the  Columbus  &  Macon  Rail- 

As  an  illustration  of  the  relations  then  existing  between  young  mas- 
ters and  their  young  negro  playmates,  we  mention  an  occurrence  in  which 
the  same  negro,  Stephen,  his  playmate  already  mentioned,  figured. 
Stephen  was  with  his  young  master  on  this  survey  under  Mr.  Hazlehurst. 
He  was  as  black  as  a  raven,  and  almost  as  sleek,  was   then  about  twenty 

Initial  Influences.  141 

years  old,  and  of  a  timid  disposition.  Hazlehurst  was  full  of  life  and 
vigor,  and  would  not  allow  time  to  hang  heavily  on  his  hands.  At  night, 
rainy  days,  and  on  other  leisure  occasions  he  would  propose  a  game  of 
cards,  usually  "  seven-up."  On  the  particular  occasion  now  referred  to, 
Hazlehurst,  Milner,  Schley,  a  son  of  ex-Governor  Schley,  of  Georgia,  and 
Steve  formed  the  "gentlemen"  of  the  party,  the  others  being  negro 
axmen,  cooks,  etc.  Hazlehurst  and  Steve  were  partners,  playing  against 
Milner  and  Schley.  Neither  Milner  nor  his  negro  knew  the  name  of  a 
single  card  in  the  deck,  much  less  how  to  play  a  game.  Mr.  "  Hazledy, " 
as  the  negro  called  his  partner,  undertook  to  initiate  him  into  the  mys- 
teries of  the  game.  Hazlehurst,  with  great  earnestness  and  care,  taught 
the  negro  and  explained  the  game  to  him.  After  several  games  of 
instruction  had  been  tried  the  playing  began  in  earnest.  Stephen  was  told 
not  to  let  any  one  look  into  his  hand,  and  what  to  do  and  what  not  to  do  ; 
among  other  points  he  was  instructed  how  to  handle  his  trumps,  aces, 
and  other  cards.  The  cards  were  dealt  around,  and  Stephen,  showing  the 
whites  of  his  eyes  with  a  broad  grin  on  his  countenance,  was  called  on  to 
play.  Down  went  the  wrong  card,  and  instantly  Mr.  "Hazledy  "  reached 
across    the    table,    grabbed    Stephen    by   the    wool,    and,    shaking    him, 

exclaimed  :    "  Stephen,  you  good-for-nothing  black ,  didn't  I  tell  you 

not  to  play  so  and  so?"  The  negro,  good  humoredly  and  laughing, 
would  reply,  again  and  again,  "Mr.  Hazledy,  I  thought  dat  was  right, 
sah."  Order  being  restored,  the  game  begun  again,  and  in  a  few  min- 
utes Stephen  would  violate  the  rules  of  the  game,  and  the  same  hair- 
pulling  and  head-shaking  would  be  gone  through  anew.  This  was  the 
only  game  of  cards  Mr.  Milner  ever  learned,  and  the  introduction  of  this 
incident  here  serves  mainly  to  illustrate  the  kindly  manner  in  which  serv- 
ants were,  in  the  old  era,  treated  by  gentlemen  of  character  in  the  South. 

Hazlehurst  and  Milner  both  afterward  reached  the  highest  places  in 
their  profession  as  civil  engineers,  and  moved  in  the  best  society  wher- 
ever they  went,  and  yet,  when  negroes  were  held  as  slaves,  occupying  the 
place  Nature  appeared  to  have  assigned  to  the  race,  they  were  treated  by 
men  of  social  position  as  companions.  Negro  slaves  and  body-servants, 
as  a  rule,  at  the  South,  were  privileged  characters.  They  occupied  no 
unnatural  or  strained  relations,  and  acted  no  such  foolish  part  as  they  do 
now  in  the  political  atmosphere  of  freed  men  and  women. 

In  1842  young  Milner  drove  an  ox  team  across  the  plains  to  Oregon 
and  California.  Here  his  knowledge  of  mining  and  the  use  of  the  pick 
and  shovel,  learned  in  the  early  days,  served  him  a  good  part.  His  educa- 
tion and  profession  also  came  into  play.      He  was  appointed    by  General. 

142  Jefferson    County. 

Riley,  the  then  Provisional  Governor  of  California,  Cit)-  Surveyor  of  the 
city  of  San  Jose,  the  capital  of  the  State. 

In  1852  he  returned  to  Georgia,  and  shortly  afterward  went  to  Ala- 
bama, and  began  his  career  in  this  State  on  the  Montgomery  &  West 
Point  Railroad,  at  Chehaw,  in  Macon  County.  He  was,  at  various  times, 
employed  on  all  the  railroads  of  East  Alabama.  December  30,  1855,  he 
was  married  to  Miss  Flora  J.  Caldwell,  daughter  of  John  C.  Caldwell,  of 
Greenville,  Ala. 

In  1858  he  was  commissioned  by  Governor  Moore,  under  an  act  of 
the  legislature,  to  survey  and  locate  a  railroad  line,  connecting  the  navi- 
gable waters  of  the  Alabama  River  with  those  of  the  Tennessee,  with  the 
view  of  developing  the  mineral  regions  of  the  State.  The  line  upon 
which  the  South  &  North  Alabama  Railroad  was  built  was  selected  and 
recommended  by  Mr.  Milner.  He  was  elected  Chief  Engineer  of  the 
South  &  North  Alabama  Railroad  Company  November  3,  1858,  and  con- 
tinued in  this  position  until  the  railroad  was  completed,  and  placed  under 
the  control  of  the  Louisville  &  Nashville  Railroad  system  October  i,  1872. 

Apart  from  the  confidence  inspired  by  Mr.  Milner's  earlier  record, 
those  who  became  familiar  with  his  work  in  this  latter  enterprise,  bear 
the  highest  testimony  to  the  industry,  integrity,  and  intelligence  brought 
to  bear  upon  the  responsible  duties  of  his  high  position.  As  chief 
engineer  and  simerintendent  of  this  great  company  his  name  must  live 
Jn  Alabama  history. 

Retiring  from  the  active  management  of  the  South  &  North  Alabama 
Railroad,  after  its  completion,  Mr.  Milner  began  to  build  up  his  own  for- 
tunes. It  seemed  that  everything  he  touched  prospered  and  turned  into 
money.  The  splendid  saw-mill  interests  at  Boiling,  Alabama,  were 
founded  and  fostered  by  him.  The  great  city  of  Birmingham  was  pro- 
jected by  him,  and  before  Colonel  Powell,  Josiah  Morris,  or  any  others 
thought  of  such  a  place,  he  had  entered  into  a  written  agreement  with 
Mr.  R.  C.  McCalla,  as  the  chief  engineer  and  representative  of  the 
managers  of  the  Alabama  &  Chattanooga  Railroad,  to  buy  for  their 
respective  companies  the  land  at  the  crossing  of  the  two  roads,  with  the 
view  of  building  a  great  industrial  city.  The  ground  selected  and  actually 
purchased  was  in  Village  Creek  Valley,  several  miles  north-west  of  the 
present  site  of  Birmingham,  and  extending  from  a  point  near  Pratt  Mines 
toward  the  east.  The  whole  tract  embraced  about  seven  thousand  acres. 
This  location  for  the  city  would  have  been  superior  to  the  present  one  in 
many  respects,  and  among  other  things  would  have  possessed  the  more 
convenient  water  supply.      He  was  thwarted  in  his  purposes  by  the  sudden 

hit  tin!  riiflnciU'cs.  14: 

and  unwarranted  withdrawal  of  the  managers  for  the  Alabama  &  Chatta- 
nooga people  from  their  written  agreement.  Instead  of  continuing  the 
construction  of  their  road  to  the  point  already  agreed  upon,  they  changed 
the  location  of  their  line,  and,  as  a  preliminary  step,  bought  the  present 
site  of  the  city  of  Birmingham,  without  any  notice  whatever  to  Milner. 
Not  knowing  exactly  where  Milner  would  cross  their  line,  with  the  South 
&  North,  they,  as  a  matter  of  precaution,  only  took  sixty-day  options  on 
the  purchases  they  had  made.  After  ordering  the  change  of  their  line  from' 
the  Village  Creek  Valley  to  the  Elyton  Valley,  there  was  no  other  available 
crossing  except  where  Birmingham  now  is.  When  the  change  of  purpose 
above  stated  was  announced  to  Milner  he  felt  lonesome  and  forlorn  ;  as  if  he 
were  an  iceberg,  indeed,  alone  in  the  midst  of  the  Atlantic  Ocean.  He  had 
been  reading  and  hearing  of  "Yankee  tricks  "  all  his  life,  but  his  first  expe- 
rience in  that  line  with  the  Boston  men  was  enough  to  make  the  red  blood 
in  his  veins  curdle  and  refuse  to  circulate,  and  the  hair  of  his  head  to 
turn  gray.  The  news  of  the  purchase  was  brought  to  him  by  Baylis  E. 
Grace,  in  his  camp  in  the  middle  of  the  proposed  site  of  the  new  city, 
where  he  and  the  Alabama  &  Chattanooga  engineers  were  busily 
engaged  laying  off  streets,  railroad  lines,  etc.  The  enormity  of  the  trans- 
action staggered  the  engineers  of  both  companies,  and  a  written  protest 
against  the  change,  signed  by  Milner  and  McCalla,  the  respective  chief 
engineers  and  actors  in  the  matter  of  locating  the  new  city,  was  sent  to 
Chattanooga.  No  reply  was  ever  made.  There  was  no  alternative  for 
Milner  but  to  be  "left  out  in  the  cold,"  or  to  beat  his  adversaries.  The 
latter  he  claims  to  have  done,  thoroughly  and  well. 

Surveys  were  made  for  crossings  at  every  available  point  above  and 
below  Elyton  for  miles.  No  human  being,  not  even  his  principal  assist- 
ant engineer,  knew  his  chief's  purposes  or  plans.  The  late  Colonel 
Powell,  Major  Thomas  Peters,  and  others  exercised  all  the  ingenuity  of 
their  acute  minds  to  ascertain  where  the  crossing  of  the  two  railroads 
would  be  located.  Threats  of  personal  violence  were  made.  The  presi- 
dent nor  any  one  of  the  directors  knew  any  more  than  an  outsider. 
Throughout  the  sixty  days  the  little  dried-up  enigma  (Milner  was  a  man 
of  short  stature)  sat  in  his  tent  giving  out  no  intimation  or  sign.  The 
excitement  and  uncertainty  grew  apace  ;  the  sixty-day  options  were  about 
to  expire;  the  owners  of  the  lands  repaired,  with  their  lawyer.  Colonel 
Martin,  who  held  their  deeds  in  escrow,  to  Montgomery,  to  complete  the 
transaction  and  get  their  money.  The  fifty-ninth  day  passed  and  no  funds 
were  at  the  banking  house  of  Josiah  Morris  &  Company  to  pay  the 
options.     The  sixtieth  day  passed  and  no  funds.      Five  minutes  past  noon' 

1 4.4.  Jefferson    County. 

on  the  sixtieth  day  Major  Campbell  Wallace,  now  of  Atlanta,  entered  Mr. 
Milner's  office  in  Montgomery  and  threw  up  his  hands,  and,  with  that 
inimitable  smile  on  his  face,  and  that  peculiar  manner  that  has  won  for  him 
so  many  victories  in  life,  said:  "  Milner,  I  want  you  to  tell  me  something, 
if  it  is  right  for  you  to  do  so,  and  if  it  is  not  right,  don't  do  it.  Where 
will  the  crossing  be?"  The  major  was  told  to  come  back  in  three  days. 
Three  days,  the  three  days  of  grace  allowed  in  such  transactions,  passed, 
'and  punctually  to  the  minute  the  major  reappeared.  He  was  told  that  the 
dropped,  or  forfeited  Stanton  options,  covered  the  site  of  the  Great  City. 
In  a  few  hours  Josiah  Morris  had  taken  up  the  last  one  of  these  options 
and  paid  the  money  on  them,  and  the  Boston  men  were  left  on  an  iceberg 
of  their  own  creation.  This  transaction  fully  exemplifies  Mr.  Milner's 
character  and  capacity.  Faithful  to  the  trust  confided  to  him  as  the  engi- 
neer of  the  South  &  North  Alabama  Railroad,  he  had  arranged  for  his 
company  to  own  half  of  the  great  city  of  the  future.  Thwarted  in  this 
he  set  about  deliberately  to  compass  the  defeat  of  his  adversaries.  Mild- 
mannered,  gentlemanly,  and  well  balanced,  he  rarely  ever  fails  in  the  end 
to  come  out  even  with  an  adversary. 

We  see  displayed  here  the  elements  of  character,  caution,  patience, 
perseverance,  and  intelligence,  which  have  placed  John  T.  Milner  in  the  lead 
among  the  thinking  and  successful  men  of  Alabama  in  the  new  era. 

His  later  achievement,  the  development  and  sale  of  the  Coalburg  Coal 
property,  near  Birmingham,  to  the  Georgia  Pacific  Railroad  people,  in  May, 
1883,  at  a  profit  of  over  two  hundred  thousand  dollars,  is  in  perfect  accord 
with  the  features  of  his  past  record. 

Before  effecting  the  sale  of  this  valuable  property,  Mr.  Milner  had 
already  begun  the  development  of  his  present  splendid  possessions  at  New 
Castle,  about  nine  miles  east  of  the  city  of  Birmingham,  and  situated  on 
the  road  which  he,  as  chief  engineer,  located  about  a  quarter  of  a  century 
ac^o.  New  Castle  coal,  in  addition  to  the  usual  good  qualities  possessed  by 
Alabama  coals,  will  also  make  splendid  coke,  an  indispensable  requisite  to 
pig-iron  making.  It  is  not  at  all  unlikely  that  furnace  fires  may  soon  be 
seen  glowing  there,  enhancing,  in  a  threefold  degree,  the  value  of  this 

He  is  also  an  owner  of  valuable  property  in  the  city  of  Birmingham, 
being  a  stockholder  in  the  most  important  land  companies  here,  and  being 
yet  remarkably  well  preserved ;  and  with  his  present  large  accumulations 
of  wealth,  and  with  his  known  energy  and  sagacity,  it  would  be  not  easy 
to  predict  what  his  course  in  the  future  may  reveal,  of  fortune  or  honor. 

Mr.  Milner,  while  making  no  pretensions  as  a   man   of  letters,    writes 

Initial  Influences.  145 

sensibly,  fluently,  and  even  eloquently.  His  book,  "  Alabama  as  It  Was, 
as  It  Is,  and  as  It  Will  Be,"  written  soon  after  the  war,  sustains  appreciably 
the  truth  of  this  view  of  his  attainments. 

His  newspaper  discussion  of  the  Convict  Question  in  Alabama,  a  few 
years  ago,  proves  him  to  be  a  no  mean  antagonist  in  that  line  of  controversy. 

Mr.  Milner  has  lived  to  see  the  verification  of  his  hopes  and  predic- 
tions respecting  the  mineral  region  of  the  State  of  Alabama.  He  enter- 
tained these  views  tenaciously,  when  other  men  considered  them  the 
creations  of  a  vain  fancy. 

His  home  is  the  seat  of  perfect  domestic  felicity,  and  he  is  now  sur- 
rounded by  his  children  and  grandchildren,  who  are  to  him  sources  of 
perennial  happiness. 



While  as  yet  no  railroad  had  opened  to  commerce  the  land-locked 
mineral  weath  of  Alabama,  and  the  fame  of  no  city  had  published  it  to 
the  world.  Major  Thomas  Peters  traveled  on  foot  across  the  mountains  of 
ore  and  coal,  and  the  valleys  of  limestone  between ;  and  his  narrative  of 
what  he  saw  was  better  heeded  and  did  more  at  that  time  to  persuade  men 
of  means  and  enterprise  to  come  to  see  for  themselves,  and,  following  their 
inquiry,  to  buy  and  take  up  their  abode  in  the  midst  of  this  unparalleled 
prodigality  of  resources  than  any  other  moral  influence  known  to  history. 

Thomas  Peters  was  born  October  29,  18 12,  in  Wake  County,  North 
Carolina.  His  ancestors  were  one  of  the  English  families  who  came  to 
Virginia,  three  brothers,  and  settled  near  Petersburg,  in  the  reign  of 
Charles  II.  When  Thomas  was  three  years  old  James  P.  Peters,  his  father, 
moved  from  Wake  County,  North  Carolina,  to  Maury  County,  the  cele- 
brated agricultural  and  live-stock  breeding  region  of  Middle  Tennessee,  and 
settled  near  Spring  Hill.  Fifteen  years  later  the  family  moved  to  Henry, 
one  of  the  western  counties  of  the  same  State. 

After  receiving  the  limited  degree  of  education  which  the  common 
schools  of  a  thinly-populated  country,  then  mostly  in"  forest,  could  offer, 
Thomas  entered  his  long  and  distinguished  business  career  as  a  clerk  on  a 
steamer  plying  between  Nashville  and  New  Orleans  via  the  Cumberland 
and  Mississippi  Rivers.  Several  thousand  bales  of  cotton  and  one  or  two 
hundred  passengers,  many  of  these  the  owners  of  the  cotton,  constituted 
a  boat  load  in  those  days  for  first-class  craft  on  these  waters.     The  planters, 

1 46  Jefferson   County. 

with  tlieir  wives  and  daughters,  were  bound  for  New  Orleans,  there  to  sell 
their  crops  and  lay  in  a  twelve-month  supply  for  the  family  and  the  slaves  of 
all  that  the  market  afforded  of  luxuries  and  necessaries.  On  the  passenger 
manifest  were  often  names  of  professional  sports,  and  gambling  ran  high  in 
the  fortnight  or  so  of  time  in  which  the  passage  was  consumed.  On  these 
boats  was  wont  to  be  seen  the  celebrated  Bowie,  the  inventor  of  the  knife 
bearing  his  name,  which  settled  many  disputes  arising  from  the  games 
played  by  him  and  his  compagnons  de  ivjag-e.  In  this  trying  school  young 
Peters  learned  to  be  patient,  brave,  and  temperate.  The  sympathetic  nature 
of  the  young  man  ripened  under  the  discipline  of  this  responsible  position, 
and  this  varied  observation  of  human  nature.  His  life  was  enlarged,  and 
his  mind  learned  to  weigh  the  strength  and  the  weakness  of  men  with  won- 
derful accuracy.  All  comments  now  made  upon  a  long  and  useful  life, 
closed  in  honor,  with  one  consent  agree  that  no  motive  ever  entered  it 
which  was  not  exalted,  and  no  hope  ever  moved  it  to  action  which  was 
beneath  the  standard  of  the  strictest  integrity  and  the  highest  sense  of 
responsibility  to  society  and  to  God.  Like  refined  gold  his  character  came 
from  its  trials  purified. 

At  the  early  age  of  twenty-one  Mr.  Peters  was  successfully  engaged 
in  buying  and  selling  lands  in  the  South-Western  States.  He  bought 
considerable  tracts  from  the  Indians  in  the  northern  counties  of  Missis- 
sippi, who  sold  their  possessions  preparatory  to  their  removal  to  the  trans- 
Mississippi  reservations. 

In  1837,  when  twenty-five  years  old,  Mr.  Peters  married  Miss  Ann 
Eliza  Glasgow,  of  Tennessee.  He  then  moved  to  a  plantation  and  became 
a  cotton  grower.  Five  years  later  his  wife  died,  childless.  Nine  years  from 
the  date  of  his  first  marriage  he  married  Miss  Sarah  J.  Irion.  After  thirteen 
years  she  died,  leaving  a  daughter  as  the  only  offspring.  This  daughter, 
Amelia  L.,  grew  into  a  rarely  beautiful  and  accomplished  woman,  and 
became  the  wife  of  Robert  H.  Henley,  the  first  mayor  of  Birmingham. 

As  contractor  Mr.  Peters  built  thirty-five  miles  of  the  Memphis  & 
Charleston  Railroad.  He  was  living  in  Memphis  as  a  real  estate  broker  at 
this  time,  and  besides  the  railroad  work  took  contracts  on  levee  build- 
ing along  the  Mississippi. 

While  living  in  Memphis  the  war  of  1861  came  on,  and  he  entered 
it  with  zeal  in  his  forty-ninth  year.  He  was  appointed,  by  the  Governor  of 
Tennessee,  and  commissioned  as  chief  quartermaster  of  the  State  troops. 
On  a  more  complete  organization  of  the  Confederate  army  he  was  com- 
missioned major  in  that  service,  and  assigned  to  the  duties  of  quartermaster 
on  the  staff  of  Major-General  Leonidas  Polk.      Major  Peters  remained  in 

Initial  Influences.  147 

the  field  in  this  capacity  until  after  the  fall  of  General  Polk  and  the 
assumption  of  the  command  of  the  Army  of  the  Tennessee  by  General 

In  1864  he  was  ordered  to  Selma  to  take  command  of  army  transpor- 
tation under  General  Richard  Taylor.  Here  the  surrender  of  the  Confed- 
erate armies  found  him. 

There  was  a  Confederate  arsenal  at  Selma,  and  Alabama  iron  was  used 
there  for  casting  cannon  and  other  military  purposes.  The  excellent 
quality  of  the  metal  suggested,  to  the  quick  faculties  of  Major  Peters,  an 
investigation  of  the  sources  of  supply.  From  this  preliminary  came  his 
early  explorations  and  transactions  in  mineral  lands  in  Jefferson  County. 
He  received  his  parole  from  the  Federal  authorities  in  April,  1865,  and 
promptly  directed  his  energies  toward  explorations  for  ores  and  coal  into 
the  mountains  of  Alabama.  He  spoke  urgently  of  his  faith  to  all  who 
would  listen.  He  was  too  poor  to  buy  a  horse,  but  he  walked  alone  on 
his  mission.  Penniless  and  on  foot  he  traversed  the  unknown  forests, 
locating  mineral  lands,  and  making  the  way  plain  to  men  of  wealth,  w  horn 
he  declared,  in  his  enthusiasm,  must  come  to  them. 

Having  accomplished  all  that  any  one  man  might  before  the  railroads 
should  penetrate  the  favored  lands,  IVIajor  Peters  went  to  reside  in  Minne- 
sota with  his  son-in-law,  Mr.  Henley,  who  was  forced  to  try  that  climate  for 
his  failing  health.  From  there  he  went  to  Savannah,  Ga. ,  to  engage  in 
the  cotton  trade.  In  1869  he  returned  permanently  to  Jefferson  County. 
Birmingham  was  not  then  on  the  map.  He  settled  in  Elyton,  the  county 
seat,  and  engaged  in  mineral  land  speculations,  and  in  concentrating  on 
Jefferson  County  a  most  valuable  spirit  of  inquiry. 

Major  Peters  was  living  in  Birmingham,  one  of  the  most  generally 
respected  and  beloved  of  citizens,  when  the  Louisville  Exposition  of  1883 
invite'd  the  display  of  specimens  of  the  mineral  and  other  resources  of 
Alabama  there.  Against  the  protest  of  friends,  who  thought  a  man  in 
his  seventy-first  year  should  not  undergo  the  fatigue  of  the  office,  he  went 
to  take  charge  of  the  large  exhibit  made  by  the  Alabama  railroads  from 
their  lands  and  those  bordering.  He  soon  succumbed  to  overwork  and 
an  acute  attack  of  cold,  and  died,  attended  by  many  friends,  at  an  infirmary 
»iq  that  city.  The  remains  were  brought  to  Birmingham  at  once  for  inter- 
ment. When  the  last  offices  of  respect  to  the  body  were  to  be  performed 
the  demonstrations  of  public  sympathy  were  complete.  The  houses  of 
business  in  the  city  were  closed,  and  a  great  procession  escorted  it  to  the 
city  cemetery. 

From  early  life  Major  Peters  had  been  an  active  member  of  the  Meth- 

1 48  Jefferson    County. 

odist  Episcopal  Church  South.  His  unobtrusive  charitj-  in  deeds,  and  the 
entire  absence  of  slander  from  his  tongue,  and  the  transparent  purity  of 
his  life,  erected  a  character  beloved  by  all  classes  and  trusted  everywhere. 


THE    FOUNDER    OF    THE    NEW    ER.\ .\    N.\TIONAL    BENEF.ACTOR. 

Stock    worth  Seventeen   Cents    rises,  gradually,   to    Thirty-Five 

Dollars — An    Original    Capital    Stock    of    $200,000    Pays 

Annual    Dividends  of    100  to  340  per  centum,  and  is  now 

Valued  at  over  $15,000,000 — Gives  Birmingham  more  than 

$1,000,000 — A  Policy  of   Progress  and  Liberality. 

When  Mr.  Josiah  Morris,  the  Montgomery  banker,  came  forward  to 
close  the  options  taken  on  the  4, 150  acres  of  land  by  Mr.  J.  C.  Stanton, 
as  we  have  seen,  and  which  Mr.  Stanton  had  forfeited,  the  titles  were  all 
taken  in  Mr.  Morris'  name,  and  the  land  became  his  individual  property. 
There  was,  nevertheless,  no  purpose  on  the  part  of  the  transferee  to  hold 
possession  longer  than  necessary  to  allow  the  company  to  relieve  him  of 
the  purchase.  He  reserved  500  shares  of  the  2,000  shares  issued  for  his 
bank  and  for  himself  individually,  and  assigned  the  remainder  to  the 
company.     The  number  of  shares  now  held  by  the  same  parties  is  520. 


Property  rights  in  the  land  purchased  had  a  short  and  exceedingly 
simple  history.  Every  acre  was  known  by  township,  range,  section,  and 
fraction  of  a  section,  the  numbers  having  been  located  under  the  survey  of 
the  United  States  Government.  The  settlers  who  came  to  enter  it  orig- 
inally had  acquired  the  Government  titles,  all  of  which  were  of  record  in  the 
Government  land  offices.  These  original  settlers  had  been  a  remarkably 
conservative,  contented,  and  patriotic  class,  seldom  carrying  any  part  of 
their  lands  into  the  market ;  or,  if  selling  them  at  all,  never  failing  to 
convey  clear  title  deeds,  as  the  terms  of  sale  required.  There  were  no 
banks  or  other  facilities  in  the  vicinity  to  encourage  speculation.  The 
agricultural  monopoly  was  unbroken,  and  the  crops  were  all  consumed  at 

Initial  hifliiences.  149 

home,  except  the  cotton  ;  and  even  of  that  staple  no  inconsiderable  part 
was  spun  by  the  teak  wheel,  found  in  the  corner  of  every  family  sitting- 
room,  and  woven  by  the  hand-loom,  which  sat,  under  a  shed  beneath  the 
eaves  of  the  humble  family  abode,  on  the  ground. 

The  vendors  of  Mr.  Morris'  4, 150  acres  of  farm  land,  a  large  portion 
of  it  lying  in  brush,  tanglewood,  and  stately  timber  of  oak,  dogwood, 
walnut,  cedar,  chestnut,  hickory,  ash,  elm,  and  pine,  the  other  in  corn 
and  cotton  plantations,  were  possessed  of  the  mountaineer's  devotion  to 
his  home,  and  consented  to  the  banker's  terms  with  no  undisguised  reluct- 
ance. Twenty-five  dollars  per  acre  was  the  purchasing  price,  cash.  This 
price,  however,  carried  with  it  an  irresistible  temptation  ;  it  could  never  be 
expected  from  any  other  source.  The  desired  area,  in  a  body,  was 
obtained,  some  of  the  settlers  preferring  to  take  a  part  of  the  amount  due 
them  on  the  sale  in  the  stock  of  the  company.  It  thus  appears  that 
disputed  titles  to  lots  sold  by  the  company  are  not  to  be  numbered 
among  the  possibilities  overhanging  its  business  in  the  real  estate  line. 
The  lawyers  of  Birmingham  seldom  find  a  case  involving  claims  to  titles 
to  lots  in  litigation,  and  all  such  cases,  of  the  fewest  as  they  are,  originate 
between  parties  without  connection  in  the  most  remote  degree  with  the 
validity  of  the  company's  transfers. 

The    Name. 

Among  the  land  agents  of  the  Federal  Government  on  duty  in 
Jefferson  County  was  one  Ely,  a  "  down-easter, "  hailing  from  the  State  of 
Connecticut.  The  hearty  hospitality  which  had  opened  its  arms  to  the 
stranger  at  the  threshold  of  every  pioneer's  cabin  hidden  in  the  forest, 
throughout  the  long  distances  of  his  journey,  touched  that  spring  of 
human  nature  in  his  heart  which  "  makes  all  the  world  akin."  Mr.  Ely 
found  the  few  scores  of  settlers  of  Jefferson  County  who,  sixty-six  years 
ago,  became,  perchance,  his  generous  hosts,  as  the  shadows  of  night 
closed  in  upon  his  weary  tramp  with  compass  and  chain  through  the 
wilderness — found  them  animated  by  the  true  spirit  of  American  citizen- 
ship, anxious  to  establish  a  village  and  trading  center  to  be  the  capital  of 
Jefferson  County.  In  ardent  sympathy  with  their  hopes  and  needs,  he 
gave  the  county,  as  a  pledge  of  his  affection,  a  quarter  section  of  land 
(160  acres)  for  the  site  of  its  capital.  In  just  appreciation  of  the  gener- 
ous act  the  county  named  its  capital  Elyton.  "The  Elyton  Land  Com- 
pany "  is  a  euphonic  title,  and  no  fault  is  to  be  laid  against  the  organizers 
on  the  score  of  taste  in  choosing  a  name.      It  is  destined  to  become  a 

1 50  Jefferso7i    Coiinty. 

classic  name.  But  why  did  they  select  it?  The  land  of  the  company, 
lying  about  the  railroad  crossing,  had  been  purchased  to  found  a  city 
upon,  and  the  village  of  Ely  ton,  being  only  one  or  two  miles  distant  to 
the  westward,  must  inevitably  be  absorbed  in  the  growth  of  the  city, 
provided  the  company  should  succeed  in  building  up  a  city  to  perpetuate 
its  own  name  and  mission.  The  gift  of  the  humble  but  generous  Con- 
necticut land  agent,  cast  upon  the  fortunes  of  Jefferson  County,  has 
returned  to  his  memory  with  rich  honors.  His  humble  name  is  indissol- 
ubly  united  to  the  most  active,  most  comprehensive,  and  most  enduring 
incorporated  enterprise  in  the  entire  Southern  country,  and  one  which  is 
even  now  named  throughout  the  commercial  world  as  the  most  influential 
factor  in  the  central  city  of  the  future  greatest  iron  manufacturing  indus- 
try in  the  United  States.  When  wc  reflect  that  iron  manufactures  possess 
the  singular  power  to  call  into  activity  a  greater  multitude  of  subsidiary 
industries  than  any  other  influence  known  to  man,  we  may  discover  how 
amply  secure  in  fame  is  the  name  of  the  humble  land  agent  incorporated 
into  the  work  of  the  great  company. 

Early   Career. 

The  company  organized,  January  26,  187 1,  under  a  charter  granted  by 
the  State  of  Alabama.  James  R.  Powell  was  elected  President.  The 
President  took  up  his  abode  in  the  new  town,  and  devoted  a  restless  energy, 
suggestive  mind,  and  indomitable  will  ceaselessly  to  the  work  of  advertising 
throughout  the  United  States  and  Europe  the  mineral  wealth  surrounding 
it.  It  was  he  who  surprised  the  country  by  calling  upon  the  Alabama 
Press  Association  to  meet  here  two  years  in  succession,  and  to  invite 
the  New  York  Press  Association  to  participate  in  its  last  meeting.  The 
New  Yorkers  were  twitted  by  the  pluck  of  the  proffered  hospitality  of  a 
town  boastfully  claiming  a  future,  while  at  that  moment  it  had  neither  place 
on  the  map  to  be  pointed  out  to  the  traveler,  nor  convenient  inn  for  the 
entertainment  of  visitors.  Turning  to  the  project  of  Colonel  Powell,  the 
New  York  newspaper  men  resolved  to  accept  the  consequences  of  what 
they  presumed  to  be  a  practical  joke.  They  came,  saw,  and  by  their  pens 
conquered  a  place  in  the  literature  of  the  world's  journalism  for  Birming- 
ham. They  saw  Red  Mountain,  near  an  hundred  miles  long,  a  bank  of 
red  hematite.  They  saw  the  farmers  living  around  the  new-born  town 
hauling  over  its  clay  streets,  or  in  by-cuts  across  its  vacant,  unfenced  lots, 
ox-team  loads  of  the  most  beautiful  coal,  grubbed  from  the  hillsides  of 
their  pasture  lands.      With  one  consent  the   New  York   Press  Association 

Initial  Infliiences.  151 

turned  upon  the  world  a  flood-light  of  information  on  their  discovery  of 
Birmingham.  Hundreds  of  thousands  of  laborers,  mechanics,  investors, 
and  speculators  in  the  United  States  and  in  Europe  saw  that  light  reflected 
from  the  white  paper  which  beguiled  their  evening  hours.  This  masterful 
stroke  of  policy  on  the  part  of  the  first  President  of  the  Elyton  Land 
Company  incalculably  advanced  the  future  of  the  city.  It  stands  out  in 
the  narrative  of  the  marvelously  rapid  growth  here  seen  like  the  fame  of 
Desaix  at  Marengo,  or  of  McDonald  at  Wagram.  It  accomplished  by  a 
single  move  the  safety  of  a  grand  and  crowning  plan. 

The  Organization  of  the  Company 

was  effected  January  26,  187 1.  The  plan  of  the  city  was  determined,  and 
Major  M.  P.  Barker,  a  thoroughly-educated  and  accomplished  civil  engin- 
eer, began  the  important  work  of  laying  off  the  streets,  avenues, 
alleys,  reservations  for  churches,  parks,  and  the  railroads,  already  here, 
and  others  to  come.  And  what  a  perfect  plan  was  this  so  admirably 
executed  ? 

The  area  of  old  fields  and  tanglewood  to  be  checkered  off  into  squares, 
bound  by  highwa}'S  of  the  future  city,  under  the  skill,  taste,  and  pains- 
taking care  of  the  faithful  engineer,  lay  stretched  out  before  him.  Charged 
\\\  this  arduous  professional  work  stood  the  task  of  laying  the  foundation 
of  the  grand  industrial  revival  of  Alabama!  Around  Birmingham  it 
was  felt  by  all  who  had  hope,  as  the  pioneers  here  hoped,  must  gather 
the  springs  of  the  new  life  which,  in  due  time,  would  diffuse  its  ener- 
gies into  the  rich  gifts  of  nature  concentrated  in  the  bounds  of  this  com- 
monwealth. Timber  lands  as  bountiful  as  those  of  Michigan;  farming 
lands  as  rich  as  the  valley  of  the  Mohawk,  the  Susquehanna,  the  Ohio,  or 
the  Mississippi ;  many  deep  and  beautiful  streams,  suited  to  the  carriage  of 
commerce ;  a  matchless  climate,  and  in  the  center  of  this  magnificence  of 
endowment  lay  the  most  abundant  deposits  of  iron  in  the  world  ;  the 
thickest  coal  seams  in  the  Union ;  limestone  in  inexhaustible  supply,  and 
marble  beds,  to  which  the  world  must  turn  in  amazement  at  proof  of  their 
profusion  and  excellence  of  quality. 

Here  sits  the  city,  its  plan  a  model,  in  harmony  with  the  simplicity 
and  rugged  strength  of  iron.  Like  a  chess  board  it  spreads  out,  upon 
which  are  daily  and  hourly  moved  the  fortunes  of  thousands  of  men, 
women,  and  children,  who  live  here  to  work  and  to  prosper  amidst  becom- 
ing occupations,  and  in  the  atmosphere  of  a  matured  society,  where  the 
most  liberally-constructed  public-school  system  of  the  South  prevails,  and 

152  Jefferson   Coiinty. 

churches  and  social  organizations  flourish  in  a  degree  commensurate  with 
the  material  prosperity. 

Major  Barker  ran  his  lines  over  nearly  two  thousand  acres  of  the 
Elyton  Land  Company's  purchase.  The  squares  are  300  to  400  feet 
front.  The  streets  are  fifty-six  feet  between  sidewalks,  which  are 
twelve  feet  wide  on  each  side.  The  streets  are  laid  out  from  north- 
east to  south-west.  Across  all  the  streets,  running  at  right  angles 
are  avenues  sixty  feet  between  the  curbstones.  Thus  the  western  and 
eastern  sides  of  every  square  in  the  city  are  bounded  by  wide  streets, 
while  the  northern  and  southern  sides  are  bounded  by  wider  avenues. 
Every  square  is  bisected  by  an  alley  twenty  feet  in  width,  and  running 
in  the  same  direction  with  the  avenues.  The  ventilation  thus  provided 
is  admirable. 

The   Railroad   Reservation 

is  a  tract  of  open  land  running  through  the  center  of  the  plan,  from  north- 
east to  south-west,  and  therefore  parallel  with  the  avenues.  This  reservation 
is  devoted  to  the  purpose  of  railroad  entrance  and  exit  to  and  from  the  city. 
It  is  a  reach  of  valley  with  abundant  fall,  however,  to  drain  storm  water. 
It  is  easily  approached  from  all  the  highways  of  the  city,  and,  as  the  railroad 
buildings  and  commercial  warehouses  begin  to  border  the  open  space,  the' 
many  long  reaches  of  iron  tracks,  laden  with  a  ceaseless  hurrying  up 
and  down  of  long  trains  of  cars,  bearing  the  private  brand  of  many 
corporations  and  lines  of  commerce,  create  of  the  railroad  reservation  a 
little  world  in  itself.  There  is  an  open  free  public  bridge  spanning  the 
railroad  reservation,  at  a  central  point,  and  connecting  Birmingham 
"South"  with  Birmingham  "North"  of  the  railroads.  Over  this  pass 
continuously  a  stream  of  foot-passengers,  trains  of  street  cars  drawn  by 
steam  motors,  pleasure  carriages,  and  loaded  drays.  It  is  one  thousand 
feet  long,  and  is  a  present  to  the  city  by  the  Elyton  Land  Company.  From 
the  arch  of  the  bridge  are  plainly  seen  the  furnaces  in  the  distance, 
with  their  quenchless  fires,  at  either  end  of  the  city,  the  various  other 
iron  industries,  the  flouring  mills,  the  magnificent  Union  Passenger  Depot, 
the  rolling  mills,  the  wholesale  grocery  warehouses,  the  cotton  warehouse 
and  compress,  numberless  lumberyards,  railroad  shops,  all  lining  the  mazy 
iron  pathway  stretching  out  to  the  northward  and  southward. 

Initial  Influences.  15^ 

The    First   Sale 

of  lots  of  the  company  was  advertised  to  begin  June  i,  1871,  nearly  six 
months  before  the  date  of  the  city  charter.  The  bouyant  spirits  who  came 
to  pledge  their  faith  by  putting  down  their  cash  for  titles  to  these  were  the 
pledges  of  the  new  life  to  Alabama.  The  railroads  had  not  then  become 
available  to  passenger  travel.  The  Alabama  &  Chattanooga  Railroad  had 
a  finished  track  passing  Birmingham,  connecting  both  termini,  but  no 
management  had  as  yet  been  provided  for  it  equal  to  performing  the 
ordinary  duties  and  conveniences  of  a  railroad.  There  were  no  regular 
trains,  either  by  the  day  or  the  week.  The  South  &  North  Railroad  had 
not  been  completed  to  within  many  miles  of  the  city  from  the  North. 
The  railroads,  however,  had  driven  out  the  long-operated  four-horse 
stage-coach  lines,  thus  reducing  the  opportunities  of  the  traveler  to  the 
greatest  certainty. 

The  bright  June  day  came  for  the  marketing  of  Birmingham  lots. 
These  had  all  been  numbered  and  wooden  pins  driven  into  the  ground  to 
mark  the  limits.  The  branch  water  flowed  across  them  in  undisputed 
right  of  way  ;  the  browsing  cattle  and  the  birds,  feeding  their  unfledged 
broods  in  the  boughs  of  the  trees,  were  the  sole  visible  occupants.  Many 
hopeful  speculators  had  come,  some  of  both  sexes,  and  some  who  had 
walked  for  miles,  because  at  the  termini  of  one  of  the  railroads  they  could 
find  no  conveyance,  private  or  public.  The  initial  day  of  the  destiny  of 
Birmingham  opened  clear  and  bright.  The  sale  of  lots  was  satisfactory. 
The  first  lot  was  bought  by  Major  A.  Marre.  He  may  then  be  properly 

The   First  Settler. 

His  ample  fortune  has  matured  from  the  faith  that  was  then  in  him.  The 
major  paid  the  company  $150  for  a  lot,  now  in  the  heart  of  the  city,  on 
the  corner  of  First  avenue  and  Nineteenth  street.  The  value  of  this 
property  now,  after  some  six  or  seven  years  steady  growth  of  the  city, 
may  be  indicated  in  the  market  value  of  the  lot  corner  of  First  avenue 
and  Twentieth  street,  one  block  away.  The  latter  lot,  unimproved,  was 
sold  recently  for  $1,000  per  front  foot.  By  corresponding  ratio  of  increase 
Major  Marre's  original  investment  of  $150  would  now  command  ;^ioo,ooo. 
The  lot  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  street  from  Major  Marre's  Si 50  purchase 
was  sold  at  public  auction,  in  the  rain,  last  June,  to  Mr.  Josiah  Morris 
at  $635   per  front  foot.      It  will   be  remembered   that   Mr.  Morris  owned 

1 54  Jefferson    County. 

this  land  less  than  twenty  years  before,  and  transferred  it  to  the  company 
at  the  rate  of  $25  per  acre.  Upon  the  Morris  lot  is  now  being  erected  a 
five-story  business  house,  stone  and  iron  front,  to  be  of  the  latest  archi- 
tectural design. 

The  two  years  following  1872-73  the  company  sold  less  than  $IOO,000 
wortli  of  lots.  It  did  not  sell  as  much  as  $25,000  worth  in  1873.  In 
1873  the  cholera  epidemic  visited  the  city.  The  stores  were  closed  and 
the  population  deserted  their  houses.  The  president  of  the  company, 
who  was  then  mayor  of  the  city,  remained  at  his  post  of  duty,  and 
participated,  in  the  most  active  manner,  in  every  available  relief  measure, 
giving  his  personal  attention  to  the  details.  The  financial  panic,  known  as 
Black  Friday,  of  September  of  this  year,  originating  in  New  York  among 
the  speculative  stocks  of  Wall  street,  at  once  involved  every  innocent 
commercial  business  throughout  the  Union.  In  Alabama  the  people  were 
almost  wholly  dependent  for  the  means  of  paying  their  debts  and  providing 
means  for  life  upon  the  sales  of  their  cotton  crop,  then  being  harvested. 
For  weeks  no  sales  could  be  made.  The  banks  were  practically  closed. 
Even  the  depositors  could  only  procure  a  small  pro  rata  of  their  cash  bj' 
paying  discount  on  their  own  drafts. 

An  agricultural  community  recovers  slowly  from  such  panics.  It  was 
upon  the  more  adventurous  of  the  agriculturists  that  the  Elyton  Land 
Company  must  chiefly  rely  for  the  sale  of  its  lots.  The  sons  of  cotton 
planters  who  might  hope  to  better  their  fortunes  by  removal  here,  to 
engage  in  the  new  opportunities — the  lawyers,  doctors,  school  teachers, 
was  the  population  to  be  expected.  In  1874  the  sales  reached  ^7,955.83. 
Indeed,  from  1873  to  January,  1879,  ^^  ''ggi'^g'^te  sales  had  amounted 
only  to  555,516.70 — five  years  time.  In  all  this  time  there  was  scarcely  a 
movement  amidst  the  stagnation  ponderously  settled  upon  the  hopes  of 
the  town.  The  desk  of  the  secretary  of  the  company  had  been  attached 
for  debt.  The  stock  was  offered  at  seventeen  cents  on  the  dollar,  and  with 
difficulty  found  a  purchaser.  Within  this  time  the  company  had  borrowed 
;?  100,000  to  erect  the  complete  sj'stem  of  water  works  now  in  operation. 
Payment  fell  due.  All  the  stock  and  assets  of  the  company  were  far 
below  the  cash  value  of  ^  100, 000.  The  creditors  resorted  to  the  courts. 
There  was  a  meeting  of  the  stockholders.  It  was  agreed  that  the 
mortgage  bonds  of  the  company  should  be  issued  for  a  sufficient  amount 
to  pay  off  the'  debt.  The  money  was  raised  after  considerable  difficult)' 
upon  the  bonds,  and  the  original  creditors  satisfied.  But  the  water 
works,  constructed  to  supply  enough  of  the  waters  of  the  neighboring 
mountain  stream.    Village  Creek,   must  find  rent-pa)-ers.      Vacant  store- 

Initial  Influences.  155 

houses  and  private  residences  must  open,  and  new  ones  must  be  built,  or 
the  enterprise  of  the  company  in  supplying  the  pipes  and  hydrants  would 
return  to  plague  the  inventor. 

Colonel  James  R.  Powell  had  resigned  the  presidency,  and  retired  to 
his  cotton  plantation  in  the  Yazoo  Valley. 

Dr.    Henrv    M.    Caldwell, 

a  native  of  Butler  County,  this  State,  then  forty  years  old,  one  of 
the  original  incorporators  of  the  company,  was  elected  to  be  his 
successor.  His  quick  perception  convinced  him  that  this  spot  was  to 
-be  the  heart  of  the  revived  life  of  Alabama.  From  this  source  would 
spread  outward  the  nerves  of  all  industry.  To  it  would  ultimately 
Tje  attracted  the  character  of  a  distributive  center  for  a  great  commerce. 
The  lines  of  this  commerce  would  multiply  so  as  to  penetrate  the  regions 
of  the  great  plantations,  would  establish  towns,  villages,  and  trade  along 
their  courses,  would  influence  the  \'alue  of  lands,  and  the  wages  of  labor 
in  remote  regions.  Here,  therefore,  this  man  of  forecast,  motive,  energy, 
and  courage  cast  his  lines. 

We  are  apt  only  to  call  him  a  statesman  who  makes  wise  laws  and 
provides  for  their  execution.  He  is  first  a  statesman  who  approaches  the 
wealth  of  nature,  and  taking  it  by  his  will  power,  bodily  up,  distributes 
•its  blessings  in  reach  of  the  manipulation  and  usufruct  of  the  multitude. 
He  is  first  a  statesman  who  prepares  the  public  to  rise  to  the  need  of 
laws,  and  to  the  circumstances  of  community  interests.  He  it  is  who 
realizes  the  value  of  public  character. 

Dr.  Caldwell  was  made  President  of  the  Elyton  Land  Compan)-  in 
1875.  There  was  practically  no  salary.  The  highest  aim  of  the  great 
corporation  was  to  draw  the  breath  of  life.  But  in  this  comatose  state 
physically,  so  to  speak,  the  company,  under  his  masterful  and  courageous 
polic)%  laid  a  plan  of  action.  It  persevered  in  opening  streets ;  it  adver- 
tised its  property,  and  sold  what  it  could  at  merely  nominal  rates; 
whoever  wanted  a  lot,  to  build  on  it  a  storehouse  or  residence,  fixed  his 
own  price  and  paid  it.  It  has  also  been  the  policy  of  the  company  to 
•assist  enterprises  seeking  entrance  to  the  city.  It  paid  no  dividends  until 
1883 — thirteen  years  of  patience  and  faith  and  labor. 

Every  $i,000  originally  invested  in  the  stock  of  the  Elyton  Land 
Company  had  paid  about  $18,000  in  dividends  up  to  January  I,   1887. 

The  assets  of  the  company  were,  originally,  ^200,000;  that  is,  of  the 
face  valuation  in  1870,  when  the  stock  was  all  taken. 

156  Jefferson    County. 

The  assets  of  the  company  now,  some  sixteen  years  later,  but  witli 
only  eight  years  of  actual  solvency  and  growth,  are  fully  ^Sl 5,000,000. 

The  sales  of  the  company  in  August,  1886,  amounted  to  over  one 
million  of  dollars,  and  in  October  of  the  same  year  were  even  greater. 

The  stock  is  not  on  the  market.  A  few  shares  might  be  bought 
possibly  for  $35  on  the  $\,  face  value. 

The  dividend  declared  for  1886  was  340  per  cent.  The  increase  of 
the  value  of  assets  of  the  corporation,  estimated  December,  1886,  as 
compared  with  the  same  date  of  the  year  previous,  was,  perhaps,  50  per 

There  are  fifty-four  stockholders  at  present.  The  smallest  number  of 
shares  held  by  any  one  person  or  interest  is  one  ;  the  largest  is  five  hundred 
and  twenty.  The  individual  holders  are  of  both  sexes,  mercantile  firms,, 
trustees,  and  bankers. 

The   Alice    Furnace   Comp.^ny, 

with  a  capital  of  $800,000,  was  the  first  iron-making  industry  erected  in 
the  vicinity  of  Birmingham,  and  it  is  suggestive  of  tiie  character  of  the 
Elyton  Land  Company  that  the  iron  company  should  have  become,  in  the 
initiation  of  its  efforts,  the  beneficiary  of  its  favors.  The  land  company 
gave  of  its  own  strength  to  the  iron  company,  giving  the  land  upon  which 
it  operates  its  capital  ;  the  iron  company  gave  to  the  land  company  of  its 
fame,  to  be  thenceforward  known  throughout  the  channels  of  the  commerce 
of  the  world. 

The  Alice  Furnace  Company  made  the  first  pig  iron  thrown  on  the 
market  from  Birmingham,  and  the  enterprise  was  presided  over  by  Mr. 
Henry  DeBardeleben,  a  pioneer  investor  in  the  mineral  development  of 
Alabama,  and  who  has  the  honor  of  having  led  the  first  practical  coal 
mining  by  the  opening  of  the  Pratt  Mines. 

The   Birmingham    Rolling   Mills, 

with  a  capital  of  $100,000,  built  its  works  (the  only  works  of  its  kind 
south  of  the  Ohio)  on  lands  given  to  the  company  by  the  Elyton  Land 

More  than   One   Million   of   Dollars, 

present  value  of  property,  has  been  given  by  this  company  to  the  city  of 
Birmingham,  not  including  the  streets,  avenues,  and  alleys.     This  princely 

hiitial  Influences.  157 

donation  consists  in  real  estate  and  improvements.  The  public  parks 
within  the  city,  lots  to  churches,  to  schools,  markethouse,  county  court- 
house, railroad  reservation,  a  free  public  bridge,  one  thousand  feet  long, 
arching  the  railroads,  are  among  its  donations. 

The  private  property  of  the  company  in  public  service  is  various  and 
numerous  in  details.  The  water  works  owned  by  it,  now  completed  and 
in  use,  consist  of  two  engines,  with  the  latest  improvements,  erected  on  the 
bank  of  Village  Creek,  some  two  miles  from  the  center  of  the  city.  The 
rocky  bottom  of  the  stream,  and  the  never-failing  supply  for  a  population 
of  50,000,  not  omitting  the  recommendation  of  nearness  to  the  con- 
sumers— an  item  of  no  inconsiderable  moment  to  a  corporation  under- 
taking to  supply  water  to  a  town,  not  yet  built,  by  the  expenditure  of 
$100,000  in  machinery  and  fixtures — these  conditions  prevailed  to  fix 
the  works  where  they  now  are.  The  reservoirs  for  receiving  the  creek 
water,  are  placed  on  the  summit  of  a  mountainous  elevation  on  the 
northern  outskirts  of  the  city.  They  are  well  guarded  and  protected 
from  pollution.  The  pressure  of  the  water  is  sufficient  in  the  pipes  leading 
to  the  city  for  all  practical  purposes.  Water  can  be  thrown  from  hose  to 
the  top  of  an  ordinary  three-story  building.  The  steam  fire  engine  is, 
however,  relied  upon  to  extinguish  fires.  The  water  rents  of  the 
company  range  from  $4.7$  to  $6.25  per  quarter  for  private  residences  and 
like  consumers.  The  company  supplies  water  to  the  furnaces,  all  indus- 
tries, and  to  the  city  fire-plugs  on  fixed  terms. 

There  are  a  number  of  wells  relied  upon  by  families  within  the  city 
limits.  The  Birmingham  Brewery,  the  ice  factory,  and  one  of  several 
steam  laundries  take  the  water  consumed  by  their  respective  works  from 
a  large  running  stream  which  breaks  out  from  the  rocks  at  the  foot  of 
the  mountains  on  the  southern  boundary  of  the  city. 

Lakeview   Park. 

The  company  owns  some  fifteen  hundred  acres  of  mountainous  wood 
land  of  rare  natural  beauty,  where  narrow  serpentine  valleys  and  rocky 
acclivities  mark  the  landscape,  situated  about  a  mile  to  the  south-east  of 
the  city.  In  the  midst  of  this  wilderness  of  nature  the  springs  flowing 
out  from  the  mountain  sides  have  been  trained  to  form,  in  thecrescentlike 
valley,  a  lake  of  limpid  waters,  whose  borders  follow  the  curves  of  the 
base  of  the  elevated  hillsides  around  them.  Bordering  the  lake  is  a 
pavilion  overlooking  it ;  a  boathouse,  where  small  boats  in  fanciful  colors, 
the  beaming   "Water  Nymph,"    "Naiad,"  and  other  becoming  names. 

158  Jefferson   County. 

are  kept  for  pleasure-seekers.  A  wide  veranda  to  seat  large  numbers  of 
lookers-on,  a  dance  hall  opening  over  the  water,  a  modern  restaurant 
adjoining,  and  bathrooms  are  the  conveniences  of  the  pavilion. 

On  the  bordering  mountain-tops  the  company  has  built  cottages 
for  a  summer  tenantry.  Among  them  is  a  clubhouse,  where  gentlemen 
•of  leisure  may  resort  to  engage  in  games,  read,  or  swing  in  hammocks 
under  the  trees,  while  looking  over  upon  the  busy  life  in  the  city  in  the 
valley  below.  Lakeview  is  connected  with  the  center  of  the  city  by  the 
company's  steam-motor  railway.  Every  thirty  minutes,  from  sunrise  to 
midnight,  trains  run  over  the  line.  It  is  a  most  delightful  ride,  on  a  bright 
day,  to  take  the  train  for  Lakeview,  which  circles  around  among  the 
valleys  and  along  the  hillsides,  at  every  turn  exposing  to  the  eye  some 
new  enterprise — a  solid  brick  residence  here,  a  fresh-painted  cottage  there, 
a  pile  of  lumber  and  earnest  workmen  with  tools  yonder. 

There  is  a  mineral  spring  at  the  pavilion  of  rarest  medical  properties ; 
indeed,  as  a  renovator  and  tonic  its  waters  are  unsurpassed  in  the  Union, 
in  some  cases.  On  Sundaj-s  and  holidays  thousands  from  the  city  flock  to 
Lakeview.  The  mineral  spring  and  cool  freestone  spring  waters,  the  rustic 
seats  along  the  hillsides,  the  boats  on  the  lake,  the  timely  refreshments 
at  the  ever-ready  and  always-neat  restaurant,  the  broad  drives  are  there. 
Some  go  by  coach-loads,  some  fair  maids  to  drive  themselves  in  hand- 
some light  phaetons,  some  young  men  by  bicycle,  crowds  walk  the  near 
by-ways  over  the  fields,  fun-seeking  by  the  way — but  the  great  multitude 
go  by  the  five-cent  motor  line,  fifteen  minutes  time  to  go  or  come. 

The  profits  of  the  line,  as  a  separate  enterprise,  do  not  comprehend 
its  most  material  benefits  to  the  company,  the  line  passing  in  and  out  for 
the  several  miles  of  length  among  the  company's  building  lots,  small 
patches  of  hillside  and  mountain-top.  Facility  for  reaching  these  lots  is 
afforded  the  merchant,  banker,  and  others  engaged  in  business  in  the  city. 
Accessibility  determines  the  value  of  even  natural  advantages.  Hence,  both 
directly  in  fares  and  indirectly  in  appreciation  of  values  in  realty,  the 
motor  line  proves  itself  to  have  been  a  masterly  policy  in  the  president's 
management ;  other  conceptions  of  his  have  been  equally  so. 

It  is  related  that,  along  in  the  earlier  months  of  the  revival  of  the 
fortunes  of  the  company,  a  few  years  ago.  Dr.  Caldwell  invited  Mr.  Josiah 
Morris,  with  one  or  two  others  of  the  stockholders,  to  drive  in  a  hack 
with  him  into  the  suburbs.  Passing  through  the  streets  of  the  city,  and 
across  the  valley  surrounding,  the  vehicle  presently  began  to  climb  the 
hills,  the  wheels  running  here  into  the  washed-out  ruts  of  a  country  path, 
and,    with  a  great  jolt,  there  striking  against   a  tree-stump  or  a   boulder. 

Initial  hifliicnces.  159- 

"Where  are  we  to  stop,  Dr.  Caldwell?"  shouted  Mr.  Morris  in  alarm 
and  amazement  at  the  progress  of  the  journey.  "  We  arc  bound  for  the 
Park,"  exclaimed  Dr.  Caldwell,  with  mock  solemnity  and  matter  of  course. 
"The  Park?  It  is  an  impracticable  drive  we  are  on,  and  a  Pickwickian 
'Park,'  I  vow,  we  are  invited  to  see,"  retorted  the  jostled  banker.  "Ah! 
Dr.  Caldwell,  you  had  your  own  way,"  the  banker  now  placidly  exclaims, 
as  the  motor  dashes  around  the  graceful  curves,  of  the  railway  successor 
to  the  old  hack  path,  to  the  realized  "Park,"  to  deposit  him  with  his- 
coinpagno7is  de  voyage,  bent  on  resting  in.  the  shades  over  the  lake,  and 
drinking  the  health-giving  waters  of  the  springs. 

We  ought  to  say  something  of  the  corporate  life,  which  presents  to 
the  world  so  remarkable  an  exhibition  of  practical  sympathy  with  the 
general  life  around  it  as  does  this  company.  It  is  not  necessary  to  surmise 
that  the  single  motive  of  the  Elyton  Land  Company  is  self-aggrandizement. 
We  have  only  to  follow  up  the  singleness  of  its  purpose  in  the  paths,  it  has 
chosen  to  walk  in,  to  discover  that  it  has,  from  first  to  last,  worked  for  its- 
own  promotion.  It  is  in  the  wisdom  of  its  methods  we  find  the  felicitous 
exercise  of  its  right  to  live.  The  company  has  always  been  a  land  specu- 
lator. It  bought,  as  we  have  said,  4,150  acres  of  land  for  $100,000. 
Upon,  say,  one  half  of  this  area  streets  are  laid  off,  now  incorporated  or 
to  be  incorporated  speedily.  The  company  was  organized  to  build  a  city. 
The  earnings  af  many  individual  citizens  of  Birmingham,  men  and  women, 
through  their  lives  of  labor,  have  reached  the  original  amount  of  the 
capital  stock  of  the  company.  The  company  now  owns  about  the  same 
number  of  acres  as  in  the  original  purchase.  It  has  sold  about  two-thirds 
of  its  original  purchase  in  realty,  and  selling  so  many  acres  here,  has 
purchased,  from  time  to  time,  other  lands  near  by,  so  as  to  approximately 
preserve  its  acreage.  The  company,  as  we  have  said,  has  so  used  its. 
lands — for  it  owned  nothing  but  lands  to  start  upon,  and  moreover  its 
lands  and  water  works  only  have  been  allowed  to  enter  its  operations — 
it  has  so  used  its  lands  that,  practically,  it  has  raised  their  market  value 
from  $100,000  originally  invested  to  some  $15,000,000,  present  value. 
Has  the  action  of  the  corporation  been  consistent  with  the  rights  of  indi- 
viduals not  of  the  corporation?  Admitting  that  the  stockholders, 
each  man  and  woman,  each  adult  and  minor,  have  grown  rich  in  the 
operations  of  the  company  in  buying  and  selling  land,  has  the  pros- 
perity of  the  few  benefitted  the  many,  or  has  it  existed,  in  great  part,  as 
extortion  and  unjust  power?  This  company  is  the  most  important  and 
the  richest  corporation  in  the  State  of  Alabama,  and  fair  inquiry  into  its 
methods  becomes  especially  interesting  at  this  time.      It  has  been  more 

i6o  Jefferson    County. 

active  than  any  other  agency  in  inviting  new  energies  to  enter  Alabama, 
and  has  accomph'shed  more  than  any  other  influence  in  bringing  to  the 
test  the  wiUingness  and  capacity  of  the  people  of  Alabama  to  lay  hold  of 
the  wealth  of  natural  resources  around  them,  to  exalt  it  into  "a  thing  of 
joy  forever." 

Thousands  of  workingmen  and  women  have  flocked  to  the  city  of  the 
Elyton  Land  Company.  The  policy  of  the  company  invited  them  to 
come,  and  the  practical  dealings  of  the  company  with  the  industries, 
which  employs  them,  and  often  with  the  individual  men  and  women 
has  continued  their  domicil  here.  The  company  has  always  sold  its  lands 
within  a  very  moderate  market  price.  As  we  have  already  remarked,  the 
purchaser  who  desired  to  build  a  house  to  live  in  or  to  do  business  in,  in  the 
early  years  of  the  life  of  the  company,  fixed  his  own  price  and  took  titles 
to  the  property.  Later  the  company  has  not  wavered  from  its  policy, 
except  that  the  conditions  being  changed,  it  has  advanced  definite  terms 
and  prices  to  correspond.  It  sells  land  now  to  parties  who  design  to  build 
manufactories,  to  railroad  companies,  who  need  terminal  facilities,  on  long 
time  and  comparatively  low  rates.  It  contributed  the  ground  and  took 
stock  in  the  latest  built  of  the  blast  furnaces  of  the  city.  The  company 
will  build  houses  for  workmen  to  live  in  on  its  own  land  and  accept 
monthly  payments  on  the  sale  of  the  property  to  the  occupant,  to  extend 
over  many  months'  time,  without  charge  of  rent  on  the  same  holding.  In 
a  word,  the  tenant  becomes  practically  a  purchaser  of  the  property,  which 
he  acquires  in  fee  simple,  by  gradual  extinguishment  of  the  debt,  for  the 
purchase,  in  the  liberal  but  reasonable  system  of  month!}-  payments  of 

The  needed  encouragement  thus  given  to  practical  industries  has 
diversified  and  enlarged  very  greatly,  even  in  this  early  period  of  the 
experiment,  the  opportunities  for  labor  in  Alabama  ;  and  it  is  the  Alabama 
people  who  have  most  largely  embraced  them  and  profited  b)-  them.  The 
development  of  the  county  of  Jefferson,  mainly  accruing  from  the  foun- 
dation and  growth  of  Birmingham,  has  already  elevated  it  from  the  former 
rank  of  "pauper,"  drawing  more  from  the  State  Treasury  for  ordinary 
support  than  it  contributed,  to  a  highly  important  taxpayer.  Not  only 
does  the  property  accumulated  in  the  county  pay  largely  of  the  taxes  of 
the  State,  but  the  railroads  crossing  at  Birmingham,  and  which  could  not 
live  without  the  support  of  the  industries  concentrated  here,  pay  largely 
of  the  receipts  reaching  the  State  exchequer. 

It  is  easy  to  trace  the  ramifications  of  the  policy  of  the  Elyton  Land 
Company,  as  they  disclose  themselves  in  the  interest  of  labor,  brought  by 

Initial  Inftucnces.  i6i 

that  policy  to  live  in  Birming-ham.  Let  us  inquire  what  the  indirect  results 
have  been.  The  existence  of  tlie  town  has  not  been  more  inarked  by 
rapid  progress  in  building  and  growth  in  population  than  it  has  been  in 
freedom  from  feverish  excitement,  "bulling"  and  "bearing"  in  markets 
of  all  kinds.  The  conservative  administration  of  the  preponderating 
interests  of  the  company  has  been  a  break-water  to  all  such  conspiracies 
against  the  public  interest.  Speculation  in  lots  has  been  regulated  by  the 
ipse  dixit  of  the  Elyton  Land  Company.  No  one  operator,  -or  scores  of 
operators,  or  syndicates  of  operators  can  survive  a  policy  contrary  to  that 
of  the  company.  With  moderation  and  steadiness  the  company  pursues 
its  way.  All  others  follow  in  the  trail.  They  cannot  find  room  to  pass 
by,  either  to  the  right  or  to  the  left.  There  is  no  halt  or  balk  in  the 
company's  progress;  no  crushing  of  the  weak,  only  a  gentle  setting  out  of 
the  way  of  the  tardy  and  the  skeptical. 

Through  the  influence  of  the  company  there  has  been  no  suspension 
or  apprehension  of  delay  in  values  in  Birmingham  since  the  company  paid 
its  first  dividend.  Its  object  has  been  fixedly,  comprehensively,  and 
enthusiastically  adhered  to.  Individual  capitalists  who  have  come  to 
build  up  industrial  enterprises  have  been  made  safe  by  the  immutable 
safety  of  the  company. 

If,  in  a  purely  abstract  and  theoretical  line  of  inquiry,  the  company 
should  be  required  to  respond  to  a  com.parison  of  its  periods  of  relative 
public  utility,  if  it  should  be  required  to  say  that  it  will  continue  in  like 
degree  of  influence  in  the  future  as  in  its  past  history,  then  it  might  only 
be  bound  to  say  that  the  city  is  growing  rapidly  stronger  than  the  company, 
and  the  company's  responsibility  correspondingly  reduced.  The  city  is 
fast  acquiring  the  control  of  all  influences  in  and  about  itself  The  wants 
and  the  power  of  tens  of  thousands  of  self-incorporated  people  are  no  longer 
infantile.  The  child  must  soon  let  go  the  "apron  strings  "  of  the  mother 
and  begin  to  provide  for  her  who  so  proudly  fostered  its  growth ;  other- 
wise the  proverbial  embarrassment  of  family  rights  and  customs  might  be 
anticipated  in  this  case.     . 

The  Elyton  Land  Company  hoards  no  money,  owns  no  transportation 
other  than  street  railways,  keeps  no  bank  of  discount,  and  yet  contin- 
uously devotes  all  its  energies  toward  the  steady,  well-matured,  non- 
speculative  growth  of  Birmingham,  in  numbers  of  people,  numbers  of 
industries,  and  intrinsic  value  of  realty. 

It  does  not  deny  the  manifest  self-interest  of  its  policy  in  all  details. 
It  does,  nevertheless,  claim,  with  experience  as  the  interpreter  of  its 
methods,  that  it  has  given  full  measure  for  all  that  it  has  received.      It  has 

1 62  Jefferson    County. 

received  into  its  crucible  a  mass  of  untried  and  undetermined  conditions, 
and  it  has  formulated  laws  for  their  reduction  to  practical  uses,  to  the 
betterment  of  general  society,  to  the  maintenance  of  law,  the  enrichment 
of  individuals,  the  education  of  youth,  the  employment  of  labor,  and  the 
support  of  the  cause  of  religion.  Given,  the  novelty  of  the  opportunities 
of  the  company,  it  has  wrought  out  for  itself  a  power,  not  less  peculiar 
than  comprehensive  and  catholic.  Its  opportunities  stand  upon  the 
border  line  between  a  past  civilization  and  a  new  civilization.  The  agen- 
cies it  must  use  relate  to  the  long  concealed  and  yet  incomparable  land- 
locked mineral  wealth  of  Alabama  ;  the  erection  of  a  great  city,  with 
banks  for  money,  storehouses  for  supplies,  mills  to  grind  grain,  mills  to 
manufacture  goods,  a  long  line  of  investments  to  employ  all  degrees  and 
conditions  of  men,  women,  and  children.  This  artificial  creation,  a  mod- 
ern city,  is  the  key  to  unlock  the  wealth  of  the  mines  of  coal  and  iron 
surrounding.  The  Elyton  Land  Company  has  opened  the  door  to  Red 
Mountain  and  Pratt  Mines. 

To  build  the  city  has  been  the  work  of  the  company.  It  is  coinci- 
dent of  a  most  remarkable  character  that  the  opportunities  of  nature 
found  so  apt  a  channel  for  development.  The  short  sketches  of  the  work  of 
the  individuals  who  shaped  the  policy  of  the  company  following,  trace  its 
origin  and  progress  in  Southern-born  energy  and  comprehensiveness  of 



This,  the  first  published  narrative  of  Mr.  Josiah  Morris'  active  life, 
finds  him  a  strikingly  handsome  gentleman  ;  nervous,  yet  always  suave  and 
graceful  in  manner ;  scrupulously  well  dressed  after  the  fashion  of  a  busi- 
ness man,  and  with  small  outward  evidence  that  the  weight  of  sixty-eight 
years  is  given  him  to  bear.  His  figure  is  yet  erect,  his  step  elastic,  and 
countenance  alive  to  every  passing  interest. 

The  parents  of  Josiah  Morris  were  Jeptha  and  Eliza  A.  Morris,  nee 
White,  both  natives  of  Maryland.  On  the  eastern  shore  of  that  State,  so 
famous  for  its  aristocratic  traditions,  Josiah  Morris  was  born  in  i8i8. 

The  youth  was  preparing  for  college  in  his  native  State  when  an 
unanticipated  change  of  circum.stances  brought  him  to  the  far  South.  First 
he  came  to  Columbus,  Ga. ,  and  entered  the  employment  of  a  mercantile 
house,  then  a  lad  of  fifteen  years.      Arriving  at  the  duties  of  manhood  he 

Initial  Infliienccs.  r6^ 

engaged  in  merchandising  and  the  cotton  trade,  as  was  then  the  custom  in 
the  interior  towns  of  the  Cotton  States. 

After  nineteen  years  of  residence  and  business  occupation  in  Colum- 
bus, Mr.  Morris,  in  his  thirty-fourth  year,  the  year  1852,  went  to  New 
Orleans  to  enter  the  greatest  cotton  trade  of  the  Union.  There  he  fol- 
lowed his  chosen  course  with  distinguished  success  for  four  years. 

In  1856  Mr.  Morris  came  to  Montgomery,  Ala.,  to  devote  his  whole 
attention  to  private  banking.  His  conservative  course  has  never  varied  to 
admit  any  kind  of  speculation.  The  bankers  of  Montgomery  advance 
large  sums  to  cotton  planters  to  make  their  crops  in  spring  and  summer, 
and  large  sums  to  cotton  brokers  to  move  the  cotton  bales  stored  in  the 
warehouses  of  the  city  in  the  fall  and  winter.  The  number  of  bales  stored 
is  about  120,000  annually.  The  value  of  the  crop  of  each  year  is  about 
S6, 000, 000.  The  banks  of  the  city  handle  most  of  this,  and  a  sum  equally 
great,  representing  the  trade  of  the  merchants  in  farm  supplies  with  the 
cotton  planters  only.  Of  this  feature  of  business,  besides  others  incident 
to  a  prosperous  town,  Mr.  Morris'  bank  has  handled  its  full  share. 

Mr.  Morris  was  married,  in  his  twenty-sixth  year,  to  Miss  Elizabeth 
Harvey,  a  native  of  Georgia.  The  fruit  of  this  happy  marriage  is  one 
daughter,  herself  married  to  a  distinguished  young  physician  of  her  native 
city,  Montgomery — Dr.  B.  J.  Baldwin — he  being  a  nephew  of  one  of  the 
most  widely  known  physicians  of  the  South,  Dr.  William  O.  Baldwin,  of 

The  family  of  Mr.  Morris  are  active  members  of  St.  John's  Protestant 
Episcopal  Church.  They  live  without  ostentation,  but  in  style  of  home 
life  becoming  to  the  large  fortune  he  has  accumulated. 

Mr.  Morris  was  the  organizer  of  the  Elyton  Land  Company.  His 
perfect  acquaintance  with  the  agricultural  conditions,  before  and  after  the 
revolution  of  i860,  in  the  magnificent  agricultural  country  for  which 
Montgomery  has  been  the  distributing  center,  taught  him  to  appreciate 
fully  the  new  and  timely  opportunity,  opened  to  capitalists  by  the  railroads 
about  to  cross  each  other  in  Jones  Valley,  for  founding  an  iron  manufac- 
turing city  at  the  crossing. 

At  the  suggestion  of  John  T.  Milner,  Chief  Enginer  and  General 
Manager  of  one  of  those  roads,  the  South  &  North,  Mr.  Morris  came 
forward  and  took  up  the  options  placed  by  J.  C.  Stanton,  Superintend- 
ent of  the  other  road,  the  Alabama  &  Chattanooga,  before  known  as 
the  North-East  &  South-West,  when  it  became  known  that  Mr.  Stanton's 
financial  inability  had  disappointed  his  own  expectations,  leaving  him 
unequal  to  close  his  land  trades. 

164  Jefferso7i   Coimty. 

Mr.  Morris  came  forward  on  the  assurance  of  Mr.  Milner  that  the 
roads  would  cross  at  the  only  available  spot,  some  two  miles  north-east  of 
Jefferson  County  courthouse  at  Elyton,  and  paid  for  4,150  acres  about 
^100,000.  This  done  he  gave  the  city  of  the  future  its  name,  and,  as  we 
have  said,  organized  the  Elyton  Land  Company ;  sold  to  the  company  the 
majority  of  the  stock,  represented  by  the  land  he  had  bought,  and  lifted 
the  company  along  over  rough  paths  for  years  by  his  personal  aid,  never 
doubting  the  end. 

Josiah  Morris  &  Co.,  bankers,  and  Josiah  Morris  individually  now  own 
520  of  the  2,000  shares  of  the  company's  stock.  The  div'idends  accrued 
to  the  520  shares  amount,  probably,  to  §500,000  to  date.  The  estimated 
value  of  the  company's  assets  Mr.  Morris  believes  to  be  $15,000,000. 

Besides  his  large  interest  in  the  Elyton  Land  Company's  stock  Mr. 
Morris  owns  valuable  real  estate  in  the  city,  which  he  is  about  to  improve 
in  the  best  manner. 

Mr.  Morris  displayed  wisdom,  sagacity,  and  courage  of  the  highest 
order  when,  alone,  and  surrounded  by  the  doubt  and  dismay  of  the  times, 
he  came  forward  in  1866-67  to  pledge  his  faith  in  the  future  of  the  city  to 
be  founded.  He  probably  built  wiser  than  he  wot  of,  for  to  the  success  of 
his  venture  the  entire  State  of  Alabama  owes  an '  industrial  revival 
unsurpassed  in  the  Union.  The  incalculable  wealth  in  iron  matured 
and  ere  now  reposing  in  invincible  supremacy  in  Pennsylvania  is  menaced, 
and  has  learned  to  turn  with  anxious  inquiry  to  the  growth  of  the  enter- 
prise Josiah  Morris  was  among  the  earliest  to  lift  up  in  the  neglected 
forests  of  Alabama. 

The  bank  of  Josiah  Morris  &  Co.  has  been  of  essential  aid  to  the 
State  of  Alabama  in  its  efforts  to  rectify  great  financial  errors  of  manage- 
ment in  the  period  of  revolution  from  1866  to  1876. 

In  association  with  others  he  has  secured  for  Montgomery  the  loca- 
tion of  the  State  Agricultural  and  Horticultural  Fair,  by  donating  to  the 
Association  which  manages  it  the  splendid  grounds,  some  forty  acres, 
necessary  for  the  buildings  and  race  tracks. 

Initial  In/ltiences.  165 


"duke    of    BIRMINGHAM." 

The  year  18 18,  before  Alabama  had  been  admitted  into  the  Union,  a 
tall,  fair-skin  youth,  yet  in  his  teens,  rode  out,  a  solitary  horseman,  from  his 
native  county  in  Virginia  into  the  interior  of  the  wilderness  of  the  Ala- 
bama territory.  This  was  the  beginning  of  a  long  life  of  adventure  and 
•enterprise  spent  in  Alabama  by  James  R.  Powell.  He  was  a  man  of  most 
varied  talents  and  most  indomitable  energy.  He  literally  sat  by  the  cradle 
■of  one  civilization  in  his  adopted  home ;  saw  it  flourish  like  a  green  bay 
tree;  saw  the  forest  fall  in  every  county  with  astonishing  rapidity,  and  the 
fertile  new-cleared  fields  spring  up  in  wealth ;  saw  the  rivers  float  the  most 
magnificent  steamers,  laden  with  the  riches  of  the  earth  and  the  chivalry  and 
culture  of  a  matchless  society ;  saw  all  this  mature  and  fructify  and  decay, 
and  he  followed  it  literally  to  the  grave.  Turning  like  a  hero  from  the 
dead  past,  James  R.  Powell,  in  even  rank  with  the  foremost,  and  with 
.brighter  vision  and  fiercer  resolve  than  the  multitude,  led  the  way  of 
Alabama  into  the  resurrection  morn  of  her  destiny. 

Young  Powell  stopped  first,  on  his  ride  into  Alabama,  at  the  little 
hamlet,  on  the  hills  above  the  Alabama  River,  called  Montgomery.  His 
faithful  horse  and  less  than  ?20  in  cash  were  all  the  available  assets  at  his 
command.  He  pursued  his  course  from  Montgomery  into  Lowndes,  an 
adjoining  county.  Soon  he  sold  his  horse  and  found  occupation,  perhaps 
not  regular  or  very  remunerative.  He  became  a  contractor  to  carry  the 
horse  mails.  Later  on  he  became  a  contractor  to  carry  the  mails  by 
passenger  stage  coach.  He  became,  as  was  the  law  of  prosperity  in  those 
days,  inevitably  a  cotton  planter  and  a  member  of  the  legislature.  His 
passenger  and  mail-coach  line  so  prospered  that  it  reached  a  position  of 
serious  competition  with  the  line  run  by  Robert  Jemison,  Esq.,  of  Tus- 
caloosa. Mr.  Jemison  was  a  gentleman  of  great  wealth,  industry,  enter- 
prise, and  intelligence.  The  brave  Powell  met  h>n  on  his  own  ground 
and  joined  a  relentless  contest  with  him.  Finally,  after  both  had  been 
■depleted  in  this  mad  rivalry,  they  came  to  terms  of  union.  The  organization 
became  known  as  the  stage  line  of  Jemison,  Powell,  Ficklen  &  Co.  It 
traversed   Alabama   from  border  to  border  at  every  point  of  the  compass. 

Colonel  Powell  did  not  raise  a  regiment  and  enter  the  field  when  the 
war  opened,  as  may  have  been  expected  of  so  earnest  a  worker ;  nor  did  he 
-become  a  soldier  at  any  time  during  its  progress.      He^remained  at  Mont- 

1 66  Jefferson    County. 

gomery  an  active  supporter  of  the  military  establishment  of  the  Confederacy 
in  various  practical  ways.  Gifted  with  rare  powers  of  persuasion,  he 
exercised  a  marked  influence  in  society,  and  directed  this  influence 
in  behalf  of  the  Confederate  cause.  Some  examples  of  this  activity  may 
indicate  the  character  of  the  man.  When  the  great  orator,  William  L. 
Yancey,  the  acknowledged  representative  of  the  Southern  zeal  and  motive, 
returned  from  an  unsuccessful  mission  to  England  in  behalf  of  his  Govern- 
ment, Colonel  Powell,  knowing  Mr.  Yancey  personally,  and  appreciating 
his  proud  spirit  and  the  personal  distress  which  the  rebuff  his  mission 
had  encountered  across  the  seas  had  visited  upon  him,  invited  several 
fellow-townsmen  to  unite  with  him  in  presenting  the  great  statesman  a 
splendid  horse,  handsomely  accoutred,  for  the  promotion  of  his  health  and 
amusement  in  his  favorite  exercise  of  riding.  Mr.  Yancey  wrote  a 
beautiful  and  eloquent  expression  of  his  gratitude  to  his  neighbors  and 
friends.  The  first  name  on  the  list  of  donors  was  James  R.  Powell. 
Slander  is  many  tongued  and  exhaustless  in  resources,  hence  this  act  of 
private  and  neighborly  esteem  for  a  public  servant  was  industriously 
poisoned  to  the  public  ear.  It  was  promptly  announced  by  partisan  foes 
of  the  statesman  that  the  citizens  of  his  city  of  abode  had  sent  around  to 
his  residence,  before  breakfast,  a  fully-equipped  war  horse,  with  a  sug- 
gestion that  he  should  take  the  field  to  combat  for  his  principles !  Mr. 
Yancey  had  been  unanimously  elected  by  the  Alabama  Legislature  to 
the  Confederate  Senate.  He  had  sent  three  sons,  only  one  of  the 
number  being  a  man,  into  the  Confederate  army. 

Another  characteristic  incident  of  Colonel  Powell's  services  to  the 
Confederacy  may  be  noted  with  propriety.  When,  in  the  winter  of  1863, 
the  Alabama  River  was  found  sheeted  with  ice,  a  phenomenon  of  so  rare 
occurrence  that  few,  if  any,  of  the  citizens  had  ever  before  witnessed  it. 
Colonel  Powell  promptly  bent  every  available  resource  at  his  command  to 
harvest  the  priceless  crop.  The  ports  of  the  Confederacy  were  effectually 
closed  to  importations  of  the  article  and  artificial  ice  was  then  unknown. 
When  the  wind  veered  around  and  the  accustomed  climate  of  the  latitude 
began  to  melt  the  coating  over  the  river,  so  successful  had  Colonel  Powell's 
ice  harvest  appeared  that  he  was  offered  $40,000  for  it.  He  refused  to 
entertain  any  proposition  of  sale,  but  presented  the  whole  supply  to  the 
Confederate  Army  Hospital  Department,  for  use  in  Georgia  and  Alabama 
hospitals  for  soldiers. 

During  the  war  Colonel  Powell  purchased  a  large  area  of  cotton  lands 
on  the  Yazoo  River,  Mississippi.  Immediately  after  hostilities  ceased  he 
began  to  hire  labor  to  cultivate  these  lands.     He  made  a  contract  with  a 

Initial  Influences.  167 

young  gentleman  of  great  enterprise,  John  C.  Calhoun,  of  South  Carolina, 
grandson  of  the  famous  statesman,  to  operate  these  rich  cotton  planta- 

The  scheme  attracted  wide  attention  and  created  no  small  adverse 
comment  in  some  parts  of  the  older  Cotton  States.  Mr.  Calhoun  appointed 
agents  to  collect  select  negro  laborers  in  several  parts  of  South  Carolina 
and  in  Alabama.  The  planters  were  very  much  in  earnest  in  their  efforts 
to  make  cotton  at  fifty  cents  per  pound.  Soon  Colonel  Powell's  example 
excited  many  other  similar  efforts.  The  Lower  Mississippi  Valley  drew 
to  it  thousands  of  the  best  trained  labor  of  the  older  plantations 
which  could  not  be  replaced.  This  loss  was  keenly  felt  by  the  planters 
who  lost  the  labor,  much  of  which  had  been  born  and  bred  on  their  lands, 
and  which  they  had  believed  to  be  as  fixed  as  the  land  itself  in  their  ser- 
vice. No  increase  of  wages  or  increase  of  shares  in  the  crops  to  be  grown 
could  avail  to  stop  the  exodus  until  those  who  had  gone  out  first  began  to 
return  with  information  of  the  hard  work,  sickly  climate,  and  strange 
experiences  they  had  encountered  as  emigrants. 

The  enterprise  of  Colonel  Powell  in  colonizing  his  lands  on  the  Yazoo 
River  was  in  the  line  of  that  leadership  which  ever  distinguished  the  man. 
The  step  was  well  adapted  to  the  prevailing  conditions.  Its  execution 
touched  harshly  upon  the  sensibilities  of  the  planters  who  had  never  been 
before  compelled  to  enter  the  market  to  compete  for  the  privilege  of  hiring 
"  hands."  But  Colonel  Powell  had  the  sagacity  to  realize  first  in  his  class 
a  legitimate  opportunity  which  all  land  owners  must  seek  in  course  of  brief 
time  ;  that  is,  that  under  the  new  era  labor  must  be  free  to  hire  itself. 

Colonel  Powell  came  to  Birmingham  soon  after  the  railroad  crossing 
had  been  fixed  which  was  to  determine  the  site  of  the  town.  On  the 
organization  of  the  Elyton  Land  Company  he  became  its  first  president. 

There  was  much  work  to  be  done  through  the  influence  of  this  corpo- 
ration, which  was  of  a  widely  different  character  from  the  work  now  falling 
to  it.  To  found  a  city,  in  the  wilderness  of  a  State  fresh  from  the  devasta- 
tions visited  upon  it  by  the  Federal  Government,  and  which  was,  at  the  very 
period  of  Colonel  Powell's  accession  to  the  presidency  of  the  new  corpora- 
tion, governed  most  disastrously  by  aliens  and  negroes,  was  his  task.  The 
founder  must  himself  receive  the  "  pardon  "  of  his  Government  to  become 
a  citizen  of  the  town  of  his  own  building.  The  city  to  be  built  must  depend 
upon  lines  of  transportation,  then  so  feeble  that,  as  to  one,  the  Alabama  & 
Chattanooga,  it  was  shackled  by  law  suits,  and  no  regular  trains  or  regular 
traffic  existed  over  the  line.  The  South  &  North  had  not  been  completed, 
and  its  completion  was  either  doubtful  or  certain  of  delays  and  difficulties. 

1 68  Jefferso7i   County. 

Even  so  late  as  1875,  five  years  after  the  organization  of  the  Elyton  Land 
Company  and  the  initiation  of  its  efforts  to  build  the  city  of  Birmingham, 
the  people  of  Alabama,  upon  meeting  in  convention  to  deliberate  and 
frame  a  new  constitution  for  the  State,  sent  one  forth  to  be  ratified,  and 
which  was  ratified  by  a  very  great  majority  of  the  popular  vote,  which 
actually  omitted  all  provision  for  the  proper  government  of  a  new  city. 
No  general  impression  had,  as  late  as  1875,  taken  possession  of  the  popular 
mind  in  Alabama  that  the  venture  of  the  Elyton  Land  Company  would 
materialize  into  respectable  proportions.  The  cities  of  Alabama  and  many 
of  the  counties,  and  the  State  in  the  aggregate,  had  been  enormously 
oppressed  by  debts  voted  upon  the  taxpayers  by  the  non-taxpayers.  The 
new  constitution  was  framed  in  the  interest  of  reform  in  the  taxing  feature 
of  government.  Thus  cities  were  prohibited,  by  one  of  its  provisions,  from 
laying  a  heavier  tax  for  municipal  purposes  than  one-quarter  of  i  per  cent, 
of  the  assessed  value  of  their  property.  The  assessed  value  of  Birmingham 
property  was  so  low  that,  under  this  limitation,  it  was  seen  to  be  imprac- 
ticable that  the  city  should  perform  many  municipal  acts  necessary  to  its 
growth  and  efficient  self-government. 

These  obstructive  conditions  were  fully  known  to  the  president  of  the 
Elyton  Land  Company.  They  did  not  for  an  instant  damp  his  ardor  or 
slacken  his  persistency.  The  iron  ores,  analyzed,  were  found  to  be  near 
by  in  unexampled  profusion.  The  coal  seams  had  been  tested  and 
proven.  The  great  agricultural  regions  to  the  North  and  the  South 
were  distant  less  than  a  half  day's  journey  by  rail.  The  forests  all  around 
Red  Mountain  were  rich  in  timber.  The  lime  quarries  had  long  turned 
out  the  best  product  in  their  line.  The  stone  for  building,  the  clay  for  the 
brick  kiln,  were  in  sight.  The  immeasurable  wealth  of  the  marble  fields  of 
the  adjoining  counties  of  Bibb  and  Talladega  was  known  and  duly  treas- 
ured in  the  general  estimate. 

Colonel  Powell's  nature  rose  to  the  exigencies  of  the  occasion.  He 
carried  no  morbid  sentiment  into  this,  his  supreme  opportunity.  He  saw 
plainly  into  the  political  future  and  reasoned  deeper  than  the  accidents  of 
the  situation  in  Alabama.  Revolutions  in  government  must  need  make 
changes  in  the  habits  of  the  people.  The  South  had  been  happy  under 
industrial  and  social  conditions,  which  had  passed  away  forever.  Must 
that  great  change  forever  debar  the  South  from  recuperation?  Colonel 
Powell  answered  this  fearful  inquiry  in  the  negative,  and  his  tones  took 
volume  from  the  emotions  of  his  heart  and  from  the  vigor  of  his  intellect : 
' '  Ye;s,  we  may  pass  over  in  sorrow  and  in  silence  the  depths  of  the  dark- 
ness that  is  in  man  if  we  rejoice  in  the  purer  visions  he  has  attained  to.  "■ 

Initial  Lifluences.  169 

Unconscious  of  his  own  powers,  however,  yet  in  obedience  to  an  enthu- 
siasm which  underlies  heroism  in  all  forms,  Colonel  Powell  worked  steadily 
to  the  light  he  saw  ahead,  and  wavered  not  a  moment  in  his  confidence. 

Colonel  Powell  became  President,  as  we  have  said,  of  the  Elyton  Land 
Company  at  its  organization,  and  held  the  office  until  1875,  when  Dr. 
Caldwell  was  elected  to  fill  the  vacancy  occasioned  by  his  resignation. 
Under  his  administration  the  water  works  were  built,  which  now  (1887) 
are  sufficient  for  40,000  population.  The  completion  of  the  works  gave 
character  to  the  city.  It  proved  the  faith  of  the  company  in  its  venture. 
It  was  not  possible,  indeed,  to  attract  capital  without  them.  The  hercu- 
lean task  was  appreciated  by  the  president  of  the  company  before  he 
resolved  to  undertake  the  construction  of  them,  but  he  entered  upon  the 
responsibility,  as  he  had  entered  upon  all  others  in  his  previous  eventful 
career,  after  earnest  deliberation  and  with  the  courage  of  his  convictions. 
We  have  shown  that  upon  the  completion  of  the  water  works  the  com- 
pany was  wholly  without  funds  to  meet  its  bonds  issued  as  collateral  on 
the  loan  received  to  pay  for  them.  The  course  of  Colonel  Powell  in  this 
emergency  had  its  due  influence  upon  the  continued  Hfe  of  the  company. 

After  the  untimely  death  of  the  first  mayor,  R.  H.  Henley,  Colonel 
Powell  was  elected  to  succeed  him.  There  were  four  competitors  for  the 
mayoralty  at  the  election  which  chose  him,  and  he  received  a  small 
majority  over  the  combined  vote  of  the  other  three.  He  still  retained 
his  presidency  of  the  land  company.  Under  his  direction  only,  when 
president  of  the  land  company,  Major  Barker,  an  accomplished  engi- 
neer, laid  off  the  streets,  avenues,  and  alleys  of  the  city.  Under  his 
advice  the  land  company  made  donations  to  the  public  of  the  streets, 
avenues,  and  alleys  ;  to  the  city  the  parks  ;  to  the  railroads  the  wide 
reservation  bisecting  the  city  from  east  to  west ;  to  the  churches  the  lots 
on  which  to  build  houses  of  worship.  His  was  the  directing  mind,  shap- 
ing the  policy  on  the  widest,  most  liberal,  and  politic  ground.  He  gave 
his  salary  as  mayor  to  the  public  schools.  He  invited  capital  and  labor 
to  come  here  and  locate.  He  advertised  the  iron  and  coal  resources  of 
the  surrounding  country  in  every  part  of  the  United  States  and  in  Europe. 
His  enthusiastic  zeal  knew  no  bounds,  and  so  influential  had  become  his 
position  that  he  was  generally  known  in  Alabama  by  the  sobriquet, 
"  Duke  of  Birmingham." 

One  of  the  most  sagacious  strokes  of  policy  adopted  by  Colonel 
Powell,  in  his  ceaseless  efforts  to  publish  to  the  world  the  fact  that  the 
Elyton  Land  Company  had  enlisted  in  the  enterprise  of  building  a  city  at 
the  base  of  Red  Mountain,  occurred  in  his  successful  connection  with  the 

1 70  Jefferson   Coicnty. 

Alabama  Press  Association.  He  invited  the  association  to  meet  at  Bir- 
mingham at  its  annual  spring  convention  of  1873.  At  this  meeting  he 
was  elected  an  honorary  member.  Admitted  to  the  floor,  he  made  a 
motion  that  the  convention  select  Birmingham  as  the  place  for  holding  the 
next  succeeding  convention.  The  motion  was  stoutly  opposed,  but  pre- 
vailed. Colonel  Powell  then  proposed  that  the  New  York  State  Press 
Association,  which  would  convene  in  annual  session  about  the  time  of  the 
meeting  of  the  Alabama  Association,  should  be  invited  here.  This  was 
a  bold  proposition  and  fell  like  a  bomb  into  the  meeting.  The  New  York 
press  had  by  a  large  majority  supported  the  Grant  Administrations  in  de- 
posing the  Southern  State  governments,  and  had  approved  of  the  latest 
suppression  of  a  democratic  legislature  in  the  capitol  of  Alabama. 
Amid  no  small  excitement  this  motion  prevailed  also,  and  the  invitation 
was  sent  forward. 

In  the  spring  of  1874,  the  year  following  Black  Friday  and  the 
cholera  visitation  to  Birmingham,  the  meeting  of  the  two  associations 
occurred  as  had  been  agreed  upon.  Colonel  Powell  placed  before  the 
joint  bodies  all  the  information  at  his  command  favorable  to  the  prospects 
of  the  new  city,  then  appearing,  for  causes  we  have  mentioned,  in  its  most 
unpromising  aspect.  He  showed  the  guests  the  ore  deposits,  the  coal 
seams,  and  the  authentic  analysis  of  both  ores  and  coal.  The  vast 
deposits  and  the  seams  could  be  readily  seen  with  the  naked  eye,  and 
their  value  understood.  At  once  the  press  of  New  York,  metropolitan 
and  provincial,  was  ablaze  with  accounts,  written  direct  from  Birmingham, 
revealing  the  marvelous  discoveries  the  letter-writers  had  made.  Their 
reports  were  republished  throughout  the  Union  and  in  Europe.  It  was 
after  reading  these  that  Hon.  Abram  S.  Hewitt,  of  New  York,  exclaimed: 
"  The  fact  is  plain.  Alabama  is  to  be  the  iron  manufacturing  center  of 
the  habitable  globe." 

During  the  ravages  of  the  cholera  in  the  summer  of  1873  Colonel 
Powell  remained  at  his  post,  nursed  the  sick,  and  maintained  order.  The 
citizens  presented  him,  as  a  testimonial  of  their  esteem,  a  beautiful  pocket 
knife  of  many  blades,  manufactured  in  England  to  their  order,  and  at  a 
cost  of  $130. 

In  1874  Colonel  Powell  retired  from  Birmingham  to  his  cotton  plan- 
tations on  the  Yazoo.  He  yet  owned  large  and  valuable  real  estate 
in  Montgomery. 

In  1S78  he  was  invited  to  return  to  Birmingham  to  canvass  for  re-elec- 
tion to  the  mayoralty.  The  solicitation  was  granted.  After  a  campaign 
of  much  acrimony  and  activity  he  was  defeated  by  a  workingman.      The 

>6  k  ^ 

Initial  hifluenccs.  171 

defeat  was  bitterly  resented  by  Colonel  Powell.  He  made  immediate 
arrangements  to  contest  the  election,  but  his  contest  was  fruitless.  He 
had  aged,  and  misfortunes  had  thrown  him  out  of  the  current  of  influence. 
The  very  forces  he  had  been  so  influential  in  introducing  had  become  too 
strong  to  be  controlled  by  him. 

Returning  to  his  plantations  on  the  Yazoo,  he  met  death  from  a  pistol 
shot  at  the  hands  of  a  beardless  youth  in  a  neighboring  tavern  in  the  fall 
of  1SS3. 

Colonel  Powell  had  ever  been  a  temperate  man  in  his  habits.  Great 
energy,  strong  will,  clear  judgment  of  men  and  affairs,  ready  resources, 
and  a  kindly  heart  were  the  features  of  character  which  distinguished  him. 
*  In  his  later  years  his  temper  had  become  more  imperious  than  the 
new  elements  of  society  which  had  overcome  the  South  would  well  tol- 
erate. When  he  ran  for  mayor  last  in  Birmingham  he  brought  less  con- 
ciliation and  sympathy  to  bear  than  an  apparent  assertion  of  authority 
and  right  to  demand  the  office. 

The  youth,  who  fired  the  shot  which  ended  his  life,  slayed  a  gray- 
haired  man  who  could  not  moderate  a  sense  of  injustice  offered  to  his 
superior  rights  on  the  occasion. 



We  have  seen  that  the  Elyton  Land  Company,  having  established  a 
domicil,  in  the  fields  and  forests,  comprising  several  thousand  acres  of 
Jones  Valley,  proceeded  to  mark  off  lots  along  the  streets  and  avenues 
of  the  promised  city.  Extraordinary  invitation  could  alone  be  relied 
upon  to  bring  immigrants  to  build  upon  the  lots,  and  there  to  wait  for 
successive  evidences  of  the  correctness  of  the  judgment  of  the  company 
which  had  brought  them  here.  The  Elyton  Land  Company  had  neces- 
sarily to  be  as  wise  as  the  serpent  and  as  harmless  as  the  dove  in  its  policy 
of  building  up  a  city  in  the  wilderness,  a  hundred  miles  from  any  other 
organized  settlement  of  five  thousand  people.  It  is  true  Red  Mountain, 
the  coal  fields  and  lime  beds  flanking  it  on  either  side  for  a  hundred  miles 
of  its  length,  lay  in  sight  of  the  crossing  of  two  trunk  lines  of  railroad  ;  and 
at  the  crossing  it  was  proposed  to  build  an  iron  manufacturing  city.  But 
the  State  of  Alabama,  and  every  other  State  of  the  Union  closely  allied 
with  her  in  industrial  and  political  sj-mpathies,  had  been  latel}'  denuded 

172  Jefferson   Coimty. 

of  nine-tenths  of  its  capital  and  was  practically  without  credit.  Whence 
would  come  the  capital,  whence  the  confidence  equal  to  investment  in  a 
new  enterprise  requiring  management  in  which  our  people  were  wholly 
unskilled  ?  Granted,  that  iron  ores  and  the  basic  materials  necessarj-  for  their 
manufacture  were  here,  whence  would  come  the  skilled  labor  to  handle 
them?  Should  these  difficulties  be  overcome,  what  political  influences 
would  be  directed  toward  them  ?  Our  State  Government  had  well  nigh 
been  bankrupted  in  the  same  years  that  the  Elyton  Land  Company  had 
been  organized.  Thieves  and  aliens,  ignorant  knaves  and  knavish  experts  in 
legislation,  had  seized  the  government  at  Montgomery,  and  in  almost  every 
county,  and  had  runup  a  State  debt  from  $5,000,000  to  S33, 000,000,  besides 
county  and  city  indebtedness  of  unknown  and  incalculable  dimensions. 
Should  there  be  no  hidden  fate,  to  consume  the  bud  of  promise  for  the 
plans  of  the  company  in  these  things,  and  should  good  iron  be  made  here, 
would  hostile  Federal  legislation  be  encountered  by  it,  or  hostile  transpor- 
tation regulations  impair  its  natural  rights  and  powers  of  competition? 
Were  these  idle  questions  ?  Does  not  even  now  a  wide-spread  misappre- 
hension prevail  in  distant  States  that  the  success  of  our  furnacemen  is 
largely  founded  on  abnormally  cheap  labor,  and  that  the  price  of  labor  in 
Alabama  is  a  National  political  question?  It  is  not  to  be  denied  that  the 
promoters  of  the  effort  to  found  a  city,  in  sight  of  the  most  wonderful  iron 
deposits  and  coke-making  coal  seams  in  the  United  States,  were  resting 
under  serious  menace  from  various  extraneous  public  influences,  so  late 
as  ten  years  ago. 

The  city  of  Birmingham  has  now  passed  the  crucial  test  of  its  right 
to  a  foundation  and  a  history.  But  it  had  not  always  been  sunshine  with 
it.  There  have  been  days  of  doubt  when  the  result  was  hidden  in  the 
clouds,  and  when  the  bravest  so  understood  it. 

The  project  of  the  Elyton  Land  Company,  if  executed,  evidently 
required  men  of  rare  qualifications  to  direct  it.  There  was  not  alone  the 
task  of  building  a  city  in  the  wilderness  before  the  company,  but  the  fur- 
ther task  of  encouraging  the  growth  of  a  new  line  of  industry  in  the  face 
of  great  prejudices,  some  at  home  and  others  abroad. 

Dr.  Henry  Martin  Caldwell  became  second  in  o'rder  of  the  Presidents 
of  the  Elyton  Land  Company  in  the  year  1875.  Mr.  Josiah  Morris- 
influence  originally  led  to  his  selection,  and  the  affairs  of  the  company 
have  been  entirely  committed  to  his  administration.  When  Dr.  Caldwell 
took  the  office  it  was  without  salary  virtually.  He  has  been  annually 
reelected,  and  his  salary  has  been  increased  on  several  different  occasions 
without  demand  from  him.      Had  he  received  from  the  company  the  usual 

hiitial  Influences.  173 

commissions  charged  by  real  estate  agencies,  on  the  sales  made  by  him  for 
the  company  in  the  months  of  August  or  October,  1886,  he  would  have 
pocketed  the  moderate  fortune  of  ^50,000  or  better  for  each  month.  Dr. 
Caldwell  sells,  in  person,  all  the  lots  offered  by  the  company,  and  selects 
the  lots  to  be  offered.  He  lays  the  plans,  which  the  General  Manager^ 
Major  Milner,  carries  forward  to  completion  with  such  unvarying  success. 

Dr.  Caldwell  was  born  in  the  village  of  Greenville,  Butler  County, 
Alabama,  in  1836.  He  grew  up  there,  received  a  good  education,  and  in  his 
twenty-first  year  graduated  in  medicine  at  the  celebrated  University  of 
Pennsylvania  in  Philadelphia.  Following  the  profession  at  home,  after 
the  usual  routine  of  a  young  country  doctor,  in  a  prosperous  community 
where  slavery  prevailed,  he  was  fully  imbued  with  the  politics  which 
matured  into  the  formation  of  the  Confederacy.  He  entered  the  medical 
department  of  the  army,  and  until  the  end  of  the  war  served  partly  in  the 
field  with  the  Thirty-third  Alabama  Infantry,  and  partly  at  various  posts. 

Dr.  Caldwell  is  undoubtedly  in  a  position  of  the  highest  commanding 
influence  in  Alabama.  He  determines  to  a  greater  degree  than  any  one 
man  in  the  State  what  shall  be  the  influence  of  Birmingham.  He  controls 
the  market  prices  of  4,000  acres  of  land  in  and  near  the  city.  The  cease- 
less activity  of  the  selling  market,  and  the  uninterrupted  policy  of  the 
company  in  holding  the  market  open  to  purchasers,  is  sufficient  assertion< 
of  the  liberality  and  wisdom  of  its  course. 

Dr.  Caldwell  is  thoroughly  in  earnest  in  his  attachment  to  Bir- 
mingham. He  is  a  large  individual  property  holder  in  the  city  and  its 
suburbs.  He  is  President  of  the  Caldwell  Hotel  Company,  now  engaged 
in  erecting  a  first-class  hotel.  In  order  to  provide  the  most  eligible  site 
for  this  beautiful  structure  he  subscribed  to  its  stock  the  lot  on  which  his 
handsome  private  residence  then  stood,  besides  making  the  largest  indi- 
vidual cash  subscription  to  the  project.  He  is  a  projector  of  the  Belt 
Railroad  and  of  various  private  enterprises.  He  is  also  a  director  of  the 
First  National  Bank  of  Birmingham,  of  the  Williamson  Iron  Company, 
and  of  the  Birmingham  Iron  Works. 

Dr.  Caldwell  married  in  early  life,  and  has  established  two  sons  in 
active  business  in  Birmingham.  He  is  too  busy  to  accept  public  office, 
but  possesses  qualifications,  in  fluency  of  speech  and  breadth  of  view,  to- 
become  a  political  force  should  ambition  in  that  line  tempt  him. 

We  have  so  minutely  given  the  history  of  the  Elyton  Land  Company 
in  the  years  of  Dr.  Caldwell's  administration  of  its  affairs,  and  his  career 
is  so  comprehended  in  that  history,  that,  without  unprofitable  ratiocina- 
tion, we  need  only  to  remark  on  the  inseparable  alliance  of  the  two  themes. 

1 74  Jefferson   County. 

Dr.  Caldwell  lives  in  a  central  position  in  the  city  of  the  Elyton  Land 
Company,  in  the  easy  style  of  a  Southern  gentleman  of  means  and  educa- 
tion. He  walks  to  his  office  after  early  breakfast  and  labors  faithfully  all 
day.  His  manners  are  unostentatious,  as  those  of  a  well-bred  and  self- 
respecting  gentleman,  and  he  may  be  seen  overlooking  the  smallest  details 
of  a  large  and  varied  business,  within  and  without  doors,  at  any  hour  of 
daylight.  His  example  of  temperance,  energy,  prudence,  and  fidelity  is 
a  good  one  to  younger  men,  and  to  all  men  who  come  to  Birmingham  to 
labor  and  to  wait. 

Mrs.  Dr.  Caldwell  is  a  sister  of  the  Secretary  and  Treasurer  of  the 
Elyton  Land  Company,  Major  Milner. 

Mr.  John  T.  Milner,  the  most  distinguished  civil  engineer  of  Ala- 
bama, and  who  was  Chief  Engineer  of  the  South  &  North  Railroad,  mar- 
ried Dr.  Caldwell's  sister.  Circuit  Judge  John  K.  Henry  married  another 
sister,  and  Samuel  B.  Otts  a  third. 

John  C.  Caldwell,  the  father  of  Dr.  Caldwell,  was  a  native  of  North 
Carolina,  and  Elizabeth  Black,  his  wife,  and  the  mother  of  Dr.  Caldwell, 
was  a  native  of  South  Carolina.  Early  in  the  settlement  of  Alabama  by 
whites.  John  C,  the  father,  came  with  his  young  wife  to  live  in  Greenville. 
There  his  children  were  born ;  there  fortune  attended  him  as  merchant 
and  cotton  planter.  In  1870  he  died,  and  in  the  year  following  the  com- 
panion, who  had  come  to  share  with  him  the  lot  of  immigrants  into  the 
Indian  wilds  followed  him  to  the  last  resting  place. 

Dr.  Caldwell  is  a  member  of  the  Order  of  Free  and  Accepted  Masons. 
He  and  his  wife  are  both  members  and  active  supporters  of  the  First 
Presbyterian  Church  of  Birmingham.  To  him  was  intrusted  the  duty  of 
procuring  the  plans  from  the  architect  for  the  large  and  costly  church  now- 
being  built  by  that  congregation. 



The  execution  of  a  policy  laid  out  b}-  a  great  corporation,  whose  plans 
are  never  beneath  its  ability  to  conceive  and  support,  must  always  fall  upon 
one  responsible  head.  Wisdom  in  council  consists  not  alone  in  devising 
schemes  and  voting  the  means,  but  also  in  finding  the  single  executor  for 
their  practical  inauguration  and  continued  prosperity  in  operation.  Execu- 
tive tact,  which  is  courageous  enough  to  accept  an  original  outline  from 

Initial  hifliiences.  177 

the  projector  of  its  plans,  and  honest  enough  to  make  them  its  own,  is  the 
indispensable  element  of  corporate  strength.  It  is  the  motive  power  which 
determines  all  questions  of  utility  of  agents  and  economy  of  means.  It 
is  the  helm  to  direct  the  course  of  the  ship  which  other  hands  have  built 
and  laden  with  resources. 

Among  the  first  steps  toward  organization  made  by  the  Elyton  Land 
Company  was  the  appointment  of  the  subject  of  this  sketch  to  be  its 
Secretary  and  Treasurer.  He  has  held  that  office  continuously  since,  and 
is  now  its  General  Manager.  The  history  of  the  company  is  a  material 
part  of  the  biography  of  the  Secretary  and  Treasurer. 

Major  Milner  is  a  native  of  Pike  County,  Georgia,  where  he  was  born 
May  3,  1842,  of  Georgia-born  parents.  He  is  the  youngest  of  six  chil- 
dren born  to  Willis  J.  and  Mary  A.  Milner,  nee  Turner.  Subsequently 
the  father  and  mother  moved  to  Greenville,  Butler  County,  one  of  the 
lower  tier  of  counties  of  Alabama,  where  first  the  father  died  in  1864,  the 
mother  following,  in  Birmingham,  in  1879. 

The  father  had  led  a  life  of  enterprise.  In  Georgia  he  had  been  a 
railroad  contractor  and  gold  miner.  The  son  had  been  placed  at  Mercer 
University,  Georgia,  and  had  entered  into  the  course  of  the  junior  class 
when  the  enthusiasm  of  the  revolution  of  1861  swept  over  the  South  with 
resistless  and  matchess  fervor.  The  college  walls  were  deserted  as  if  by 
some  inspired  call  from  without.  Young  Milner,  like  the  best  students 
in  all  Southern  colleges,  abandoned  his  studies  for  the  field.  His  military 
record  began  as  first  lieutenant  of  a  company  stationed  in  Escambia 
County,  Florida.  There  was  no  apparent  opportunity  open  to  this  part  of 
the  army  for  active  service,  and  the  college  student  had  gone  in  for  war  on 
a  principle.  War  meant  to  him  the  battles  which  would  bring  quick  and 
certain  results.  To  gratify  his  purpose  he  must  escape  from  Escambia 
County.  Thus  resolved,  he  resigned  his  commission  and  repaired  to 
Pensacola,  enlisted  as  a  private  in  the  Clinch  Rifles,  a  company  of  the  5th 
Georgia  infantry  then  stationed  there.  There  was  room  in  this  zeal  for 
the  office  of  future  general  manager  of  the  most  famous  and  influential 
corporation  of  the  whole  reconstructed  Confederacy. 

After  two  years  of  the  duty  of  private  soldier  in  the  field,  marching 
and  fightkig  on  corn  cakes,  or  roasting-ears,  or  rationless,  as  circumstances 
prevailed  of  a  favorable  or  unfavorable  turn  in  the  army  commissary,  our 
subject  was  sent  up  to  Company  K.,  33rd  Alabama  Infantry,  as  first  lieu- 
tenant commanding.  A  slight  wound  at  Murfreesboro,  and  a  more  serious 
one  at  Chickamauga,  prepared  the  way  for  promotion.  Adjutant  Moore,  of 
the  33rd  Alabama,  fell  at  Chickamauga,  and  young  Milner  was  appointed 

178  Jejferso7t   County. 

to  succeed  him.  His  executive  ability  attracted  attention,  and  he  was  again 
promoted  to  the  staff  of  Lowery's  brigade  of  Cleburne's  division,  the 
most  famous  in  the  army  of  Tennessee.  Cleburne's  division  was  thanked 
by  resolution  of  the  Confederate  Congress  for  saving  Bragg's  army  from 
annihilation  at  Missionary  Ridge,  an  honor  never  conferred  on  any  single 
division  of  an  army  at  any  time  before  or  since.  Cleburne  fell  in  the 
bloodiest  battle  of  the  war  at  Franklin,  Tennessee. 

Upon  the  consolidation  of  the  i6th  and  33rd  Alabama  regiments  of 
infantry,  Captain  Milner  was  elected  major  of  the  new  organization.  At 
the  time  of  the  surrender  of  the  Confederate  armies  he  was  in  command 
of  his  regiment,  because  of  the  capture  or  fall  of  the  colonel  and  lieuten- 

Major  Milner  was  paroled  with  the  remnant  of  his  command,  and  of 
the  armies  of  the  Confederacy,  not  to  fight  against  the  Union  until  duly 

Along  with  the  remnant  of  the  hosts  who  had  engaged  to  support 
a  principle  which  had  been  overcome,  he  turned  his  attention  to  the 
restoration  and  rehabiliment  of  his  despoiled  country.  Penniless  he  made 
his  way  to  the  home  of  his  brother-in-law.  Dr.  Henry  M.  Caldwell,  a 
paroled  Confederate  surgeon,  who  had  saved  something  from  the  wreck 
prevailing.  First  as  Dr.  Caldwell's  partner  in  a  drugstore  in  Greenville, 
and  subsequently  in  various  other  responsible  positions,  he  continued  in 
business  in  that  town  until  his  removal  to  Birmingham. 

In  October,  1865,  Major  Milner  was  married  to  Miss  Gustrine  C.  Key, 
only  child  of  the  late  Dr.  James  F.  Key,  of  Lowndes  County.  To  this 
happy  union  the  husband  attributes  whatever  of  success  may  have  attended 
his  efforts  in  fife.  Though  long  an  invalid  and  a  great  sufferer,  Mrs.  Mil- 
ner has  been  a  true  and  faithful  wife  and  ever  a  noble  example  of  woman- 
hood. Her  opinions  are  always  sought,  and  her  counsel  and  advice  in 
matters  of  grave  importance  valued  far  above  those  of  any  other  living 
mortal.  Her  judgment  is  rarely  at  fault  and  her  intuitiv^e  insight  into 
character  remarkable. 

In  1 87 1  Major  Milner  came  to  Birmingham  as  an  employe  of  the 
South  &  North  Alabama  Railroad  Company,  but  soon  after  was  made 
secretary  and  treasurer  of  the  Elyton  Land  Company,  Colonel  James  R. 
Powell  being  then  president.  When  Dr.  Caldwell  succeeded  to  the 
presidency  of  the  Land  Company  Major  Milner  was  retained  in  his  office, 
■  and,  in  addition,  was  made  superintendent  of  the  water  works. 

The  business  enterprise  of  Major  Milner  has  by  no  means  been  lim- 
ited to  the  arduous  duties  assigned  him  by  the  Elyton  Land  Company, 

hiitial  Influences.  1 79 

Some  view  of  the  compass  of  these  duties  may  be  reached  by  recurring 
to  a  few  of  them.  The  secretary  and  treasurer,  being  a  practical  civil 
engineer,  built  the  original  waterworks  of  the  company,  costing  ,g  100, 000. 
The  new  water  works  of  the  company,  involving  the  most  elaborate  par- 
ticulars of  the  system  of  supplying  water  from  mountain  springs,  seven  to 
ten  miles  distant,  by  means  of  reservoirs,  aqueducts,  filterers,  pumps,  and 
distributing  channels,  is  entirely  under  his  control.  The  street-railway 
system  of  the  com.pany,  covering  many  miles  and  including  the  manage- 
agement  of  Lakeview  Park,  is  also  under  his  control. 

Major  Milner  is  in  business  on  his  own  account,  and  very  successfully 
engaged.  He  is  owner  of  valuable  real  estate,  improved  and  unimproved. 
He  is  the  senior  member  of  a  firm  of  iron  and  brass  manufacturers. 

One  of  the  most  important  and  interesting  features  of  his  enterprise 
is  the  Belt  Railroad.  This  line,  now  being  constructed,  is  a  project  of  his. 
It  is  owned  by  a  company,  but  is  managed  by  him.  Its  name  implies  its 
object.  It  encircles  the  city,  and  will  find  employment  in  switching  off 
loaded  freight  cars  from  trains  entering  the  city  from  distant  points,  and 
unloading  them  at  convenient  points  to  consignees  of  their  contents. 

Major  and  Mrs.  Milner  are  communicants  of  the  Church  of  the 
Advent  (Protestant  Episcopal),  Birmingham.  They  are  the  parents  of 
-one  son  and  one  daughter. 

At  a  recent  meeting  of  the  directory  of  the  Elyton  Land  Company 
the  salary  of  its  secretary  and  treasurer  was  ordered  doubled,  and  this  in 
the  middle  of  the  year,  for  which  the  original  amount  had  been  fixed  and 
accepted,  and  without  any  suggestion  frcmi  him. 

Major  Milner  is  a  Mason  in  high  standing  with  his  order. 



Colonel  Troy  has  lived  an  active  and  enterprising  career,  and  fsw 
Southerners  are  more  typical  of  the  culture  and  manhood  the  section  pro- 
motes than  he.  He  is  prompt,  decided,  and  energetic  in  business,  liberal 
in  views,  and  generous  to  his  opponents  in  action.  He  makes  leisure  a 
part  of  his  right,  and  enjoys  it  for  its  own  sake>  Travel,  society,  polite 
literature,  and  domestic  enjoyment  are  so  interwoven  with  work,  politics 
and  religion  as  to  round  off  the  years  with  pleasure,  both  physical  and 

I  So  Jefferson    County. 

A  resident  of  the  capital  of  the  State,  a  hundred  miles  from  the 
scenes  we  particularly  describe,  Colonel  Troy  has  been,  from  a  very  early 
day  in  the  rise  and  growth  of  Birmingham,  an  active  and  increasing 
factor.     Hence  here  stands  his  name  to  represent  his  fair  works. 

In  the  generation  which  lived  next  before  the  revolt  of  the  American 
colonies  the  ancestors  of  Colonel  Troy  immigrated  into  Pennsylvania  from 
Ireland.  The  grandfather  had  come  down  to  North  Carolina  when  the 
war  broke  out,  and  took  his  stand  in  the  struggle  of  the  patriots.  In 
North  Carolina  Alexander  was  born,  and  there  married  Frances  Shipman, 
and  these  were  the  parents  of  Daniel  S.,  the  youngest  born  of  nine  chil- 
dren. On  October 9,  1832,  Daniel  was  born  in  Columbus  County,  North 

Alexander  Troy  was  a  leading  lawyer  of  his  native  State,  and  an 
active  politician  on  the  Whig  side  of  the  issues  of  his  day.  He  held  the 
office  of  State  Attorney  for  twenty-five  years.  It  is  related  that  the 
majority  of  voters  called  to  pass  upon  his  aspirations  for  public  honors 
were  Democrats,  opposed  to  his  own  party  on  practical  public  questions ; 
nevertheless,  so  eminently  satisfactory  were  Mr.  Troy's  services  that  both 
parties  agreed  to  retain  them  by  keeping  him  in  the  office.  He  had,  in 
North  Carolina,  a  political  opponent,  ]\Ir.  Simmons.  Subsequently  Sim- 
mons came  to  Pike  County,  Alabama,  and  was  sent  to  the  legislature  of 
this  State.  Zebulon  was  then  the  name  of  the  county  seat  of  Pike. 
Representative  Simmons  promptly  made  use  of  his  influence  in  the  legis- 
lature to  change  the  name,  and,  to  honor  his  old  competitor  and  rival, 
chose  Troy.  The  flourishing  distributive  point  of  the  commerce  of  a 
large  agricultural  community  now  represents  the  transformation  of  the 
times,  and  boars  with  increasing  fame  the  name  of  the  father  of  Colonel 

The  mother  of  Colonel  Troy  was  of  Welsh  origin,  and  his  maternal 
grandfather  was  also  a  participant  on  the  side  of  the  patriots  of  North 
Carolina  in  the  Revolutionary  war.  The  mother  was  a  woman  of  marked 
courage  and  energy.  Having  been  left  a  widow  with  a  large  family  when 
Daniel  was  six  years  old,  she  managed  to  have  all  the  children  well  edu- 
cated, chiefly  at  home.  During  an  entire  summer  Daniel  and  a  brother 
several  years  older  went  to  school  to  each  other  at  a  country  church  near 
the  family  residence.  Daniel  learned  the  Greek  alphabet  so  as  to  hear  his 
elder  brother  recite  his  lessons  in  the  Greek  grammar,  and  took  great 
pleasure  in  requiring  this  elder  brother  "  to  get  the  lesson  over  again  "  if 
he  missed,  well  knowing  that  the  mother  at  home  would  sustain  either 
one  in  exacting  a  full  performance  of  duty  by  the  other.     When  Daniel 

Initial  hifluences, 

was  a  mere  lad  of  fifteen  he  was  left  alone  with  his  mother  in  the 
management  of  the  homestead  plantation,  and  while  conducting  the  farm 
successfully,  under  his  mother's  direction,  he  pursued  his  studies  without 
any  assistance  whatever  for  two  years,  and  during  that  time  read  most  of 
the  Latin  classics,  and  acquired  a  taste  for  English  literature  and  specu- 
lative philosophy  which  he  has  never  lost.  An  extensive  library  of  lit- 
erary, religious,  and  philosophical  works  shows  the  wide  range  of  his 
intellectual  recreations.  His  first  appearance  in  an  institution  for  the 
education  of  young  men  was  at  Spring  Hill  College,  near  Mobile,  in  July, 
1873.  when,  on  the  invitation  of  the  faculty,  he  delivered  an  address  to 
the  graduating  class  on  "  Common  Sense." 

Daniel  S.  Troy,  in  his  eighteenth  year,  came  to  Cahaba,  the  old 
capital  of  Alabama,  and  then  the  county  seat  of  Dallas,  the  richest  county 
in  the  State.  He  began  work  as  a  clerk  for  his  brother-in-law,  William 
Hunter,  a  lawyer.  There  he  continued  his  studies  of  general  literature 
for  a  year  longer,  and  then  began  the  study  of  law.  In  his  nineteenth 
year  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  the  lower  courts,  and  at  the  age  of 
twenty-two  he  was  admitted  to  practice  in  the  State  Supreme  Court. 

In  Cahaba,  in  1855,  he  married  Miss  Lucy,  a  daughter  of  one  of  the 
wealthy  cotton  planters  of  the  State,  Mr.  Joel  E.  Mathews,  and  a  lady  of 
rare  character  and  accomplishments.  She  lived  only  a  few  months  after 
the  marriage.  In  1859  Colonel  Troy  was  married  to  Florence  L., 
daughter  of  Gov.  Thomas  H.  Watts,  of  Montgomery,  by  whom  he  has 
an  interesting  family  of  children. 

In  i860  Colonel  Troy  took  up  his  abode  in  the  city  of  Montgomery, 
and  since  then  has  been  an  active  participant  in  public  affairs,  and  has 
taken  rank  among  the  better  class  of  lawyers.  He  owns  an  unpreten- 
tious, but  beautiful  and  admirably  arranged  home  in  the  resident  part  o  f 
the  city.  He  is  a  zealous  Catholic.  He  was  State  Senator  for  eight 
years,  and  among  his  reform  measures  was  the  railroad  supervision  law. 
He  was  president  of  the  Montgomery  water  works  until  its  recent  sale  to 
a  new  company.  A  year  ago  he  established  a  new  daily  newspaper  in 
Montgomery,  called  the  Dispatch,  which  has  been  conducted  with  marked 
indepencVsnce  and  ability.  He  is  also  president  of  the  Alabama  Fertil- 
izer Company,  one  of  the  most  successful  manufacturing  enterprises  of 
the  capital  city.  He  abates  no  zeal  in  his  law  practice,  however,  and  is 
at  the  head'of  one  of  the  most  successful  legal  firms  in  the  State. 

In  1862  Colonel  Troy  was  made  captain  of  one  of  the  companies  of 
the  Hilliard    Legion,  organized   at    Montgomery   by   the   distinguished 
statesman,  and   occasional    pulpit   orator,    Henry  W.   Hilliard.     In  the 

1 82  Jeffersoti   County. 

reorganization  of  a  part  of  the  Confederate  army  he  was  made  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel of  the  Sixtieth  Alabama  Infantry.  His  campaigns,  as 
lieutenant-colonel,  began  in  East  Tennessee  and  Kentucky.  At  the  battle 
of  Bean  Station  one-third  of  his  regiment,  on  the  field,  were  killed  or 

Going  into  the  Virginia  campaign,  under  Longstreet,  he  was  pain- 
fully wounded  at  the  affair  at  Bermuda  Hundreds.  On  March  25th, 
while  in  command  of  the  Fifty-ninth  Alabama,  he  was  shot  through  one 
lung,  and  left  on  the  field  for  dead.  Having  been  removed  to  Lincoln 
Hospital,  Washington  City,  he  was  well  nursed  and  fully  restored. 

Colonel  Troy's  connection  with  Birmingham  and  the  mineral  interests 
of  Alabama  has  been,  as  we  have  said,  highly  influential. 

In  1868  he  became  interested  in  the  present  Eureka  Furnace  Com- 
pany, which  operates  two  stacks  at  Oxmoor,  six  miles  from  the  city  of 
Birmingham,  with  a  capital  stock  paid  up  of  g  1,000, 000.  It  was  orig- 
inally known  as  the  "  Red  Mountain  Iron  &  Coal  Company."  The  com- 
pany was  reorganized,  by  Colonel  Troy,  under  a  new  charter,  and,  at  his 
suggestion,  the  name  of  the  place  was  changed  to  Oxmoor,  in  memory  of 
his  father's  North  Carolina  residence  which  bore  that  name. 

Colonel  Troy  claims,  with  every  apparent  reason  of  propriet>',  to 
have  secured  the  first  correct  analysis  of  the  iron  ores  of  Red  Mountain 
and  the  coal  seams  of  the  Cahaba  district  ever  made. 

In  1873  he  became  attorney  for  the  Elyton  Land  Company,  no  doubt 
owing  the  appointment,  in  part,  to  the  influence  of  Mr.  Josiah  Morris,  the 
largest  stockholder,  and.  his  fellow-townsman  and  friend.  His  legal 
advice  has  been  of  incalculable  service  to  the  company,  and  may  be  said 
to  control  largely  its  policy.  He  is  a  considerable  stockholder,  his  stock 
being  worth  a  very  handsome  fortune  in  itself.  He  has  an  orange  grove 
and  winter  home  on  Lake  Harris,  in  South  Florida,  where  he  spends, 
with  his  family,  the  coldest  of  the  winter  months.  This  place  he  has  also 
named  "  Oxmoor,"  and  nothing  more  beautiful  can  be  found  in  the  coun- 
try of  oranges  than  the  scene  which  greets  the  eye  from  the  various 
piazzas  of  this  broad  one-story  house.  High  rolling  lands,  a  silver  lake, 
islands,  cypress,  long  moss,  and  the  bright  green  orange  trees  and  golden 
fruit  in  the  foreground  combine  to  make  a  picture  lovely  beyond  the 
power  of  language  to  express. 

Initial  Influences.  183 



In  November,  1872,  the  Elyton  Land  Company  began  the  construc- 
tion of  a  system  of  water  works  more  than  adequate  then  for  the  wants 
of  the  infant  city.  These  works  were  continued  during  1873  and 
1874,  small  additions  being  made  in  the  latter  year.  On  the  ist  of 
January,  1875,  the  works  consisted  of  one  small  Worthington  steam 
pump,  about  four  and  a  half  miles  of  mains,  and  one  service  reservoir 
with  a  capacity  of  about  one  million  gallons,  the  whole  costing  about 
|i6o,ooo.  The  history  of  these  works  since  that  date  has  been  one  of 
continual  growth  by  means  of  extensions  and  alterations,  until  what 
remains  of  the  original  plant  constitutes  a  very  small  proportion  of  the 
works  existing  at  present.  The  source  of  supply  remains  the  same,  viz : 
Village  Creek,  two  miles  north  of  the  city,  though,  as  will  be  seen  further 
along,  new  works  are  in  process  of  construction  looking  to  the  abandon- 
ment of  this  source  as  a  supply.  The  g6o,ooo  invested  in  the  water 
works  at  the  time  referred  to  came  near  bankrupting  the  Elyton  Land 
■Company.  To  raise  this  sum  the  company  had  executed  sundry  notes, 
maturing  at  short  intervals,  hoping  to  realize  from  the  sale  of  lots  a 
sufficient  amount  to  meet  them.  Failing  in  this,  its  anxious  creditors 
sued  upon  the  notes,  obtained  judgment,  and  levied  upon  the  company's 
property.  Its  stock  went  down  to  seventeen  cents  on  the  dollar,  and 
more  than  one  of  the  stockholders  became  alarmed  on  account  of  the 
"personal  liability"  clause  in  the  company's  charter,  which  made  each 
stockholder  liable  for  the  debts  of  the  company  equal  to  the  amount  of 
his  stock.  Even  the  desk  of  the  secretary  and  the  other  office  furniture 
were  levied  upon  by  these  clamorous  creditors,  and  the  struggles  of  the 
company  for  existence  during  all  this  period  of  depression  would  make 
an  interesting  chapter  in  the  Hght  of  succeeding  events,  but  it  is  not 
pertinent  to  the  present  purpose.  In  1879-80  large  extensions  of  mains 
were  made  to  reach  the  Alice  furnace  and  the  rolling  mills.  The  conse- 
quent increased  consumption  called  for  a  larger  pump  main  to  the  reser- 
voir and  an  additional  pump,  which  were  added  in  1881.  The  rapid 
growth  of  the  city  following,  in  1882,  called  for  still  further  pumping 
capacity,  which  was  accordingly  doubled  by  the  purchase  of  another 
Blake  engine,  a  duplicate  of  the  one  already  in  use. 

184  Jefferson    County. 

In  the  same  year  a  new  reservoir  was  constructed  and  the  old  one 
enlarged,  thereby  trebling  the  capacity  of  the  service  reservoirs. 

In  1866  the  pump  main  was  again  found  to  be  insufficient  to  the 
demand  upon  it,  as  were  also  the  supply  mains  in  the  city.  The  former 
was,  therefore,  replaced  by  a  twenty-inch  main,  and  the  latter  doubled 
by  additions. 

In  his  annual  report  to  the  stockholders  in  January,  1881,  the  super- 
intendent of  the  water  works  again  called  attention  to  the  necessity  of 
looking  for  an  additional  supply  of  water,  and  was  authorized  to  make 
some  examinations  to  that  end.  These  examinations  being  made,  further 
authority  was  given  in  1882  to  purchase  certain  lands  needed  for  the 
additional  supply.  The  plans  then  outlined  are  now  being  put  into 

Five-Mile  Creek  heads  in  the  mountains  to  the  north-eastward  of  the 
pumping  station,  having  its  source  in  numerous  crystal  springs  situated 
from  eight  to  twelve  miles  from  the  city,  and  drains  a  water-shed  of  about 
twenty  square  miles.  At  the  poin>t  where  this  stream  cuts  through  the 
ridge,  known  opposite  the  city  by  the  various  names  of  ' '  Reservoir 
Ridge,"  "Cemetery  Ridge,"  and  "Fountain  Heights,"  numerous  valleys 
converge  to  a  common  outlet.  At  this  point,  designed  and  prepared  by 
nature,  is  to  be  constructed  an  artificial 

Mountain    Take, 

in  which  to  store  the  sparkling  waters  of  those  springs,  and  of  the  water- 
shed supplying  them.  This  is  done  by  the  construction  of  a  dam  fifty-five 
feet  high,  and  of  an  average  length  of  six  handred  feet,  across  the  valley 
at  the  point  named.  The  lake  thus  formed  will  be  nearly  two  miles  ia 
length,  covering  an  area  of  about  two  hundred  and  twenty-five  acres, 
with  a  volume  of  fifteen  hundred  million  gallons  of  pure  water.  The 
contour  of  the  lake  follows  the  meandering  course  of  the  valleys,  broad 
here,  there  almost  bisected  by  the  closing-in  spurs  of  the  moimtains,  an 
island  uprisen  now,  yomder  a  peninsula,  long  and  narrow,  pointing  out, 
and  again  a  bayou  deep  into  the  slmdes  of  the  overhanging  cliffs. 

It  does  no  violence  to  the  imagination  to  picture  upon  this  calm 
bosom  gay  gcfridolas  and  white-winged  yachts,  affording  joyous  relaxation 
to  the  thousands,  who  will  doubtless  throng  its  shore-e,  transported  up  tke 
valley  by  dummy  li»es  of  street  railway  rfinning  into  the  heart  of  the 
city;  or,  passing  over  a  macadamized  public  highway  in  pleas,ure  carriages. 
From  this  reservoir  the  water  will  flow   by  gravity  through  a  canal,  with 

Initial  Infliietices.  185 

an  inclination  of  about  one  in  twenty-five  hundred,  a  distance  of 
nearly  six  miles  to  the  present  pumping  station,  where  it  will  be 
delivered  into  another  reservoir  containing  several  days'  supply.  The 
present  pumping  machinery  will  be  utilized,  as  far  as  it  may  go,  in  elevating 
the  water  thence  into  the  service  reservoirs.  Another  house  of  ornate 
appearance  artd  ample  capacity  is  to  be  built  to  receive  another  engine, 
already  contracted  for,  to  be  delivered  in  May  next.  This  engine  is  to 
be  of  the  latest  and  most  improved  design,  made  by  the  Dean  Steam 
Pump  Works,  of  Holyoke,  Mass.,  and  is  to  be  capable  of  delivering 
seven  million  gallons  in  twenty-four  hours.  The  present  reservoirs  are  to 
be  enlarged,  and  another  constructed  on  the  Highlands.  There  will  be 
also  a  high  service  pumping  station  and  reservoir  for  a  supply  to  the 
Highlands,  so  arranged  as  to  give,  within  the  city,  the  pressure  due  to  the 
higher  reservoir,  in  case  of  fire,  simply  by  closing  one  valve  and  opening 

Major  Willis  J.  Milner,  the  Secretarj^  and  Treasurer  of  the  El}ton 
Land  Company,  since  its  early  days,  and  always  serving  it  most  intelli- 
gently and  devotedly,  is  the  projector  of  this  admirable  water-supply 
system.  Under  his  personal  superintendence  it  is  being  constructed. 
When  completed  it  will  be  one  of  the  most  effective  measures,  for 
furnishing  pure  water  to  a  city  population,  in  the  United  States. 

J.   W.   SLOSS. 

In  1877  Colonel  Sloss  saw  a  man  on  the  mountain  side,  some  six 
miles  north-west  of  Birmingham,  digging  a  hole  in  the  ground.  His 
attention  was  arrested  by  the  lumps  of  coal  thrown  out.  From  this 
unexpected  and  obscure  beginning  sprang  the  enterprise  now  known  as 
the  Pratt  Mines,  and  which,  in  its  full  connections,  carries  an  invested 
capital  of  some  $4,000,000.  It  was  Colonel  Sloss  who  originated  the 
scheme  of  opening  the  mines. 

Colonel  Sloss  is  a  native  of  Limestone  County,  Alabama,  and  is  now 
in  full  tide  of  an  influential  and  successful  career.  He  has  always  lived 
in  Alabama,  and  has  been  a  leading  factor  in  great  enterprises. 

A  few  years  before  the  revolution  of  1860-61  Alabama  had  chartered 
the  railroad  we  have  spoken  of  as  the  Central  Road  ;  also  had  chartered 
a  road  to  run  from  some  point  on  the  Tennessee  River  in  a  northerly  course 
to  the  line  dividing  this  State  from  the  State  of  Tennessee.  The  northern 
division  of  the  road  was  run  with  one  terminus  at  Decatur,  crossinsr  the 

1 86  Jefferson  County. 

Memphis  &  Charleston  Road  at  that  place,  and  the  other  at  the  State 
line,  in  due  course  toward  Nashville.  This  northern  division  had  been 
completed  just  as  the  war  opened.  Colonel  Sloss  was  president  of  the 

The  division  now  known  as  the  South  &  North  Road  was  not  com- 
pleted until  after  the  war — not  until  1872,  the  last  spike  being  driven  at 
Blount  Springs. 

The  State  had  granted  aid  to  these  roads  from  the  3  per  cent,  fund, 
and  from  the  Government  lands  a  grant  of  each  alternate  section  had  been 
made,  aggregating  about  500,000  acres.  These  grants,  however,  have 
been  practically  valueless. 

After  the  war,  the  two  roads  were  placed  under  the  presidency  of 
Colonel  Sloss,  and  are  yet  continued  under  him,  as  a  part  of  the  Louis- 
ville &  Nashville  system. 

Colonel  Sloss  has  undoubtedly  earned  title  to  a  most  successful 
individual  enterprise  in  originating  and  directing  transportation,  mining, 
and  manufacturing  interests  in  Alabama.  He  organized  the  Sloss  Furnace 
Company,  operating  two  large  stacks  in  the  suburbs  of  Birmingham,  and 
owning  forty-eight  miles  long  of  Red  Mountain  ore,  20,000  acres  of  brown 
hematite,  15,000  acres  of  coal  lands,  two  extra  fine  large  stone  quarries, 
and  valuable  sand  deposits.  This  matchless  undeveloped  property,  with 
the  stacks,  has  been  recently  sold  to  Birmingham,  Richmond,  and  New 
York  capitalists  for  $2,000,000.  It  probably  did  not  cost  the  Sloss  Fur- 
nace Company  over  $500,000,  including  the  furnaces. 

His  residence  in  Birmingham,  though  plain,  is  commodious  and  com- 
fortable, in  sympathy  with  his  unpretending  habits,  and  surrounded  by 
extensive  grounds.  Being  a  gentleman  of  culture  and  refinement,  his 
services  are  demanded  by  society.  He  is  an  active  member  of  the  Meth- 
odist Episcopal  Church  South,  and  Superintendent  of  a  Sunday  school. 
He  was  president,  at  one  session,  of  the  Alabama  division  of  the  Lake 
De  Funiak  Chautauqua  Association. 

With  the  sale  of  the  furnaces,  established  and  managed  by  him,  Col- 
onel Sloss  has  retired  from  active  business.  He  assists  in  the  inaugura- 
tion, nevertheless,  of  new  enterprises  intended  to  promote  the  growth  of 

Initial  Influe7ices.  187 


Mr.  DeBardeleben  is  a  native  of  Autauga  County,  Alabama.  There 
he  married  the  only  daughter  of  Daniel  Pratt,  a  New  Englander,  who 
came  to  that  county  a  young  man  and  became  the  founder  of  large  man- 
ufacturing industries,  fifty  years  ago,  whose  influence  has  been  felt  in  every 
part  tf  the  South. 

lV;r.  DeBardeleben  has  been  a  prime  mover  in  the  chief  mining  and 
iron  manufacturing  industries  which,  in  the  earher  developments,  gave 
fame  to  Jefferson  County. 

Artong  them  are  the  Eureka  and  Alice  and  Mary  Pratt  Blast  Fur- 
naces, tie  Pratt  Coal  Mines  and  the  Henry-Ellen  Coal  Mines. 

In  tie  year  1886  Mr.  DeBardeleben  organized  a  company  to  found 
the  city  (f  Bessemer,  some  twelve  miles  south-west  of  Birmingham,  on 
the  Alabima  Great  Southern  Railroad.  Two  blast  furnaces  of  large 
capacity  lave  been  built  there,  a  large  area  for  the  site  of  the  city  has 
been  purnased,  and  encouragement  to  iron  manufactures  offered. 

Mr.  DeBardeleben  has  been,  and  is  now,  conspicuously  a  leader 
among  thegreat  enterprises  originating  in  Jefferson  County,  and  is  prob- 
ably the  lagest  capitalist  in  the  county. 

He  bult  for  himself  a  beautiful  three-story  brick  residence  in  the  city, 
where,  witl  his  family,  he  entertains  much  of  the  local  society  of  the  city 
and  the  vis:ors  coming  here. 



The  ppulation  of  Birmingham,  when  the  city  charter  was  granted, 
was  not  of  hat  patriotic  class  which  the  president  and  directory  of  the 
Elyton  Lad  Company,  and  others  of  the  more  "solid  men,"  considered 
to  be  trustworthy  to  act  the  part  of  suffragists  to  determine  the  degree  of 
law  and  orer  proper  to  be  preserved,  or  to  be  endowed  with  the  right  of 
selecting  tk  officers  to  direct  city  affairs. 

The  Gvernor,  therefore,  by  request  of  the  more  prominent  people 
of  the  yang  town,  appointed  Robert  H.  Henley,  a  young  man  of 
perhaps  fenty-six  years  of  age,  and  the  son-in-law  of  Major  Thomas 
Peters,  to;he  mayoralty.     There  was  much  disappointment  among  those 

1 88 



who  had  planned  to  elect  a  mayor  of  a  different  type.  The  mayor,  thus 
appointed,  promptly  assumed  the  office,  and  administered  it  with  grea: 
vigor,  good  judgment,  and  decision.  His  conduct  contributed  much  to 
enforce  order  in  the  interest  of  the  fair  name  of  the  cit}-,  and  endeared 
him  to  the  people. 

Mr.  Henley  resigned,  on  account  of  ill  health,  after  one  )-ear's  ser\ice. 
He  was  a  native  of  Demopolis,  Marengo  County,  and  his  father,  John  W. 
Henley,  was  one  of  the  most  brilliant  lawyers  of  one  of  the  most  wealthy 
circuits  of  the  State.  The  mayor  had  edited  in  Elyton,  and  later  in 
Birmingham,  a  weekly  newspaper  of  marked  ability  and  force,  du'ing  a 
trying  political  crisis  in  the  State,  called  the  Sun. 

Mr.  Henley  died  in  Savannah,  Ga.,  where  he  had  gone  fcr  rest. 
His  remains  were  brought  to  Birmingham,  and  interred  with  distinjuished 
public  honors  in  the  city  cemetery.  He  had  said  he  wanted  lo  other 
epitaph  on  his  tomb  than  "  Here  lies  the  First  Mayor  of  Birminglam." 

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Its    City    Government — Its    Growth — Its  Industrial,    Social,  and 
Religious  Life. 




CiTV    Government. 

Robert  H.  Henley,  a  young  man  of  handsome  person  and  courage- 
ous nature,  a  native  of  Demopolis,  Marengo  County,  was  appointed  first 
Mayor  of  Birmingham  by  Governor  R.  B.  Linusay.  He  went  into 
office  December  21,  1871,  and  to  hold  until  first  Monday  in  January, 
1873.  His  health  failed  and  he  resigned  before  the  expiration  of  his 

The  city  officers  under  the  Henley  administration  were:  Mayor,  R. 
H.  Henley;  Aldermen,  James  B.  Francis,  B.  F.  Roden,  W.  J.  McDon- 
ald, A.  Marre,  J.  B.  Webb,  John  A.  Milner,  T.  S.  Woods.  William 
Alexander,  from  Eutaw,  was  City  Clerk  ;  James  McConnell  was  Treasurer; 

IQO  Jefferson    County. 

O.  D.  Williams  was  Marshal,  or  Chief  of  Police,  and  the  other  police- 
men were  Robert  Bailey  and  H.  Clay  Atkins. 

The  mayor  himself  volunteered  his  services  as  policeman  should^ 
occasion  require  it  in  those  crude  times  of  organization. 

The   Powell   Administration. 

Colonel  James  R.  Powell,  the  President  of  the  Elyton  Land  Com- 
pany, was  second  in  order  of  the  mayors.  He  was  elected,  with  con- 
siderable opposition,  on  the  first  Monday  in  January,  1873. 

The  officers  of  this  administration  were  :  Mayor,  James  R.  Powell ; 
Aldermen,  J.  B.  Luckie,  M.  H.  Jordan,  W.  H.  Morris,  B.  F.  Ro(5en, 
John  A.  Milner,  James  O'Connor,  C.  F.  Enslen,  and  F.  P.  O'Brien. 
O'Brien  soon  resigned,  and  Charles  Linn  was  put  in  his  place.  J.  B. 
Francis  was  Treasurer.  R.  B.  Ryan,  E.  K.  Fulton,  V.  H.  Milner,  and 
E.  V.  Gregory  successively  held  the  city  clerk's  office.  W.  G.  Oliver 
was  Marshal,  and  E.  G.  Taylor,  A.  Robinson,  and  Robert  Bailey  were 
Policemen.  There  were  for  extra  police  service  in  1873  W.  L.  Cantelou, 
Jule  Wright,  James  Armstrong,  William  Harris,  J.  D.  Lykes,  M. 
Hagerty,  William  Clay,  J.  L.  Ellison,  W.  W.  Coxe,  and  John  Coxe. 
There  were  a  few  changes  in  the  police  force  of  1874. 

J.  J.  Jolly  was  made  City  Attorney  in  1874. 

The   Morris   Administration 

came  into  office  January  4,  1875.  The  officers  were:  Mayor,  W.  H. 
Morris;  Aldermen,  C.  E.  Slade,  William  Berney.  W.  A.  Smith,  J.  R. 
Hochstadter,  J.  L.  Lockwood,  J.  B,  Fonville,  W.  P.  Brewer,  and  A.  C. 

In  this  administration  the  ordinances  of  the  town  were  codified  by  E. 
L.  Clarkson,  Esq. 

Second   Morris   Administration. 

The  election  was  held  December  4,  1876,  the  legislature  having 
ordered  the  change  of  date.  Mayor,  W.  H.  Morris ;  Aldermen,  C.  E. 
Slade,  Wiliiam  Berney,  W.  A.  Smith,  J.  R.  Hochstadter,  J.  L.  Lock- 
wood,  J.  B.  Fonville,  W.  P.  Brewer,  and  A.  C.  Oxford.  E.  C.  Mackey 
was  City  Treasurer;  P.  H.  Carpenter,  Clerk;  E.  G.  Taylor,  Marshal; 
Robert  Bailey,  O.  F.  Percy,  B.  A.  Thompson,  and  Thomas  W.  Reaves, 

Birmingham.  191 

Mayor  Morris  resigned  in  his  second  term,  and  Dr.  H.  M.  Caldwell 
was  elected  by  the  Board  of  Aldermen  to  fill  the  unexpired  term. 

A  city  code  was  prepared  and  published  in  the  Morris  administration, 
second  term. 

The  Jeffers  Administration. 

Thomas  Jeffers  was  elected  Mayor  December,  1878.  He  was  fore- 
man of  the  Louisville  &  Nashville  Railroad  Shops,  and  was  opposed  by 
Colonel  James  R.  Powell,  former  Mayor  and  former  President  of  the 
Elyton  Land  Company,  the  "Duke  of  Birmingham,"  as  he  had  been 

The  officers  of  the  city  government  became  at  this  time  :  Mayor, 
Thomas  Jeffers ;  Aldermen,  B.  F.  Roden,  M.  H.  Jordan,  Frank  Gazwell, 
F.  D.  Nabers,  J.  L.  Lockwood,  G.  W.  Allen,  and  W.  A.  Smith.  J.  P. 
Hutchinson  was  Treasurer  ;  P.  H.  Carpenter,  Clerk  ;  B.  Plosser,  Marshal, 
William  Seay  and  John  B.  Lewis,  Policemen.  L.  M.  Teal  succeeded 
Plosser  as  Marshal. 

The   Second   Jeffers   Administration. 

Mayor,  Thomas  Jeffers ;  Aldermen,  C.  L.  Hardman,  T.  G.  Paine,  B. 

A.  Thompson,  C.  C.  Truss,  C.  L.  Wadsworth,  J.  L.  Lockwood,  F.  D. 
Nabers,  M.  H.  Jordan ;  Treasurer,  John  L.  Davis ;  City  Clerk,  P.  H. 
Carpenter;  Marshal,  George  H.  Pond. 

The   Lane   Administration. 

Alexander  Oscar  Lane  was  elected  Mayor  of  Birmingham  December 
5,  1882.  With  this  event  the  city  government  marked  a  new  era.  The 
better  government  then  secured  has  contributed  in  no  small  measure  to 
the  phenomenal  growth  of  the  town.  The  following  excellent  Board  of 
Aldermen  came  in  with   Mr.  Lane's  administration :    C.  P.  Williamson, 

B.  F.  Roden,  A.  S.  Elliott,  E.  Ellis,  T.  L.  Hudgins,  James  O'Connor, 
F.  V.  Evans,  and  John  G.  Sheldon.  B.  A.  Thompson  was  made  Treas- 
urer; W.  A.  Jones,  Clerk;  W.  G.  Oliver,  Marshal;  John  G.  Thompson, 
Captain  of  Police.  G.  W.  Merritt,  J.  A.  Brock,  J.  A.  Mingea,  W.  S. 
Nelson,  J.  S.  Barksdale,  C.  K.  Dickey,  G.  J.  Tomlin,  and  T.  P.  Hagood, 
were  appointed  Policemen ;  James  Fogarty  was  made  City  Sexton,  and 
Dr.  A.  T.  Henley  City  Physician.  The  policemen  were  required  to 
wear  the  metropolitan  uniform.  A  pesthouse  was  built.  M.  H.  Maury 
was  appointed  City  Engineer  in  1883. 

192  Jefferson   Comity. 

The  Second  Lane  Administration. 

Mayor  Lane  was  elected  for  a  second  term  at  the  regular  semi-annual 
election  December,  1884.  The  Aldermen  then  elected  were,  J.  R. 
Hochstadter,  N.  R.  Rosser,  William  Berney,  W.  J.  Rushton,  James  F. 
Smith,  J.  A.  Going,  Fred  Sloss,  and  E.  V.  Gregory. 

B.  A.  Thompson  became  Treasurer,  F.  V.  Evans,  Clerk ;  Dr.  A.  T. 
Henley  was  reappointed  City  Physician.  Toward  the  middle  of  1884,  J. 
R.  Carter  was  made  City  Engineer.  F.  H.  GafTord  was  appointed  Mar- 
shal;  Dr.  H.  J.  Winn  was  made  Health  Officer;  O.  A.  Pickard  was  ap- 
pointed Captain  of  Police ;  J.  H.  Mingea,  J.  G.  Smith,  William  Burwell, 
J.  B.  Donelson,  H.  U.  McKinney,  T.  J.  Boggan,  A.  H.  Maynor,  and 
James  McGee  were  made  Policemen. 

The  second  administration  of  Mayor  Lane  resulted  in  great  good  to 
the  city.  The  cause  of  law  and  order  was  maintained  with  vigor  and  dis- 
cretion. The  fire  service  was  thoroughly  organized.  The  public  schools 
were  put  upon  the  highest  and  most  efficient  footing.  Much  improve- 
ment of  the  sidwalks  and  streets  by  paving  and  drainage  was  accomplished. 
The  bonded  debt  of  the  city  was  maintained  at  a  premium. 

The  Third  Lane  Administration. 

The  success  of  the  preceding  two  administrations  of  Mayor  Lane 
prevailed  on  the  people  to  demand  his  reelection  for  a  third  term.  De- 
cember, 1886,  he  came  into  office  as  his  own  successor.  The  Aldermen 
then  elected  were  W.  A.  Walker,  Jr.,  E.  W.  Linn,  J.  R.  Hochstadter, 
D.  M.  Drennen,  James  O'Connor,  R.  W.  Whilden,  John  Colley,  and  W. 
H.  Eastman. 

F.  V.  Evans  was  reappointed  Treasurer,  H.  U.  McKinney  was 
appointed  Clerk,  Dr.  A.  T.  Henley  was  reappointed  City  Physician,  O. 
A.  Pickard  was  reappointed  Marshal. 

The  Policemen  appointed  were  J.  D.  Anderson,  Charles  Martin,  J. 
M.  Nix,  W.  M.  Turner,  W.  J.  Carlisle,  A.  L.  Sexton,  R.  M.  Saunders, 
W.  H.  Pinkerton,  T.  Z.  Hagood,  Richard  Smoot,  Jr.,  James  Turner,  B. 
R.  Childers,  Thomas  Hart,  J.  S.  Oldham,  O.  M.  Hill,  R.  H.  McCullum, 
James  Hillary. 

The  mayor's  report,  rendered  December  i,  1886,  shows  the  following 
financial  comparison  between  the  main  items  of  expenditure  for  the  years 
1882  and  1886.     The  statements  relate  to  monthly  expenditures: 

Birniingliani.  193 

In  1S82  the  police  pay  roll  was  ^540;  in  1886,  ^970.  In  1S82  the 
public  school  teachers'  pay  roll  was  $354  ;  in  1886  it  had  gone  over  g  1,900. 
In  1882  the  city  water  bill  was  $145  ;  in  1886  it  was  $290.  In  1882  the 
sanitary  department  pay  roll  was  ^270;  in  1886,  :g400.  In  1882  the  fire 
department  was  wholly  unpaid  ;  i'n  1886  it  was  paid  $375.  In  1882  there 
was  no  gas  bill ;  in  1886  this  item  was  $140. 

Assets  of  City. 

Northside  Market  House  and  lots $35,000 

Southside  Market  House  and  lots 25,000 

Centi'al   Park 48,000 

East  Park 32,000 

West  Park 32,000 

Powell  School  buildings  and   lots 12,000 

Henley  School  buildings  and   lots 10,000 

Paul  Hayne  School  buildings  and  lots 25,000 

Lane  Grammar  School 12,500 

Fifteenth   street   School  buildings  and  lots.  .    .    .  2,500 

School  furniture 5,000 

Fire  engine  and  hose 6,000 

Fire  plugs,  gas  lamps,   etc 3, 800 

Live   stock 1,200 

Total ^250,000 

City  Liabilities. 

Northside  8  per  cent.  Market  House  bonds  issued 

in  1882 $     7,000 

First  series  8  per  cent,  sanitary  bonds,  1S82   .    .  10,000 

Second  series  8   per  cent,  sarrt-tary    bonds,    1883  .  10,000 

Third  series  8  per   cent,  sanitary  bonds,  1884  .    .  10,000 

Fourth  series  8  per    cent,    sanitary  bonds,  1885  .  30,000 

Seven  per   cent,  school  bonds  issued   1885  .    .    .  20,000 

Southside  7  per  cent.  Market    House  bonds  .    .    .  10,000 
Convert  the  floating  debt,  to  be  floated  December 

I,  18S6,  into  bonds 60,000 

Total  Liabilities $157,000 

The  assets  appear  by  Ais  statement  to  be  $C)l„QiOO  in  excess  of  the 

Estimates  of  the  probable  income  of  the  city  from  various  special 
sources  for  1887  show  the  following,  with  indications  favoring  an  increase 
over  amounts  named  : 

1 94  Jefferson    Cotmty. 

Licenses $30,000 

Real  estate  tax 25,000 

Personal  tax 2,800 

Special  tax 1.500 

Merchants   tax 2,500 

Tuition  tax 6,000 

Poll  tax 2,000 

Street  tax 3.500 

Fines  and  forfeitures 6,000 

State  school  fund 1,500 

Miscellaneous 1,500 

Market  House  rents 4,000 

286, 300 
'  To  which  add  property  tax 24,000 

Total $110,300 

Estimated  Expenses  for  1887. 

Police  department $12,500 

Teachers,    janitors,   etc 22, 500 

Gas 2,000 

Water 4,000 

Prison  expense 4,000 

Sanitary  department 5,000 

Fire  department 4,500 

Street  department 6,000 

Salaries 8,000 

Interest  account 11,660 

Miscellaneous 1,200 

Probable  excess  of  income  over  expenditures  for 

1887  28,940 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  floating  debts,  which  7  per  cent,  bonds 
-will  be  at  once  issued  to  retire: 

Mark  L.  Potter $10,000  00 

Alabama  State  Bank 23,500  00 

First  National  Bank 20,000  00 

Berney  National  Bank 3.500  00 

C.  J.  Knighton 1,200  00 

Towner,  Landstreet  &  Co.  (horse) 5  00 

Gutta  Percha  Rubber  Company  (engine)  .    .    .      4,200  00 

W.  T.   Green  &  Co 3  00 

The  rate  of  city  taxation  is  52i'<  cents  on  the  $100. 

BirmingJuxm.  195 

Streets,  Drainage,  Etc. 

The  total  number  of  acres  is  1,160  included  in  the  city  limits. 
Eighteenth,  Nineteenth,  and  Twentieth  streets  are  one  hundred  feet  wide ; 
the  remainder  are  eighty  feet  wide.  First  avenue  and  Avenue  A  are  one 
hundred  feet  wide  ;  the  remainder  are  eighty  feet  wide.  All  alleys  bisect- 
ing every  block  are  twenty  feet  wide. 

There  are  thirty-six  miles  of  streets  and  avenues.  The  total  length 
of  the  sanitary  sewers  is  twelve  miles.  The  sewerage  is  carried  and  dis- 
charged two  and  one-half  miles  below  the  city  into  Walker's  Creek. 
About  eight  and  one-half  miles  of  the  sewerage  system  was  laid  in  i  SS5-86, 
and  four  or  five  miles  are  projected  for  the  year  1887. 

The  city  has  expended  thus  far  $60,000  for  sewers,  about  two-thirds 
of  which  has  gone  into  sanitary  sewers  and  the  remainder  into  storm  sew- 
ers. Disposal  of  storm  waters  is  yet  untouched  work.  About  three- 
fourths  of  a  mile  of  brick  sewer  is  completed.  The  laying  of  street 
branches  is  going  on  daily. 

The  natural  fall  is  too  slight  to  be  depended  on  for  the  congregation 
and  removal  of  flood  waters.  The  sewers  must  be  carefully  built  to 
correct  this  fault,  with  the  fall  closely  and  sparingly  guarded.  Otherwise 
sewerage  is  not  particularly  expensive  for  work  of  this  particular  character. 
A  large  expenditure  in  this  direction  is  designed  for  1887. 

Fifteen  thousand  lineal  feet  of  curbing  was  set  in  1885-86.  Twenty- 
five  thousand  feet  will  be  set  this  year. 

Contracts  have  been  made  for  the  best  grade  of  sidewalks,  to  meet 
the  requirements  of  the  business  portion  of  the  city. 

The  labor  force  actually  employed  by  the  city  is  small.  About  eight 
wagons  run  to  look  after  the  unsewered  part  of  the  town,  clearing  streets, 
etc.  The  main  force  for  grading  is  the  convict  gang.  Their  average  is, 
say,  twenty  to  thirty  per  day.  The  work  of  grading  the  streets  will,  prob- 
ably, be  soon  accomplished.  The  street  railways  are  now  required  by  the 
city  to  grade  the  streets  over  which  they  pass,  from  gutter  to  gutter. 

Extensive  improvements  in  street  paving  are  now  being  arranged  for. 

JJsfic    '^cw    13    91ticjfvticr    Irriaii-   the    S)ivozl 

The  Press. 


a  small  weekly  published  at  Elyton,  the  county  seat,  was  the  first 
newspaper  established  in  Jefferson  County,  and  appeared  in  1845.  It 
came  into  life  with  the  event  of  the  Polk  administration,  but  only  to  make 
a  support  for  the  proprietor.  In  politics  it  was  neither  fish,  flesh,  nor  fowl. 
After  two  years  of  precarious  life  it  died  a  natural  death. 

In  1849  Dr.  Joseph  R.  Smith  and  Baylis  E.  Grace,  both  now  among 
the  venerable  patriarchs  of  the  valley,  purchased  the  outfit  of  the  deceased 
journal  and  began  the  publication  of 


This  was  likewise  a  weekly,  neutral  in  politics,  and  died,  as  had  its 
predecessor,  after  one  year's  existence. 

Moses  B.  Lancaster,  of  Greensboro,  a  practical  printer,  revived  the 
paper,  and  ran  it  for  three  years,  when  for  want  of  patronage  it  was  dis- 

John  Cantley,  of  Tuscaloosa,  came  forward,  bought  the  outfit,  and 


a  weekly.  The  founder  of  the  Herald  sold  it  to  Henry  A.  Hale.  During 
the  period  of  Hale's  publication  the  city  of  Birmingham  arose  and  absorbed 
Elyton.     The  Herald  was  moved  to  Birmingham. 

Birmingham.  197 

Robert  H.  Henley,  first  Mayor  of  Birmingham,  then  purchased  the 
Herald  and  converted  its  name  to 


Mr.  Henley  edited  the  Sun  with  marked  ability  for  six  months. 
Matthews  &  Laughlin  bought  the  Sun  and  changed  the  name  to 


Matthews  was  editor,  and  conducted  the  paper  for  several  years.     He 
then  moved  to  Blountsville,  and  now  publishes  the  Blountsville  Sun. 
The  first  daily  was 


founded  in  1872.  It  perished  after  a  brief  experiment.  Charles  E.  Cant- 
ley  was  editor,  and  became  notorious  by  the  publication  of  truthful 
accounts  of  the  cholera  scourge. 

The  Daily  Sun  did  not  live  long.      The  Independent  was  resumed. 


made  its  appearance  in  1874.  F.  M.  Grace  was  editor  and  Cantley  busi- 
ness manager. 

Willis  Roberts,  a  practical  printer,  from  the  cotton  region,  established 
the  paper  and  published  it  until  1881. 

In  1 88 1  W.  C.  Garrett,  of  Greensboro,  Ala.,  and  F.  V.  Evans,  of 
Georgia,  both  young  men  of  practical  experience  as  publishers  and  editors, 
came  in  possession  of  the  paper,  and  published  it  under  the  firm  name  of 
Garrett  &  Evans. 

In  December,  1881,  the  same  editors  and  publishers  issued  the  first 
copy  of  the  Daily  Age. 

In  September,  1882,  the  Iron  Age  Publishing  Company  was  incor- 
porated. This  movement  involved  the  Sunday  Observer,  which  became 
merged  into  the  corporation.  F.  V.  Evans  was  elected  President  and 
General  Manager  of  the  company. 

In  May,  1883,  Evans'  health  failed  from  overwork.  He  sold  his 
stock  to  J.  L.  Watkins,  one  of  the  original  incorporators.  Watkins  then 
became  President  of  the  company,  and  editor-in-chief  of  the  paper. 

igS  Jefferson    County. 

The  Birmingham  Age  is  now  the  only  morning  paper  pubUshed  in 
the  mineral  regions  of  Alabama  which  receives  the  Associated  Press  dis- 
patches. As  a  business  enterprise  it  is  a  success.  It  ranks  next  after  the 
Atlanta  Constitution,  in  advertising  patronage,  among  the  newspapers  of 
the  interior  South-Western  market  towns.  Its  chief  effort  is  to  publish 
correct  and  full  information  of  the  developments  of  the  mines  and  the  indus- 
trial growth  of  the  cities,  especially  Birmingham,  of  the  mineral  region. 
It  is  independent  in  politics,  but  supports  the  Democratic  nominees.  Its 
political  views  are  advanced.  It  favors  the  protection  theory  as  an  inten- 
tional incident  of  Federal  taxation,  supports  the  efforts  to  secure  National 
aid  to  public  education,  and  all  efforts  to  widen  the  sphere  of  public 
schools,  and  favors  the  movement  to  repeal  the  internal  revenue  laws.  It 
is  now  devoting  special  attention  to  the  encouragement  of  the  polytechnic 
system  of  education  by  the  State,  and  appeals  to  Congres-s  to  devote  the 
1,000,000  acres  of  land,  now  belonging  to  the  Government  in  Alabama, 
to  this  specific  purpose. 

The  Iron  Age  Publishing  Company  owns  the  franchise  of  the  Asso- 
ciated Press  for  Birmingham,  the  possession  of  which  gives  to  the  com- 
pany an  exclusive  use  of  the  night  dispatches  over  the  Western  Union 
Telegraph  lines. 

The  influence  of  the  paper  has,  probably,  accomplished  more  for  the 
steady  growth  of  Birmingham  than  any  other  single  enterprise.  During 
the  season  of  the  World's  Fair  and  Cotton  Exposition  at  New  Orleans 
the  company  published  an  extra  edition  of  many  thousands  for  free  dis- 
tribution from  the  headquarters  of  the  Alabama  Exhibit.  This  issue  con- 
tained an  accurate  description  of  the  mineral  and  agricultural  resources  of 
Alabama,  and  of  the  mines  and  manufactories  then  established.  It  was  read 
by  tens  of  thousands,  and  contributed  incalculably  to  the  fame  of  the  State. 

The  Daily  Age  originated  the  project  of  calling  the  Waterway  and 
Harbor  Improvement  Con\ention,  assembled  at  Tuscaloosa  in  November, 
1885,  one  of  the  most  important,  largest,  and  intelligent  bodies  of  Ala- 
bama citizens  ever  convened.  The  influence  of  that  convention  spread 
itself  over  the  entire  State,  and  greatly  hastened  the  industrial  revival  the 
people  now  enjoy. 

The  circulation  of  the  Daily  Age  and  the  Weekly  Iron  Age  constantly 
increases,  and  orders  for  sample  copies  come  from  all  parts  of  the  Union. 

The  officers  and  attaches  are  J.  L.  Watkins,  Editor-in-Chief,  with 
R.  H.  Watkins  and  John  W.  DuBose  as  assistants.  E.  R.  Quarles  is  City 
Editor,  and  W.  L.  Hawley  Reporter.  C.  M.  Hayes  is  Business  Manager, 
with  L.  C.  Talley  Cashier. 

Birmingham.  199 


The  first  issue  of  this  paper  was  an  eight-column  sheet,  full  of  original 
and  select  matter.  It  took  high  rank  from  the  start.  It  was  founded  by 
F.  V.  Evans,  editor  and  proprietor,  June  16,  1883.  In  September  of 
that  year  George  M.  Cruikshank,  a  politician  and  newspaperman  of  expe- 
rience, from  Talladega,  moved  to  Birmingham,  and  bought  a  half  interest 
in  the  paper.     It  yet  flourishes  under  the  control  of  Cruikshank  &  Grace. 


This  is  an  outgrowth  from  the  Sunday  Morning  Chronicle.  No 
-enterprise  ever  founded  in  Birmingham  has-  been  more  indicative  of  the 
maturing  forces  of  this  wonderful  city  than  the  Evening  Chronicle. 
Founded  in  faith,  nurtured  in  love,  and  brought  to  success  by  unflagging 
zeal,  it  has  indeed  been  synonymous  in  meaning  with  Birmingham  itself. 
A  bold  spirit  plucks  the  flower  of  success  from  the  nettle  of  doubt.  So 
it  has  proved  with  many  enterprises,  founded  upon  faith  in  the  future  of 
Birmingham,  and  so  it  has  proved  with  the  Chronicle. 

On  January  17,  1884,  the  founders  of  the  Evening  Chronicle,  Messrs. 
F.  V.  Evans,  G.  M.  Cruikshank,  and  D.  B.  Grace  issued  the  first  sheet 
■to  the  world,  and  it  fluttered  over  the  deluge  of  doubt  as  the  white-winged 
dove  flitted  from  the  open  window  of  the  ark.  The  public  extended  the 
olive  branch  of  welcome  from  the  first,  and,  thanks  to  the  people,  it  has 
.survived  all  the  tempests  that  engulf  so  many  frail  journalistic  barks  ere 
they  clear  the  harbor.  The  Chronicle  has  kept  pace  with  the  rapid 
growth  of  Birmingham.  The  two  are  linked  together  with  hooks  of  steel. 
The  Chronicle  has  ever  remained  faithful  to  the  best  interests  of  the  city 
to  which  it  owes  its  present  success,  and  has  never  faltered  in  that  allegi- 

In  the  year  1885  Mr.  F.  V.  Evans  was  elected  city  clerk,  and  sold 
his  interest  in  the  Chronicle  to  his  partners,  Messrs.  G.  M.  Cruikshank 
and  D.  B.  Grace,  who  have  since  successfully  pushed  it  to  its  present 
prosperous  position.  The  large  number  of  intelligent  workingmen  in 
Birmingham,  and  the  active  life  of  the  business  men,  who  have  leisure  to 
read  only  in  the  evening,  gives  an  afternoon  paper  an  advantage  it  would 
not  possess  in  scarcely  any  other  city  in  the  South.  The  Sunday  Chron- 
icle, an  adjunct  of  the  Evening  Chronicle,  finds  a  large  circle  of  readers 
for  a  similar  reason.     The  business  men  find  the  Evening  Chronicle  inval- 

2CX)  Jefferson   County. 

uable  because  of  its  full  and  reliable  market  reports  from  Liverpool  and 
the  Eastern  centers,  published  a  few  minutes  after  the  closing  of  the 


This  paper  is  the  property  of  the  two  Alabama  Conferences  of  the 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South.  It  started,  May  25,  1883,  with  a  cir- 
culation of  over  two  thousand,  and  at  present  has  a  circulation  of  more 
than  four  thousand.  Rev.  A.  S.  Andrews,  D.  D. ,  was  its  first  editor,  and 
Rev.  J.  W.  Christian,  his  associate.  Rev.  J.  T.  Rutlege  was  the  pub- 
lisher, and  Mr.  R.  E.  Sullivan  had  charge  of  the  mechanical  department. 

At  the  end  of  the  first  year  Dr.  Andrews  resigned  and  Dr.  Christian 
became  editor. 

About  the  end  of  the  second  year  Dr.  Christian  and  Mr.  Rutlege 
both  died.  Rev.  J.  W.  Rush,  D.  D.,  was  elected  editor,  and  Rev.  G.  R. 
Lynch  became  the  publisher.  At  the  end  of  four  years'  work  Dr.  Rush 
resigned  and  Rev.  W.  C.  McCoy  was  elected  editor  but  was  not  expected 
to  take  charge  until  July,   1S87.      Dr.  Rush  still  is  editor  in  fact. 

From  the  very  first  the  Advocate  has  been  successful  in  every  way. 
Its  mechanical  department,  still  under  control  of  Mr.  Sullivan,  has  always 
been  first-class.  For  beauty,  clearness,  and  accuracy,  unsurpassed  by 
any  paper  in  the  State.  As  an  advertising  medium  it  has  offered  the  very 
best  opportunity  of  any  paper  in  the  State,  its  circulation  being  larger 
than  any  other.  Its  editorials  and  selections  and  contributions  have  been 
pure,  elevating,  and  strong.  While  it  is  a  distinctively  denominational 
paper,  it  has  never  marred  its  columns  with  bigotry  and  narrowness.  It 
has  discussed  religious  questions,  church  policies,  and  social  affairs  in  the 
spirit  of  a  broad  catholicity  and  an  independent  manhood.  Under  such 
management,  mechanical,  editorial  and  financial,  it  has  attained  a  position 
of  influence  among  the  secular  papers  of  the  State,  and  of  more  than 
ordinary  weight  among  the  newspapers  of  the  Methodist  Church. 

Drs.  Rush  and  McCoy  recently  purchased  the  publishing  business 
from  Mr.  Lynch,  and  have  bought  new  type  and  new  press,  and  enlarged 
the  paper  to  its  preserit  size.  Under  thair  joint  administration  it  has 
taken  a  new  start  in  the  race,  and  sl^ows  signs  of  a  very  vigorous  life.  Its 
friends  confidently  expect  it  to  soon  reach  a  circulation  of  eight  thousand 
or  ten  thousand,  and  to  be  a  great  power  for  good. 



This  is  the  recognized  organ  of  organized  labor  in  the  mining  and 
manufacturing  regions  of  Alabama.  It  is  the  friend  of  all  the  different 
trades  unions.  Its  first  issue  had  eight  hundred  subscribers.  After  it 
had  been  in  existence  a  year  its  subscription  ran  up  into  the  thousands. 
It  is  a  weekly,  seven  columns,  printed  on  book  paper,  and  edited  .with 
marked  spirit  and  ability.  Captain  George  N.  Edmonds  is  the  editor,  an 
ex-Union  soldier.  The  Labor  Union  professes  to  be  non-partisaa  in 
politics,  but  always  takes  a  side  in  political  contests.  It  desires  to 
advocate  the  politics  which  it  believes  to  be  best  promotive  of  the  rights 
and  interests  of  labor. 


This  is  an  illustrated  industrial  journal,  taking  rank  in  size,  mechanical 
execution,  editorial  vigor,  and  circulation  with  the  best  in  its  class  in  the 
United  States.  No  scientific  or  industrial  journal  presents  a  handsomer  or 
more  chaste  appearance.  The  current  issue  (1887)  is  fifty  thousand  copies. 
Into  every  part  of  the  United  States  and  Canada  it  goes,  and  is  greeted 
with  applause.  The  political  and  technical  press  in  all  the  States  consult 
its  pages  for  the  most  reliable  information  respecting  the  resources  and 
record  of  development  of  the  mineral  region  of  Alabama.  Mining, 
manufacturing,  and  agriculture  are  its  specialties,  with  full  reports  of  the 
general  growth  of  Birmingham. 

The  illustrations  of  the  New  South  are  unsurpassed  in  correctness  of 
outline  and  clearness  of  perspective.  The  numerous  portraits  every  issue 
contains  are  remarkably  true  to  life.  Every  issue  contains  a  bird's-eye 
view  of  Birmingham  covering  two  pages.  The  paper  used  is  of  the  best, 
and  the  typography  is  perfect. 

To  represent  the  marvelous  natural  resources  of  Birmingham  and 
Jefferson  County,  and  the  State  of  Alabama,  and  to  demonstrate  to  capital 
and  labor  in  every  part  of  the  Union  the  advantages  of  residence  here  is 
the  work,  well  done,  of  the  New  South. 

The  New  South  originated  in  Columbus,  Miss.,  in  1882.  March, 
1886,  it  was  removed  to  Birmingham,  and  soon  entered  upon  a  wide  field. 
The  founders  and  conductors  are  W.  H.  and  W.  C.  Worthington ;  the 
former  a  native  of  Lowndes  County,  one  of  the  wealthiest  prairie  counties 
of  Alabama,  the  latter  a  native  of  Columbus,  Miss.     The  father  of  these 

Jefferson   County. 

two  brothers  owned  a  printing  establishment,  and  both  sons  learned  the 
practical  art  of  the  printer  at  an  early  age,  and  have  all  their  manhood 
been  engaged  in  the  publishing  business, 

W.  H.  Worthington,  the  elder  brother,  was  captain  in  the  line  in  the 
Thirteenth  Mississippi  Infantry  during  the  life  of  the  Southern  Con- 

The  general  advertising  and  subscription  agent  of  the  New  South  is  a 
young  gentleman,  Mr.  L.  P.  Hill.  No  small  degree  of  the  success 
attained  by  the  paper  must  be  allowed  to  his  energy  and  attractive  manner 
of  presenting  its  claims  to  the  public.  Mr.  Hill  is  a  "low  country"  South 
Carolinian,  from  Beaufort.  Sharing  there  the  common  fate  of  the  old 
slave-holding  class  he  has,  in  his  present  life,  illustrated  the  versatility  of 
talent  which  has  shown  itself  so  generally  among  his  countrymen,  by 
pursuing,  in  unaccustomed  walks,  an  honorable  ambition  to  surmount  the 
reverses  of  fortunes. 


These  industrial  journals  are  owned  and  conducted  by  "The  Plant- 
ers' Journal  and  Southern  Iron  Worker  Company."  The  incorporators 
are  F.  C.  Morehead,  of  Vicksburg.  Miss.  ;  J.  W.  Billups,  Jr.,  and  Robert 
P.  Duncan,  of  Birmingham.  The  capital  stock  is  §200,000.  Five 
thousand  dollars  has  been  paid  in  money,  and  the  remainder  subscribed- 
has  been  secured  by  property. 

The  Planters'  Journal, 

a  monthly  publication,  was  established  in  Vicksburg,  Miss.,  in  18S0.  as 
the  organ  of  the  National  Cotton  Planters'  Association,  by  F.  C.  More- 
head.  It  began  at  once  a  remarkable  career  of  prosperity  and  influence. 
It  has  been  ably  edited,  and  has  taken  the  widest  view  of  Southern 
agricultural  possibilities.  All  departments  of  the  plantation  industry 
are  separately  treated  in  its  columns;  the  practical  rather  than  the 
experimental  results  are  mainly  presented. 

The  Planters'  Journal  was  largely  instrumental  in  securing  the 
initiation  of  the  Atlanta  Exposition  of  188 1.  It  suggested  and  afterward 
devoted  invaluable  energies  toward  the  initiation  of  the  Cotton  Centennial 
and  World's  Fair  of  New  Orleans.      Its  editor,  F.  C.  Morehead,  traveled 

Birvtinghain.  203 

for  a  year  in  all  parts  of  the  United  States  as  Commissioner-General  of 
that  great  enterprise. 

The  Planters'  Journal  has  been  removed  to  Birmingham.  The 
specialty  which  it  now  has  in  progress  of  development  is  the  Cotton 
States  Field  Contest  of  1888.  Premiums  of  unprecedented  value,  ranging 
up  in  the  thousands  of  dollars  each,  are  offered  for-champion  acres  of  the 
cereals,  cotton,  for  plans  for  farm  buildings,  and  other  items  denoting 
improved  agriculture. 

At  this  time  the  paper  also  devotes  itself  to  the  recovery  of  the 
cotton  tax  of  1866-67,  now  held  on  deposit  in  the  Federal  treasury,  and 
amounting  to  many  millions  of  dollars. 

Land  and  Rail. 

This  spirited  and  handsome  monthly  is  devoted  to  the  encouragement 
of  immigration  and  railroad  building.  It  will  unquestionably  greatly  aid 
the  prosperity  of  Alabama. 

Furnace   and   Factory, 

the  third  of  this  series,  is  not  surpassed  in  the  United  States  in  mechan- 
ical perfection  of  "get  up."  It  is  edited  by  one  of  the  accomplished 
geologists  of  the  South,  Professor  Conley.  It  maintains  a  valuable  corps 
of  correspondents  in  all  the  great  markets  of  America.  Its  name  indi- 
cates its  devotion  to  pig-iron  production,  and  all  kinds  of  manufactures. 


This  monthly  is  a  Birmingham  enterprise  of  the  greatest  respecta- 
bility. Two  young  physicians,  Drs.  J.  D.  S.  and  W.  E.  B.  Davis,  native 
to  Jefferson  County,  and  in  full  practice  in  the  city,  edit  it.  It  is  printed 
at  the  Caldwell  Printing  Works  in  the  city,  and  published  by  J.  A.  Stadler 
&  Co.  Dr.  B.  J.  Baldwin,  of  Montgomery,  edits  the  Eye  Department. 
The  Medical  Society  of  Jefferson  County  publishes  its  proceedings  in  its 
pages.  Original  essays  of  great  literary  and  scientific  merit  are  found 
in  them.  There  can  be  no  question  that  publications  of  this  kind  become 
valuable  to  the  medical  profession  in  indirect  ways.  In  the  example  of 
The  Alabama  Medical  and  Surgical  Journal  the  original  essays  are  often 
addressed  to  the  moral  phase  of  the  physician's  work,  and  to  the  morality 
involved  in  the  acts  of  patients.     The  phraseology  of  these  papers  renders 

204  Jefferson    Comity. 

them  intelligible  to  the  ordinar>'  reader,  and  thus  they  are  made  to  serve 
the  double  purpose  of  professional  study  and  popular  instruction. 

As  this  work  passes  through  the  press,  preliminary  arrangements 
have  matured  to  establish  the  Birmingham  Daily  Evening  News,  a 
modern  newspaper  in  scope,  and  to  be  specially  devoted  to  the  industrial, 
social,  and  political  interests  of  Birmingham  and  Alabama. 


established  the  oldest  newspaper  now  published  in  Birmingham,  and 
opened  the  first  job  printing  establishment  of  the  town.  His  whole  life 
has  been  devoted  to  the  work  of  a  publisher,  in  which  he  has  founded 
several  newspapers,  and  has  grown  from  a  small  beginning  in  business  to 
a  commanding  position  and  a  deservedly  good  influence  in  society. 

Mr.  Roberts  was  born  at  Pendleton,  South  Carolina,  July  5,  1828. 
The  father  soon  moved  his  family  to  Georgia,  and  after  nine  or  ten  years' 
abode  there  came  to  Wetumpka,  Alabama.  In  his  twelfth  year  the  lad 
Willis  entered  upon  his  printing  career  in  the  office  of  the  Wetumpka 
Argus.  This  was  a  weekly  newspaper  of  wide  influence.  The  mails 
in  those  early  times  were  mostly  weekly  only,  and  the  readers  of  news- 
papers were  mostly  cotton  planters  residing  on  their  plantations.  The 
great  orator,  and  later  the  leader  of  the  greatest  political  revolution  of 
modern  times,  William  L.  Yancey,  was  the  editor  of  the  Wetumpka 
Argus  when  Willis  Roberts  began,  in  his  office,  to  learn  the  typesetter's  art. 
James  W.  Warren,  father  of  one  of  the  influential  men  of  Birmingham, 
Ed.  Warren,  was  foreman  of  that  little  printing  office. 

In  1852  Mr.  Roberts  established,  at  Dadeville,  the  Dadeville  Banner, 
the  first  newspaper  ever  printed  in  Tallapoosa  County. 

In  1855  he  became  proprietor  of  the  Wetumpka  (Coosa  County) 
Spectator,  which  became,  in  course  of  the  reconstruction  of  the  adjoining 
counties,  the  Elmore  County  Standard. 

Order  Number  49  from  Major-General  Pope's  headquarters,  issued  in 
season  of  profound  peace,  deprived  the  Standard  of  official  patronage,  in 
order  to  build  up  a  rival  in  politics.  Such  was  government  in  Alabama 
for  seven  years  following  Appomattox. 

The  material  of  the  Standard  was  thereupon  moved  to  Columbiana, 
the  county  seat  of  Shelby  County,  and  there  used  to  found  the  Shelby 
Guide.  The  Guide  fought  a  good  fight  for  white  man's  rule  in  Alabama, 
and  the  liberty  of  the  press. 

In  1872  Mr.  Roberts  opened  the  first  job  printing  office  in  Birming- 


ham.  In  1886  this  house  pubhshed  for  Messrs.  N.  T.  Green  &  Co.  an 
illustrated  pamphlet  of  two  hundred  pages,  called  "The  Mineral  Wealth 
of  Alabama,  and  Birmingham  Illustrated,"  in  an  edition  of  five  thousand 
copies.      No  better  job  could  have  been  executed  in  the  United  States. 

February  11,  1874,  Roberts  &  Duval  issued  the  first  number  of  the 
Birmingham  Weekly  Iron  Age.  The  Daily  Age,  now  the  leading 
morning  newspaper  of  Northern  Alabama,  is  the  offspring  of  this  enter- 
prise. In  1876  Mr.  Roberts  associated  with  him  his  son  Charles,  and 
became  the  proprietor  of  the  Iron  Age. 

He  has  been  a  resident  of  the  city  since  1875.  The  large  job 
printing  and  bookbinding  establishment  of  Roberts  &  Son  employs  his  full 
time,  and  secures  for  him,  in  his  declining  years,  a  handsome  support. 

Mr.  Roberts  has  been  twice  married :  first  to  Miss  Mary  Ann 
Harvey,  of  Chambers  County.  She  is  the  mother  of  his  sons,  Charles 
and  Osceola  Roberts,  both  of  Birmingham,  and  both  in  the  office  of 
Roberts  &  Son,  Printers  and  Bookbinders. 

His  second  wife  was  Mrs.  C.  N.  Allen,  nee  Leeper,  of  Shelby 
County,  and  they  have  four  daughters 

Tk^   (^[^^Kel^e^. 

Religion  has  always,  from  the  earliest  history  of  Jefferson  County, 
commanded  the  veneration  of  the  people,  and  the  support  of  the  churches- 
has  been  a  distinguishing  custom  among  the  leading  men.  Abundant 
evidence  of  this  grateful  moral  character  is  found  in  the  biographical 
sketches  of  this  volume.  Every  settlement  had,  from  the  first,  some 
fixed  place  of  worship,  and  whether  its  observances  were  regular  or 
irregular,  depended  on  the  ability  of  the  people  to  support  a  regular  or 
an  itinerant  clergyman. 

The  religious  life  in  Birmingham  is  remarkable  when  contemplated 
in  view  of  the  rapid  growth  of  the  city,  made  up  of  people  congregated 
from  all  parts  of  America,  and  who  have  professedly  come  here  to  work 
to  make  money.  The  churches  are  all  crowded  every  Sunday,  and  as  the 
seating  capacity  is  enlarged  from  time  to  time  in  the  old,  new  ones  are 
projected  and  built. 


Soon  after  the  first  few  houses  were  put  up  in  the  little  village  of 
Birmingham  there  were  found  among  the  first  settlers  some  few  Irish 
Catholics,  who,  as  usual,  never  forgot  their  God  or  their  religion.  They 
immediately  applied  for  a  priest  to  visit  them  now  and  again,  and,  as 
Tuscaloosa  was  the  nearest  place  where  a  Catholic  priest  resided,  the  late 
Very  Reverend  Father  McDonough  was  appointed  to  attend  the  mission. 
This  was  as  early  as  1871.  Every  month  or  two  a  visit  was  made  here 
and  holy  mass  offered  up  in  one  of  two  rooms  then  occupied  by  the  late 

Birmittgha^n.  209- 

Michael  Cahalan,  who  lived  at  the  corner  of  Fourth  avenue  and  Twenty- 
first  street.  The  missions  increased  in  number  every  month,  as  Birming- 
ham even  then  began  to  have  a  great  name  as  the  rising  city  of  the  South, 
and  men  flocked  here  from  many  prosperous  cities  in  Georgia,  Missis- 
sippi, and  Alabama.  Mr.  James  O'Connor,  Mr.  F.  P.  O'Brien,  the  late 
Thomas  Durkin,  Mr.  M.  T.  Smith,  and  others,  some  of  whom  have  gone 
to  their  reward,  we  hope,  others  who,  driven  off  through  fear,  sought 
their  fortunes  elsewhere,  formed  the  nucleus  of  the  Catholic  congregation 
of  1872. 

Very  soon  they  began  to  talk  about  the  need  of  a  church,  and  no 
sooner  thought  of  and  determined  on  than  one  went  up  as  though  by 
magic.  Colonel  Powell,  the  hard-worker  and  good-hearted  President  of 
the  Elyton  Land  Company,  gave  the  lot  on  the  south-west  corner  of  Third 
avenue  and  Twenty-first  street — 50  x  140  feet — for  Catholic  purposes. 
Father  McDonough,  of  happy  memory,  and  his  small  congregation  went 
to  work  immediately,  and  in  the  fall  of  1872  a  neat  church  edifice,  60x30' 
feet,  stood  ready  for  blessing  at  the  corner  of  Second  avenue,  front- 
ing on  Twenty-second  street.  So  great  was  the  promise  of  a  rapidly- 
growing  Catholic  congregation  here  that  the  best  part  of  the  lot  was  kept 
vacant  for  a  new  brick  church  in  the  near  future.  The  church  was  dedi- 
cated to  God,  under  the  patronage  of  the  Apostle  St.  Paul,  early  in  Sep- 
tember, 1872.  The  then  vicar  general  of  this  diocese,  afterward  the 
bishop  of  San  Antonio,  Texas,  Rt.  Rev.  A.  D.  Pellicier,  performed  the 
ceremony,  and  the  late  bishop  of  Mobile,  then  pastor  of  Montgomery, 
Ala.,  D.  Manucy,  preached  the  sermon  on  the  occasion.  The  sermon- 
was  a  very  eloquent  one,  and  the  good  people  of  every  denomination 
helped  to  make  the  occasion  a  grand  success. 

The  little  congregation  were  enthusiastic,  and  hoped  that  in  a  few 
years  their  most  sanguine  thoughts  would  be  realized — a  fine  church,  ele- 
gant schools,  and  a  handsome  pastoral  residence. 

The  cholera,  however,  came  and  blighted  not  only  their  building 
prospects  but  nearly  devastated  the  young  and  rapidly-growing  city.  No' 
sooner  had  grim  death,  in  the  garb  of  this  terrible  scourge,  appeared  than 
men,  who  value  life  more  than  great  possessions,  fled,  and  especially  those- 
who  had  a  charge  estrusted  to  them  in  the  way  of  wife  and  little  ones. 
The  city  was  almost  deserted  and  all  business  suspended.  A  few  profes- 
sional men,  regardless  of  life  where  duty  called,  remained,  among  whom 
we  may  mention  Drs.  Luckie  and  Jordan.  Their  task  was  a  hard  and' 
an  arduous  one.  There,  too,  was  to  be  found  the  late  Father  McDon- 
ough, assisting  and  aiding  every  way  in  his  power  the  stricken  and  dying ; 

Jeffe7-son    County. 

not  only  of  his  own  flock,  but  also  those  of  his  separated  brethren  who 
needed  his  help.  This  was  in  the  summer  of  1873,  and  there  then  seemed 
very  little  hope  of  the  Magic  City  ever  rising  from  its  low  and  pitiful 
condition.  Early  in  1874  Father  McDonough  was  moved  to  the  cathedral 
at  Mobile,  and  St.  Paul's  Church  again  continued  to  be  served  from  Tusca- 
loosa and  Selma.  Many  priests  at  various  times  had  charge.  Among  the 
rest  we  may  mention  Very  Rev.  M.  J  Hamilton,  Rev.  Edward  Kirwin, 
Rev.  M.  Gardner,  and  the  late  Rev.  J.  S.  J.  Crowly. 

In  January,  1880,  the  Rt.  Rev.  John  Quinlan,  of  happy  memory, 
sent  the  present  pastor,  Father  Browne,  as  the  first  resident  priest.  No 
sooner  had  he  been  appointed  than  the  present  valuable  property  owned 
by  the  Catholic  Church  was  obtained  by  the  bishop  and  the  gentlemen 
already  mentioned  as  forming  the  nucleus  of  the  early  congregation.  The 
lot  which  had  been  donated  by  the  Land  Company  reverted  back  to  them, 
and,  through  the  generosity  and  exceeding  kindness  of  the  directors  of 
the  Elyton  Land  Company  of  1880,  the  terms  were  made  so  easy  and  the 
donation  was  so  liberal  it  became  possible  for  the  Catholic  community  to 
acquire  the  property.  Immediately  a  pastoral  residence  was  built ;  the 
church  was  moved  from  its  old  site  to  its  present  position  ;  it  was  enlarged 
and  made  more  comfortable  than  it  had  been,  and  Sisters  were  invited,  and 
lived  in  a  rented  house  until  in  1882,  when  the  present  convent  building 
was  erected.  There  still  remains  a  small  debt  on  the  convent  and  lots, 
which,  it  is  hoped,  will  very  soon  be  wiped  out.  The  church  is  entirely 
too  small  to  accommodate  the  present  Catholic  congregation.  A  new  one 
must  soon  be  erected,  and  this  will  be  immediately  after  the  debt  is  paid. 
The  schools  are  also  too  small,  and  accommodations  must  soon  be  made 
for  the  pupils.  The  census  just  taken  shows  a  Catholic  population  in  the 
city  alone  of  about  one  thousand  souls.  It  is  hoped  that  very  soon  a  fine 
gothic  structure,  worthy  of  Catholic  faith,  as  displayed  everywhere 
throughout  the  civilized  world,  will  be  raised  in  Birmingham,  and,  free 
from  debt  by  the  generosity  of  Catholic  hearts,  will  be  dedicated  to  the 
services  of  the  living  God.  There  are  at  present  two  resident  priests  in 
Birmingham — Very  Rev.  J.  J.  Browne,  rector,  and  Rev.  James  P.  McCaf- 
ferty,  assistant. 

There  are  five  regular  missions  attached  to  Birmingham — Pratt  Mines ; 
Church  of  St.  Catharine  of  Sienna,  Gadsden ;  Church  of  St.  James,  War- 
rior ;  Church  of  St.  Joseph,  Helena ;  a  station  at  Wheeling,  and  many 
other  small  places  where  mass  is  occasionally  said. 


Very  Rev.   John  J.   Browne. 

Father  Browne  was  born  in  the  city  of  Cork,  Ireland,  in  1840  ; 
hence,  he  is  now  in  the  forty-eighth  year  of  his  age.  His  early  studies 
were  made  in  Cork,  a  city  famous  for  its  excellent  schools  and  learned 
men.  He  left  his  native  land  in  1S60,  with  Bishop  Quinlan,  who  had  just 
been  consecrated  second  bishop  of  Mobile.  Very  soon  after  his  arrival 
in  the  United  States  he  entered  Mt.  St.  Mary's  Seminary,  in  Maryland, 
one  of  the  most  noted  Catholic  institutions  of  learning  in  this  country. 
Here  he  remained  during  the  war,  and  received  the  degree  of  A.  M., 
graduating  with  distinguished  honors  at  the  close  of  the  collegiate  course. 
His  theological  studies  were  pursued  at  the  same  institution,  and  on 
August  29,  1866,  he  was  ordained  a  priest  in  tlie  cathedral  at  Mobile.  His- 
first  mission  was  at  St.  Patrick's  Church  at  Apalachicola,  Fla. ,  where  he 
remained  fourteen  months.  As  a  young  priest  he  soon  attracted  atten- 
tion by  the  character  of  his  sermons  and  executive  ability  in  his  pastoraL 
work.  Possessing  a  most  liberal  education,  his  preaching  was  marked  by 
erudition  and  logic,  with  a  pleasing  delivery.  From  Apalachicola  his 
bishop  transferred  him  to  Mobile,  appointing  him  pastor  of  St.  Patrick's 
Church  in  that  city,  which  position  he  filled  until  March,  1877,  when  he 
was  appointed  rector  of  the  cathedral.  His  next  charge  was  Birming- 
ham, to  which  he  was  assigned  in  January,  1880,  becoming  the  first  resi- 
dent Catliolic  pastor  in  the  Magic  City.  In  May,  1880,  he  was  appointed 
Vicar  forane,  wlaich  gives  him  the  title  of  "Very  Reverend"  in  his 
church,  and  this  office  was  held  by  him  until  the  death  of  Bishop  Quinlan, 
in  March,  1883.  It  was  during  the  early  days  of  his  pastorate  here  that 
the  valuable  property  now  owned  by  the  Catholic  Church  was  acquired. 
This  property  is  situated  in  the  heart  of  the  city,  adjacent  to  the  lot  on 
which  the  courthouse  is  built,  and  embraces  between  three  and  four 
acres.  Under  the  charge  of  Father  Browne,  the  interests  of  his  church 
have  steadily  grown  here,  and  few  figures  have  become  more  widely 
familiar  to  all  classes  of  our  population  than  his.  He  possesses  remark- 
able energy  and  force  of  character,  with  the  highest  social  attainments. 
As  a  business  man  he  has  few  equals.  Had  he  chosen  a  commercial  life 
he  must  undoubtedly  have  acquired  success  and  fortune.  A  ripe  scholar, 
a  polished  gentleman,  a  rare  linquist,  a  fluent  and  pleasing  pulpit  orator, 
and  withal  a  devoted  priest  and  pastor,  his  church  is  to  be  congratulated 
in  having  such  a  servant.  Many  instances  exist  of  large-hearted  charity 
displayed  by  him  which  have  never  been  known  to  the   public.     This 

Jcffersoii    Count^'. 

trait  stamps  him  as  possessing  another  bright  quahty,  viz:  love  for  his 
fellows,  no  matter  what  their  faith  may  be. 

It  will  thus  be  seen  that  Father  Browne  possesses  a  combination  of 
qualities  that  serve  to  adorn  his  character  both  as  a  man  and  a  priest,  and, 
without  eulogy,  he  is  one  of  the  landmarks  of  Birmingham,  in  which  all 
good  citizens  can  feel  a  just  pride. 

St.  Paul's  is  in  a  highly  prosperous  condition.  The  business  sagacity 
which  led  to  the  investment  in  the  real  estate  owned  by  the  Catholic 
Church  when  it  was  very  cheap  is  discovered  in  the  great  appreciation  of 
value  it  now  holds.  A  new  and  enlarged  church  will  be  built  upon  it, 
and  a  Catholic  school  is  designed  to  stand  by  the  side  of  it,  the  space 
being  ample  for  the  grounds  necessary  to  surround  both. 


The  parish  of  The  Advent,  Protestant  Episcopal,  Birmingham,  is 
an  offshoot  from  St.  John's  parish,  Elyton,  for  it  had  its  origin  in  mis- 
sionary services,  rendered  by  the  rector  of  that  church.  Rev.  P.  A.  Fitts, 
early  in  the  year  1872.  And  so  many  of  St.  John's  parishioners  were 
subsequently  transferred  to  Birmingham  that  its  corporate  life  was 
destroyed,  and  it  eventually  lapsed  into  a  mission  or  appendage  of  the 
rapidly  developing  Church  of  the  Advent.  The  mother  organization 
thus  died,  as  it  were,  in  giving  birth  to  the  daughter,  but  the  vigorous 
life  of  the  daughter,  it  is  now  hoped,  will  ere  long  reanimate  the  dead 
corporation  of  the  old  church,  and  give  it,  in  the  resurrection,  a  stronger 
and  more  enduring  existence.  The  history,  therefore,  of  St.  John's, 
Elyton,  is  a  necessary  introduction  to  the  historj-  of  the  Church  of  the 

In  the  decade  from  1S40  to  1850  the  Episcopal  Church  had  no  foothold 
in  Alabama  between  the  parallels  of  Tuscaloosa  and  Huntsville,  except  a 
feeble  parish  at  Jacksonville,  organized  in  1849.  Some  time  during  this 
decade  there  came  from  Connecticut  two  sisters,  the  Misses  Amy  and 
Maria  H.  Welton,  to  teach  school.  Miss  Maria  subsequently  married  Dr. 
Nathaniel  Hawkins,  and  her  sister  Mr.  Mortimer  Jordan.  The  loving 
devotion  of  these  two  earnest  women  to  the  principles  and  worship  of 
the  church  planted  the  seeds  from  which  sprang  up  and  grew  the  life  which 
afterward  developed,  through  many  difficulties  and  discouragements,  into 
the  organized  parish  of  St.  John's,  Elyton,  in  the  year  1850.     The  following 


is  the  brief  and  unique  Article  of  Association,  with  signatures  attached, 
under  which  the  new  parochial  life  began,  and  is  copied  from  the  parish 
records : 

"We,  the  undersigned,  being  desirous  to  form  a  parish  at  this  place, 
to  be  called  St.  John's  parish,  do  promise  to  conform  to  the  doctrine  and 
discipline  of  the  church."  [Signed]  Nathaniel  Hawkins,  Maria  H.  Haw- 
kins, William  S.  Mudd,  Florence  A.  Mudd,  Mortimer  Jordan,  Amy  Jor- 
dan, M.  T.  Porter,  Thomas  W.  Earle,  W.  A.  Walker,  C.  H.  Williams. 

The  first  vestry  of  the  new  parish  thus  organized  were  Dr.  Nathaniel 
Hawkins,  M.  T.  Porter,  C.  H.  Williams,  and  Thomas  W.  Earle.  Mr. 
Earle  was  elected  secretary,  and  Dr.  Hawkins  and  Mr.  C.  H.  Williams 
senior  and  junior  wardens,  respectively.  The  earliest  ministrations  on 
record,  before  this  organization,  were  made  in  May,  1849,  by  Rev.  Henry 
C,  Lay,  afterward  the  beloved  Bishop  of  Easton,  Maryland,  and  Rev.  J.  M. 
Robertson,  a  noble  and  devoted  priest,  both  of  them  from  Huntsville, 
They  held  services,  preached,  and  baptized  a  number  of  children,  and 
administered  holy  communion. 

From  the  time  of  its  organization  in  1850  until  1870,  the  parish  had 
no  regular  services.  Lay  reading,  with  only  occasional  visits  from  the 
bishop  and  neighboring  clergy,  the  nearest  of  whom  was  fifty-six  miles 
away,  at  Tuscaloosa,  was  all  the  nurture  its  young  life  received  until  1 870, 
except  the  short  rectorship  of  Rev.  W.  Fayette  Davidson,  who  took 
charge  on  the  26th  of  August,  1856,  and  resigned  on  the  isth  of  January, 


The  clergy,  who,  besides  the  Bishops,  Rt.  Rev.  N.  H.  Cobbs,  D.D., 
and  Rt.  Rev.  R.  H.  Wilmer,  D.  D. ,  in  the  long  interval  of  twenty  years 
between  1850  and  1870,  visited  and  ministered  in  the  parish  were  Rev. 
Messrs.  D.  D.  Flower,  H.  C.  Lay,  Thomas  A.  Morris,  William  Johnson, 
R.  D.  Nevius,  J.  D.  Easter,  Thomas  J.  Beard,  and  S.  M.  Bird.  The  long- 
est intervals  between  these  clerical  visits  was  one  of  two  years  and  ten 
months,  and  another  of  one  year  and  eight  months. 

In  July,  1870,  that  faithful  and  devoted  missionary.  Rev.  J.  F.  Smith, 
now  of  Talladega,  Ala.,  took  charge  and  served  as  rector  until  July,  1871, 
when  Rev.  P.  A.  Fitts  succeeded  him,  and  continued  in  charge  until  after 
the  parish  had  lost  its  corporate  life  in  the  new  parish  of  the  Advent,  Bir- 
mingham, in  1873.  The  number  of  baptisms  in  these  twenty-three  years 
was  91  ;  confirmations,  57;  communicants,  in  1872,  51;  marriages,  12; 
funerals,  14. 

During  the  long  period  of  irregular  ministrations  the  services  were 
held  at  times  in  the  Methodist  Church,  at  others  in  the  courthouse,  and 

2 1 4  Jefferson    Coiitity. 

in  a  log  schoolhouse  on  the  site  of  the  present  school  building.  The 
church  building  was  not  erected  until  1871.  The  pews  were  taken  from  a 
church  erected  some  years  before  at  Ashville,  St.  Clair  County,  and 
removed  to  Elyton  because  the  congregation  at  that  point  had  all  died  or 
removed.  This  work  was  accomplished  largely  through  the  self-denying 
efforts  of  the  daughters  of  the  faithful  senior  warden  and  lay-reader,  Dr. 
N.  Hawkins. 

In  the  fall  of  1871  Rev.  P.  A.  Fitts.  deacon,  took  charge.  The 
communicants  then  r.'imbered  fifty-seven,  while  at  the  mission  point  of 
Birmingham,  whose  foundation  was  then  being  laid,  he  reported  to  con- 
vention in  1872  only  sixteen  communicants.  From  this  time  the  life  of 
the  mission  station  began  to  abso'f  u  the  life  of  the  old  parish  of  St.  John's. 
The  new  parish  of  the  Advent  was  organized  early  in  1873,  applied  and 
was  admitted  into  union  with  the  diocese  at  the  convention  in  May  of  that 
year,  in  Mobile,  with  William  Gessner,  Ellis  Phelan,  George  R.  Ward, 
R.  H.  Pearson,  S.  W.  Gillespie  as  deputies. 

Rev.  P.  A.  Fitts  became  rector  of  the  new  parish  and  in  one  year 
the  number  of  communicants  increased  from  sixteen  to  forty,  with  a  cor- 
responding decrease  in  the  number  of  St.  John's,  Elyton.  The  first  vestry 
consisted  of  William  Gessner,  R.  H.  Pearson,  W.  P.  Barker,  W.  J.  Milner, 
and  Dr.  Sydney  Smith.  The  date  of  their  election  and  all  records  of  their 
official  action  have  been  lost. 

The  Elyton  Land  Company,  in  1871,  in  laying  off  the  city,  generously 
permitted  the  selection  and  donated  the  beautiful  lot,  200  by  198  feet,  on 
the  corner  of  Sixth  avenue  and  Twentieth  street,  for  church  purposes, 
and  efforts  were  made  to  build  a  chapel  on  it  in  1872,  the  first  services 
having  been  held  in  a  small  storeroom  on  the  corner  of  First  avenue  and 
Twenty-first  street.  The  chapel,  with  some  aid  from  St.  John's,  Mont- 
gomery, and  other  points,  was  completed  and  ready  for  use  in  the  spring 
of  1873  at  a  cost  of  ^1,200,  and  was  the  first  church  building  erected  in 
Birmingham.     It  was  60  by  25  feet,  and  seated  about  200  persons. 

Rev.  Mr.  Fitts  continued  in  charge  about  three  years,  nearly  one 
year  of  which  time,  having  had  the  misfortune  to  break  his  leg  by  a  fall  from 
the  railroad  platform  at  Calera,  he  preached,  withal,  to  his  people  by  his 
example  of  patient  endurance  of  a  long  and  painful  confinement.  This  earn- 
est and  eloquent  preacher  and  devoted  pastor  was  born  in  Tuscaloosa,  Ala., 
reared  partly  there  and  partly  in  Mobile,  and  educated  at  the  University 
of  Alabama.  He  chose  the  profession  of  the  law,  and  had  entered  suc- 
cessfully into  practice  in  his  native  place,  when  he  was  moved  to  devote 
his  heart  and  his  energies  to  the  sacred  ministry.     Upon  his  ordination  to 

Biriningkmn.  2  1 5 

the  deaconate,  May  15,  1869,  he  was  assigned  to  duty  by  the  bishop  in 
Christ  Church,  Tuscaloosa,  until  187 1,  when  he  was  transferred  to  St. 
John's,  Elyton,  from  which  latter  place  he  was  transferred  to  the  Church 
of  the  Advent,  as  we  have  before  seen.  The  pleasant  memories  of  his 
faithful  pastorate  here  has  caused  the  hearts  of  his  old  parishioners  to 
follow  his  successful  career  elsewhere,  and  to  note  with  pleasure  his  recent 
return  to  the  Diocese  of  Alabama,  to  minister  in  the  neighboring  city  of 
Anniston.  The  number  of  communicants  increased  in  the  three  years  of 
his  rectorship  from  sixteen  to  eighty-eight.  Having  received  a  call  to 
Clarksville,  Tennessee,  he  resigned,  and  left  to  take  his  new  charge  in 
October,  1875. 

There  was  a  vacancy  in  the  rectorship  from  this  time  until  the  follow- 
ing February,  when  Rev.  James  A.  Van  Hoose,  born  in  Tuscaloosa, 
educated  at  the  University  of  the  South,  Sewanee,  and  ordained  deacon 
in  St.  John's,  Mobile,  February  2,  1876,  was  assigned  to  his  first  clerical- 
duty,  by  the  bishop,  in  this  parish.  His  charge,  unfortunately,  was. 
of  the  short  duration  of  four  months,  ending  in  June,  1876.  Too 
close  study  of  the  Greek  language  had  so  impaired  his  eyesight  as  to 
render  it  impossible  to  continue  his  studies  without  incurring  danger  of 
total  blindness,  and  caused  him  to  abandon  his  hope  of  the  priesthood, 
and  to  give  himself  to  such  secular  work  as  would  maintain  his  family,  and 
serve  the  church  as  opportunity  might  offer,  as  a  perpetual  deacon  and 
willing  assistant  to  the  rector  in  charge.  His  energy  and  success  as  a  man 
of  business  is  suggestive  of  what  his  usefulness  to  the  church  as  a  conse- 
crated priest  might  have  been  had  he  been  able  to  realize  his  earlier 
hopes.  His  resignation  was  followed  by  another  period  of  five  months, 
in  which  there  were  no  regular  ministrations,  only  occasional  services  hav- 
ing been  rendered  by  Rev.  George  Hunt,  of  Christ  Church,  Tuscaloosa, 
and  Rev.  P.  A.  Fitts,  of  Clarksville,  Tennessee. 

In  November,  1876,  Rev.  A.  Kinney  Hall,  a  deacon  from  the  Diocese 
of  Indiana,  was  appointed  to  the  vacancy.  Mr.  Hall  had  a  special  apti- 
tude for  church  building  and  decorating,  and  succeeded,  with  the  aid  of 
the  ladies,  who  raised  the  money,  in  adding  much  to  the  appearance  of 
the  interior  of  the  very  plain  chapel.  The  Sunday  school  bought  and 
paid  for  the  bell,  and  the  whole  lot  was  inclosed  with  a  board  fence.  He 
reported  to  the  convention  of  1877  seventy-one  nominal  and  forty-five 
actual  communicants,  indicating  a  loss  of  seventeen  in  one  year.  Mr. 
Hall's  ministrations  as  deacon  in  charge  continued  until  October, 
1877,  when  he  was  transferred  to  Livingston  and  Gainesville.  After  three 
years  of  service  there  he  was  ordained  to  the  priesthood  in  1881,  and  soon 

2 1 6  Jefferson   County. 

after  removed  to  the  Diocese  of  Louisiana,  where  he  is  still  laboring  as  a 
parish  priest. 

On  the  1st  of  March,  1878,  Rev.  Charles  Morris,  deacon,  from  the 
Diocese  of  Kentucky,  was  put  in  charge,  and  on  his  ordination  to  the 
priesthood  in  May,  of  the  same  year,  at  the  convention  in  Demopolis, 
was  made  rector.  In  the  autumn  he  had  the  misfortune  to  lose  his  wife, 
and  in  January,  1879,  having  received  a  call  to  Hopkinsville,  Ky.,  he 
resigned  and  left  for  that  place.  He  was  subsequently  elected  rector  of 
St.  Paul's  Church,  Evansville,  Indiana,  where  he  is  now  doing  a  most 
acceptable  and  successful  work.  At  the  convention  of  May,  1878,  he 
reported  one  hundred  and  sixteen  communicants. 

Mr.  Morris  having  given  up  the  work  in  January,  1879,  there  was 
again  an  interregnum  until  the  following  November,  when  Rev.  J.  B. 
Gray,  called  from  Los  Angelos,  California,  entered  upon  the  duties  of  the 
rectorship.  During  his  administration  of  three  years  the  present  rectory 
was  built,  mainly  by  the  strenuous  exertions  of  the  ladies,  always  fore- 
most in  every  good  work.  It  cost  about  ;$i,500.  It  was  not  completed 
at  the  time  of  Mr.  Gray's  resignation,  and  was  not  occupied  by  him.  His 
work  in  the  parish  was  marked  by  a  quiet,  humble,  persistent,  and  faith- 
ful effort  to  meet  the  difficulties  and  discouragements  of  the  situation, 
difficulties  growing  out  of  the  depressed  condition  of  the  city,  not  yet 
fully  rallied  from  the  terrible  effects  of  the  cholera  epidemic  of  1873,  and 
a  changing  population. 

In  1879  there  were  112  communicants.  He  reported,  in  1880,  only 
109,  one  having  died  and  two  removed,  and  on  his  departure,  November, 
1881,  there  were  125,  showing  an  increase  the  last  year  of  sixteen,  all  but 
one  of  whom  were  confirmations. 

This  faithful  pastor  was  specially  devoted  to  the  care  and  comfort  of 
the  poor  and  needy.  Mr.  Gray  is  a  native  of  Maryland.  He  became 
canonically  connected  with  this  diocese  in  1864,  but  circumstances  of  the 
civil  war  hindered  his  actual  residence  and  working  here  until  1866,  when 
he  took  charge  of  Trinity  Church,  Florence,  and  St,  John's,  Tuscumbia, 
in  North  Alabama,  remaining  until  the  latter  part  of  1867,  when  he 
removed  to  Los  Angelos,  California,  from  which  place  he  was  called  to 
the  Church  of  the  Advent.  From  this  point  he  returned  to  his  native 
State,  and  has  since  been  the  beloved  rector  of  Trinity  Church,  St.  Mary's 

Rev.  J.  A.  Van  Hoose,  who  had  again  become  a  citizen  and  merchant 
of  Birmingham,  during  the  latter  part  of  Mr.  Gray's  sta>-,  rendered  val- 
uable   assistance    in    the    Sunday  school,    as    vestryman,    and    otherwise 

Bii-minghmn .  2  i  7 

attended,  as  opportunity  offered,  to  the  spiritual  wants  of  tlie  congrega- 
tion, until  the  present  incumbent,  Rev.  Thomas  J.  Beard,  took  charge  on 
the  1st  of  May,  1882. 

During  the  now  nearly  five  years  of  his  labors  as  rector  the  church 
has  gone  steadily  forward,  the  chapel  has  been  twice  enlarged,  so  that  it 
will  now  seat  nearly  if  not  quite  400  comfortably.  The  first  enlargement 
and  repairing  was  made  in  January,  1884,  and  cost  nearly  $900,  ;?250  of 
which  was  borne  by  the  Ladies'  Aid  Society.  This  gave  only  seventy-five 
additional  sittings,  and  the  necessity  for  more  room  to  accommodate  the 
rapidly  increasing  congregation  has  caused  the  recent  addition  of  a  wing 
seating  150  persons.  Both  the  main  building  and  part  of  the  wing  have 
been  carpeted,  the  wing  by  the  generosity  of  Mr.  J.  T.  Nixon,  and  the 
main,  or  old  part,  by  the  Ladies'  Aid  Society,  which,  during  the  past  five 
years,  has  made  and  expended  on  the  church  and  rectory,  and  in  generous 
personal  gifts  to  the  rector  and  his  friends,  many  hundreds  of  dollars,  and 
are  now  engaged  in  accumulating  a  fund  to  furnish  the  new  church  when 
built,  as  it  will  soon  undoubtedly  be,  on  the  beautiful  lot  corner  Sixth 
avenue  and  Twentieth  street.  Besides  the  Ladies'  Aid  Society,  always 
working  in  churchly  and  legitimate  ways  for  the  good  of  the  church,  there 
has  been  organized  a  guild  of  men,  called  the  Guild  of  St.  John's,  in  honor 
of  the  old  parish  at  Elyton,  and  also  an  altar  chapter  of  young  people  to  care 
for  the  proper  cleanliness  and  adornment  of  the  altar  and  chancel.  There 
have  been  two  Mission  Sunday  schools  organized,  one  at  St.  John's,  Elyton, 
and  the  other  on  the  south  side  of  the  railroad,  numbering  about  fifty 
pupils  and  eight  teachers  each.  The  first  is  under  the  superintendence  of 
Samuel  Greene,  Esq.,  and  the  second  under  Prof  N.  D.  Van  Sjxkle,  of 
the  city  high  school.  The  Sunday  school  in  the  church  on  the  North  Side 
numbers  near  lOO  scholars,  and  is  under  the  superintendence  of  Rev.  J.  A. 
Van  Hoose,  who  visits  on  alternate  Sundays,  in  the  afternoon,  the  Mission 
Sunday  schools,  and  assists  the  rector  in  the  morning  service,  and  in  other 
important  ways. 

The  growth  of  the  preceding  three  years  had  been  hampered  and 
hindered  by  the  paral)-sing  influence  of  the  cholera  visitation  upon  the  life 
and  development  of  the  city,  by  the  shortness  of  the  rectorships,  and  the 
frequent  and  prolonged  vacancies  of  the  cure,  and  by  other  unavoidable 
circumstances  incident  to  its  new  and  feeble  condition.  The  increase  of 
the  number  of  communicants  from  125  in  1882  to  more  than  400  at  this 
writing  has  been  largely  due  to  the  rapid  increase  of  the  city's  population, 
and  whatever  may  or  may  not  have  been  the  fidelity  of  the  rector,  local 
conditions  of  a  providential  nature  have  had  a  large  share  in  promoting 

2 1 8  Jefferso)L    Coicnty. 

the  present  growth  and  strength  of  the  parish.  Not  only  has  the  number 
of  communicants  increased  nearly  fourfold,  but  the  financial  strength  has 
increased  in  even  a  much  larger  ratio,  and  the  best  interests  of  the  church 
require  the  organization  of  a  new  parish,  according  to  the  natural  divisions 
of  the  city  by  the  railroads,  and  due  steps  are  being  taken  to  effect  this- 
new  organization,  and  call  a  minister  to  take  charge  of  it  at  once.  The 
temporal  prosperity  and  growth  of  the  city  and  its  suburbs  offer  a  large 
field  for  the  spiritual  activities  of  the  church,  but  while  the  field  is  white 
to  the  harvest,  the  laborers  are  few. 

The  present  vestry  consists  of  Charles  Wheelock,  senior  warden  ; 
W.  J.  Milner,  junior  warden ;  A.  W.  Adger,  secretary ;  Robert  Jemison, 
treasurer;  R.  H.  Pearson,  T.  C.  Thompson,  J.  P.  Mudd,  J.  R.  Carter, 
J.  F.  Johnston,  T.  B.  Lyons,  and  James  B.  Cobbs.  Of  these  only  R.  H. 
Pearson,  Esq.,  and  Major  W.  J.  Milner  were  members  of  the  original 
vestry  of  1873.  Other  laymen  who  have  acted  as  vestrymen  in  the  brief 
history  of  this  young  parish  are  Hon.  G.  W.  Hewitt,  J.  M.  Earle,  J.  L. 
Lockwood,  G.  B.  West,  William  Gessner,  H.  J.  Winn,  Ellis  Phelan, 
F.  H.  Armstrong,  Dr.  M.  H.  Jordan,  M.  T.  Porter,  and  Dr.  H.  P. 

Rev.  Thomas  J.   Beakd,   Rector  Church  of  the  Advent. 

Mr.  Beard  was  born  March,  1835,  in  Lowndes  County,  Ala.  In 
early  boyhood  days  he  lost  both  parents,  and  went  to  live  in  the  village  of 
Dayton,  Marengo  County,  with  the  family  of  his  kinsman,  R.  H.  Picker- 
ing, Esq.,  a  large  cotton  planter.  At  that  time  Dayton  was  the  place  of 
residence  of  many  rich  planters,  who,  owning  plantations  in  the  surround- 
ing country,  fi.xed  their  residences  on  this  .sandy  plain,  where  health,  good 
water,  pleasant  grounds,  schools  and  churches,  and  general  society  might 
be  found. 

Thomas  J.  Beard  entered  the  male  academy  of  the  place,  then  pre- 
sided over  by  an  accomplished  gentleman  and  graduate  of  Chapel  Hill 
College,  Dr.  W.  J.  Kittrell.  He  at  once  rose  on  his  merits  to  the  head 
of  his  class,  and  no  one  of  his  fellows  ever  aspired  higher  than  to  be  next 
below  "Tom  Beard."  In  recitations  and  in  deportment  his  weekly  report 
was  seldom  less  than  "perfect,"  while  on  the  playground  his  activity  and 
proficiency  were  among  the  foremost. 

For  several  years  the  youth  was  a  valued  inmate  of  the' family  of 
Andrew  P.  Calhoun,  a  cotton  planter,  residing  near  Dayton,  son  of  the 
Carolina  statesman.      Mr.  Calhoun's  sons  were  too  young,  as  he  thouglit, 

Birmmghani.  219 

to  attend,  unprotected,  a  neighborhood  school,  a  mile  from  home,  and  he, 
having  formed  a  strong  attachment  to  the  orphan  lad,  invited  him  to  come 
to  live  in  his  family,  and  become  a  friend  to  his  own  boys.  Founded  on 
this  very  marked  evidence  of  confidence,  placed  upon  one  so  young,  grew 
up  a  life-long  mutuality  of  friendship  between  him  and  the  entire  Calhoun 
family.  A  pleasant  display  of  this  sentiment  was  made  when  John  C. 
Calhoun,  one  of  the  "boys"  mentioned,  was  about  to  be  married  in  a 
•distant  State.  He  demanded  that  he  should  enter  upon  that  happy  change 
of  life  with  the  blessing  of  his  youthful  friend,  now  a  respected  priest. 
Therefore,  Rev.  Mr.  Beard  was  sent  for  to  perform  the  marriage  service. 

Rev.  Mr.  Beard  was  educated  at  the  University  of  Alabama.  He 
first  fixed  upon  the  law  as  his  profession,  but,  after  a  few  months  study  in 
Dayton,  he  altered  his  purpose,  and  began  to  prepare  for  the  ministry. 
He  was  ordained  deacon  at  St.  Paul's  Church,  Lowndesboro,  his  native 
place,  June  24,  i860.  May  9,  1864,  he  was  ordained  priest  at  St.  John's, 
Montgomery.  His  first  charge  was  Trinity  Church,  Demopolis,  where 
he  preached  to  a  highly  intelligent  congregation  for  several  years  with 
marked  acceptability.  From  Demopolis  he  went  to  assume  charge  of  St. 
James,  Eufaula.  While  in  this  work  he  went  to  Gen.  Joseph  E.  John- 
ston's army,  then  engaged  in  the  great  Georgia  campaign,  as  a  missionary, 
and  remained  there,  often  under  fire  along  the  lines,  until  that  campaign 
ended.  Evangelistic  work  in  Northern  Alabama,  and  the  pastorate  of 
St.  John's,  Helena,  Ark.,  employed  him  until  called  to  the  then  largest 
parish  in  the  State,  St.  John's,  Mobile.  There  he  labored  for  ten  years 
■with  distinguished  success.  The  church  communicants  increased,  until 
the  number  approached  700. 

From  Mobile  Rev.  Mr.  Beard  came  to  his  present  charge,  and  the 
history  of  the  church  since  then  is  the  record  of  his  work.  His  energy 
is  ceaseless.  Of  late  years  the  reverend  gentleman  preaches  without  notes. 
He  is  logical,  well-informed,  and  very  animated  and  forcible  in  delivery. 
He  prepares  his  subject  by  close  thought,  and  an  excellent  memory  and 
•disciplined  mind  preserve  the  train  of  study  for  utterance  in  words  found 
ready  for  the  occasion.  There  are  few  more  fluent  public  speakers  than 
he.  As  a  parish  priest  he  is  active  and  untiring  in  every  good  work.  He 
has  been  repeatedly  chosen  as  one  of  the  three  clerical  delegates  from  the 
Diocese  of  Alabama  to  the  Triennial  General  Convention  of  the  church. 
He  has  recently  resigned  the  position  of  trustee  of  the  University  of  the 

In  1864,  after  his  return  from  the  army.  Rev.  Mr.  Beard  was  married 
to  Miss  Chandler,  then  a  refugee  from  Norfolk,  Va.,  which  place  had 

Jefferson    Coitiity. 

been  evacuated  by  the  Confederate  military  and  naval  forces.  Mrs. 
Beard's  ancestors  had,  for  generations  in  the  past,  been  officers  in  the 
American  navy,  and  her  abode  in  Eufaula  resulted  from  the  transfer  of 
her  guardian  and  kinsman,  Captain  Brown,  to  the  Confederate  gunboat 
service  on  the  Mississippi. 

Rev.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Beard  have  enjoyed  a  full  share  of  domestic  hap- 
piness, and  have  reared  a  family  of  sons  and  daughters,  valuable  mem- 
bers of  Birmingham  society,  so  far  as  they  may  have  come  to  years  of 


This  church  was  organized  in  May,  1872,  by  a  committee  of  the 
Presbytery  of  Tuscaloosa,  appointed  for  that  purpose.  The  names  of  the 
original  members  are  as  follows:  Messrs.  C.  W.  Hughes,  T.  S.  Woods, 
Mrs.  Mollie  Hughes,  Mrs.  Nancy  Hughes,  Miss  R.  A.  Hughes,  Miss  H. 
P.  Hughes,  Mr.  P.  B.  Kennedy,  and  Miss  Sue  Thompson — eight  in  all. 
Mr.  T.  S.  Woods  and  Mr.  C.  W.  Hughes  were  elected  by  the  people,  and 
ordained  and  installed  as  elders  by  the  committee. 

From  May,  1872,  until  April,  1874,  Rev.  W.  L.  Kennedy  was 
employed  by  the  church  as  stated  supply. 

Messrs.  R.  B.  Jones  and  J.  K.  Spence  were  added  to  the  eldership, 
and  Messrs.  J.  A.  and  John  Going  to  the  board  of  deacons,  in  1873. 

Some  twenty  members  were  added  to  the  church  during  the  two  years 
of  Mr.  Kennedy's  stay  with  it. 

The  church  lost  only  two  members  during  the  cholera  scourge  in 
1873;  one,  the  wife  of  the  minister  in  charge,  and  one,  the  wife  of 
Colonel  Terry. 

Mr.  Kennedy  resigned  his  charge  as  stated  supply  in  April,  1874,  hav- 
ing battled  bravely  with  the  fell  destroyer  and  gave  up  his  companion  in  the 
struggle.      He  moved  to  Texas,  where  he  still  preaches  the  gospel  of  love. 

From  April,  1874,  until  December  of  the  same  year,  the  church  was 
without  any  one  to  break  to  them  the  Bread  of  Life.  The  elders  secured  an 
occasional  sermon,  and  kept  up  the  Sabbath  school  and  prayer  meetings. 
Thus  the  life  of  the  church  was  preserved.  In  August,  1874,  at  a  con- 
gregational meeting,  presided  over  by  Rev.  C.  A.  Stillman,  D.  D.,  a  call 
was  made  out  and  presented  to  the  Presbytery  of  Tuscaloosa  for  the  pas- 
toral services  of  Rev.  L.  S.  Handley.  This  call  was  placed  in  his  hands 
by  the  Presbytery  in  session  at  Bethesda  Church,  Pickens  County,  Ala., 
October  29,  1874,  and  was  accepted. 


The  pastor-elect  took  charge  of  the  church  December  15,  of  the 
same  year,  and  was  installed  as  pastor  January  25,  1875,  by  a  committee 
consisting  of  Revs.  C.  A.  Stillman  and  T.  S.  Winn. 

Dr.  Stillman  preached  the  sermon,  proposed  the  constitutional  ques- 
tions and  delivered  the  "charge"  to  the  pastor.  The  Rev.  T.  S.  Winn 
delivered  the  charge  to  the  people.  This  occasion  is  still  remembered  by 
a  few  as  a  deeply  interesting  and  solemn  one.  The  pastor  and  his  "  little 
flock"  of  twenty-five  members  took  their  first  communion  together  and 
pledged  themselves  to  the  work  before  them  on  that  day.  It  was  a  "day 
of  small  things"  but  a  day  of  hope.  During  the  first  year  the  member- 
ship was  more  than  doubled.  The  little  company  had  a  "mind  to  work," 
and  the  "Lord  of  the  harvest"  blessed  their  labors.  For  several  years 
the  struggle  was  a  hard  one.  The  church  felt  keenly  the  "pressure  of  the 
times"  during  the  years  1877,  '78  and  '79,  when  there  was  but  little 
development  in  the  city  and  great  apprehensions  entertained  on  the  part 
of  many  as  to  its  future. 

Notwithstanding  the  hard  times  and  discouragements  for  four  or  five 
years,  the  church  grew  constantly  in  numbers  and  in  Christian  work. 
Since  1880  its  development  has  been  more  rapid  and  substantial,  thus 
keeping  pace,  in  a  good  degree,  with  the  growth  of  the  city.  The  mem- 
bership has  even  maintained,  as  a  whole,  a  high  degree  of  Christian  mor- 
ality and  influence,  and  has  shown  considerable  zeal  for  the  development 
of  the  cause  of  Christ  in  this  city. 

In  March,  1875,  Mr.  W.  H.  McNeil  and  Mr.  D.  R.  Dunlap  were 
added  to  the  board  of  deacons.  In  1877  Mr.  McNeil  was  called  to  the 
eldership.  In  187S  Mr.  William  Berney  and  Mr.  J.  A.  Allen  were 
elected  and  set  apart  to  the  office  of  deacon,  and  Mr.  J.  A.  Going  was 
called  to  serve  the  church  in  the  eldership.  In  1880  Messrs.  Allen, 
Berney,  and  White,  and  in  1883  Messrs.  Hubbert,  Sherrod,  and  Anglin 
were  added  to  the  eldership.  In  1884  Dr.  Godden  was  elected  to  the 
eldership,  and  Dr.  F.  D.  Nabers  and  Captain  J.  C.  Henley  were  elected 
to  the  office  of  deacon.  Later  Messrs.  Roden,  Rochester,  and  Elliott 
were  called  tn  serve  in  the  same  office. 

In  May,  1886,  Messrs.  T.  A.  E.  Evans,  J.  E.  Webb,  and  John 
Going  were  added  to  the  board  of  elders. 

There  have  been  many  changes,  by  death  and  removal,  so  that  but 
few  of  the  members  who  were  here  at  the  beginning  of  the  present  pasto- 
rate are  now  left. 

During  the  last  few  years  the  growth  of  the  church  has  been  rapid. 
In  1885  over  one  hundred  members  were  added.     The  Second  and  Third 

Jc^cyson    Coimty. 

Presbyterian  Churches  have  grown  out  of  the  First  Church.  They  are 
both  doing  efficient  work  in  their  respective  localities. 

The  house  of  worship  of  the  First  Church  was  removed  from  Elyton 
in  1872.  The  self-sacrificing  labors  of  a  few  accomplished  this  work  with 
the  aid  of  friends.  The  building  has  undergone  many  valuable  repairs 
from  time  to  time.  It  has  been  enlarged  to  accommodate  the  wants  of 
the  congregation,  and  now  seats  comfortably  something  over  four  hundred. 
Much  of  the  work  done  has  been  through  the  ladies  of  the  church.  They 
have  ever  abounded  in  love  and  good  works.  Mainly  through  their  labors 
the  church  manse  was  erected  in  1883. 

The  "Ladies'  Aid  Society,"  composed  of  the  Christian  women  of 
the  church,  has  been  an  element  of  strength  and  help  in  all  the  history  of 
the  church.  They  have  often  gladdened  their  pastor's  heart  in  "coming 
up  to  the  help  "  of  the  Lord's  work  in  time  of  need. 

Early  in  1886  the  church  addressed  itself  to  the  noble  work  of  a  new 
church  building  to  cost  not  less  than  §25,000.  Efficient  committees  were 
appointed  and  a  liberal  subscription  made.  The  work  is  now  being 
vigorously  prosecuted  and  will  be  completed  in  the  near  future.  The 
church  building  will  be  modern  in  style,  with  ample  and  comfortable 
seatings,  and,  when  completed,  a  very  imposing  structure.  It  will  remain 
a  monument  to  the  faith  and  love  of  the  Lord's  people  to  his  cause. 

The  church  has  now  a  membership  of  three  hundred  and  fifty,  a 
flourishing  Sabbath  school,  seven  elders,  six  deacons,  a  Ladies'  Aid 
Society,  a  young  ladies'  "  Working  Circle,"  and  the  society  of  "Young 
Workers,"  a  society  of  children. 

The  prospects  for  the  future  were  never  brighter  or  more  hopeful, 
"The  Lord  has  done  great  things  for  us,  whereof  we  are  glad.  To  him 
be  all  the  praise." 

Rev.   L.   S.    Handley, 

Pastor  of  the  First  Presbyterian  Church,  was  born  near  Morgan's  Hill, 
Dallas  County,  Ala.,  the  29th  of  September,  1840.  His  father  was 
William  L.  Handley,  his  mother  Malinda  M.  Handley,  nee  Morgan. 
She  was  twice  married — first  to  Mr.  Nunnelee. 

Mr.  Handley  moved  to  Louisiana  in  1848,  where  he  lived  on  the  farm 
with  his  parents  until  the  year  1856,  when  he  returned  to  Alabama,  and 
made  his  home  with  his  half  brother,  Mr.  S.  F.  Nunnelee,  who  was  a 
father  to  him.  (His  own  father  died  in  Louisiana  in  1853.)  He  learned 
the  printer's   trade,    and  worked   with   his   brother,   who   was  editor  and 

Birminghaju.  223 

proprietor  of  the  Eutavv  Observer.  While  in  Eutaw  he  connected  himself 
with  the  Presbyterian  Church,  and  became  one  of  its  active  young 

It  was  here  his  attention  was  turned  to  the  gospel  ministry  by  his 
friend,  Robert  Crawford,  then  a  young  lawyer,  and  his  pastor.  Rev.  John 
R.  Bowman. 

He  placed  himself  under  the  care  of  the  Presbytery,  and  started  to 
school  in  1858,  pursuing  his  studies  one  year  under  Professor  Derby,  then 
rector  of  the  Episcopal  Church  in  Eutaw. 

He  afterward  entered  a  high  school  for  boys  at  Pleasant  Ridge,  Ala., 
■under  control  of  the  Messrs.  Archibald,  who  were  successful  as  teachers. 

He  entered  the  army  in  1862  as  a  private  soldier,  with  the  Thirty- 
sixth  Alabama  Infantry,  and  shared  the  fortunes  of  war  with  the  brave 
men  in  that  regiment,  serving  under  Generals  Bragg,  Johnston,  and  Hood. 
He  received  his  parole  at  Greensboro,  N.  C. ,  in  May,  1865. 

He  returned  to  his  brother's  home,  near  Eutaw,  the  latter  part  of 
May,   1865,  and  took  charge  of  a  school  for  one  year. 

He  prepared  for  college  under  Professor  Tutwiler,  at  Greene  Springs, 
Ala. ,  a  man  of  blessed  memory. 

He  entered  college  at  Oxford,  Miss.,  in  1867,  and  graduated  in  i86g, 
with  a  class  composed  largely  of  ex-soldiers. 

He  studied  theology  at  Columbia,  S.  C. ,  for  three  years,  and  gradu- 
ated in  May,  1872;  was  licensed  by  the  Presbytery  of  Tuscaloosa  the  13th 
of  June  of  the  same  year  at  Hebron  Church,  in  Pickens  County,  Ala. 

He  took  charge  of  two  churches  in  Greene  County,  Ala.,  and  was 
ordained  to  the  full  work  of  the  ministry  in  June,  1873. 

He  served  the  churches  at  Clinton  and  Boligee,  Ala.,  for  two  and  a 
half  years — his  first  pastoral  charge.  Here  he  lost,  by  death,  his  com- 
panion, who  lived  to  help  him  in  his  work  only  one  year. 

She  was  Miss  S.  C.  Lewis,  of  Oxford,  Miss.,  an  accomplished, 
Christian  woman,  who  made  many  warm  friends  in  both  churches  before 
her  death. 

These  churches  grew  substantially  during  this  short  pastorate,  and  he 
gave  them  up  with  reluctance. 

Mr.  Handley  took  charge  of  the  Birmingham  Presbyterian  Church 
the  15th  of  December,  1874.  He  was  installed  as  pastor  of  the 'First 
Church  by  a  committee  of  Tuscaloosa  Presbytery  January  25,  1875.  His 
history  has  been  identified  with  the  history  of  this  church  for  twelve  years. 
He  has  had  the  joy  of  seeing  the  "little  handful"  of  brave  Christian  souls 
grow  into  a  strong  church  ;  of  seeing  a  town  of  3,000  grow  into  a  city  of 

2  24  Jefferson    County. 

35,000.  He  is  tenderly  and  strongly  attached  to  his  people,  who  have 
stood  by  him,  and  worked  with  him,  in  the  cause  of  Christ. 

He  has  taken  part  in  the  organization  of  the  Second  and  Third  Pres- 
byterian Churches,  which  grew  out  of  "missions"  planted  and  worked  hy 
the  First  Church. 

Mr.  Handley  was  married,  a  second  time,  to  Mrs.  Cornelia  P.  Windham 
June  20,  1876 — the  daughter  of  Rev.  A.  C.  Ramsey.  She  has  been  to 
him  a  worthy  helpmate  in  all  his  work ;  shares  with  him  the  esteem  and 
love  of  his  church,  and  the  success  of  his  labors.  Their  union  has  beea 
blessed  with  five  children — precious  pledges  of  their  love.  These  are 
growing  up  around  their  table  "like  olive  plants,"  and  give  promise  of 
being  a  joy  and  crown  to  them  in  their  later  years. 


This  church  is  an  offshoot  from  the  First  Presbyterian  Church  of 
Birmingham.  It  was  organized  July  1884,  by  Rev.  James  Watson.  The 
place  of  worship  was  then  a  schoolhouse  on  Avenue  E,  between  Tenth 
and  Eleventh  streets.  Eleven  members  were  of  the  congregation.  Sep- 
tember I,  1 886,  the  congregation  moved  into  their  new  church  on  Avenue 
C,  between  the  same  streets.  There  are  now  some  sixty  members,  and 
the  church  is  in  a  prosperous  condition.  Dr.  E.  H.  Sholl,  one  of  the 
leading  physicians  of  the  city,  is  superintendent.  Rev.  James  Watson  is. 
the  pastor,  and  Rev.  Mr.  Lapsley  is  the  assistant  pastor. 


was  organized  by  a  commission  of  the  Presbytery  of  Tuscaloosa,  at  the 
corner  of  Avenue  G  and  Twenty-second  street,  on  Friday  night,  July  11, 
1884.  The  commission  consisted  of  Rev.  L.  S.  Handley,  Moderator;  Dr. 
E.  H.  Sholl  and  J.  M.  Thomson,  Ruling  Elders,  assisted  by  the  Rev. 
James  Watson,  Evangelist  of  the  Presbytery,  and  Rev.  W.  H.  Clagett, 
Evangelist  of  the  Synod  of  Alabama.  Thirty  persons  enrolled  their 
names,  and  were  received  into  the  membership  of  the  Third  Presbyterian 
Church,  four  were  received  by  certificate  from  the  First  Presbyterian 
Church  of  Birmingham,  and  twenty-six  upon  examination  and  confession 
of  their  faith  in  Christ,  eight  of  whom  received  the  ordinance  of  baptism. 

Bb'mingha77i .  225 

Two  ruling  elders  and  two  deacons  were  elected,  and  set  apart  to  their 
several  offices.  The  Third  Presbyterian  Church  of  Birmingham  was  then 
declared  by  the  moderator  to  be  duly  organized  in  the  name  of  the 
"Father,  the  Son,  and  the  Holy  Ghost." 

J.  M.  Thomson  and  J.  H.  McCune  were  elected  Ruling  Elders,  and 
C.  H.  Reid  and  George  D.  Rice,  Deacons.  The  first  trustees  were  elected 
August  10,  1884.  They  were :  J.  M.  Thomson,  M.  W.  Steele,  and  J.  H. 
McCune,  with  all  the  powers  of  a  building  committee.  Charles  H.  Reid 
was,  at  the  same  time,  elected  Secretary  and  Treasurer. 

The  Rev.  James  Watson  was  the  first  pastor,  preaching  once  a  month, 
but  prayer-meetings  were  conducted  regularly  every  week  ;  also  a  Sabbath 

Rev.  James  Watson  became  the  regular  pastor  October   i,   1884. 

The  committee  began  operations  toward  building  a  place  to  worship 
in  the  fall  of  1884,  under  instruction  to  "  erect  a  modest  wooden  building 
with  brick  basement,  to  cost  about  ^2,500;  to  build  as  they  have  means, 
and  finish  when  their  subscription  list  is  enlarged  adequately  for  that 
purpose."     This  building  was  completed  in  1886. 

The  pastors  have  been  Rev.  James  Watson  and  Rev.  W.  M.  Brimm. 

In  a  narrative  of  the  church,  found  in  the  records,  we  find  this 
touching  allusion  to  one  of  its  early  pastors  : 

"This  narrative  cannot  be  closed  without  bearing  testimony  to  the 
faithful  and  consecrated  labors  of  the  Rev.  William  H.  Clagett  in  preach- 
ing the  gospel  before  and  after  the  organization  of  the  church.  The 
early  organization  is  due  to  the  '  power '  with  which  he  preached  '  Christ 
and  him  crucified. '  His  name  and  labors  of  love  will  ever  be  cherished 
with  profound  gratitude  and  sincere  affection." 

The  church  is  located  on  the  corner  of  Avenue  F  and  Twenty-second 

The  present  pastor  is  Rev.  W.  M.  Brimm,  and  the  elders  are  J.  M. 
Thomson,  J.  T.  Moore,  A.  F.  Brainard,  and  E.  G.  Brownlee. 

The  membership  now  numbers  eighty,  and  the  Sabbath  school  sixty 

The  deacons  are  C.  Reid  and  H.  E.  Klein. 

The  church  is  in  a  flourishing  condition  and  growing  steadily. 

2  26  Jefferson   Cojinty. 


The  Cumberland  Presbyterian  Church  was  organized  in  Birmingham 
in  1876  by  Rev.  J.  C.  Armstrong,  with  about  eighteen  or  twenty 
members,  March,  1887,  there  were  one  hundred  members,  and  a  Sunday 
school  of  thirty  pupils  average  attendance. 

In  1878  the  congregation  built  a  new  church  on  the  corner  of  Fifth 
avenue  and  Eighteenth  street.  The  building  is  a  frame  one,  and  has  a 
seating  capacity  of  about  three  hundred.  The  church  also  has  a  neat 
parsonage  on  the  corner  of  the  same  lot  with  the  church. 

Rev.  W.  C.  Denson  is  now  the  pastor. 


In  1 87 1,  when  the  prospective  city  had  scarcely  been  laid  off,  and  yet 
had  begun  to  be  the  talk  far  around,  the  Home  Mission  Board  of  the 
Southern  Baptist  Convention  appointed  Rev.  John  L.  D.  Hillyer  a  mis- 
sionary to  Birmingham.  He  came  in  the  fall  of  that  year,  when  there 
were  not  over  one  or  two  hundred  houses  here. 

The  first  church  was  organized  June  21,  1872,  with  about  twelve 
members.  Mrs.  N.  F.  Miles  is  the  only  member  now  left  who  was  in 
the  organization,  and  N.  F.  Miles  is  the  next  oldest.  At  the  time  of  the 
organization  he  had  not  brought  his  letter  from  Montgomery.  Rev. 
Hillyer  served  until  October  3,  1872. 

Rev.  E.  S.  Smythe,  of  Oxford,  Ala.,  succeeded  Rev.  Hillyer  February 
16,  1873,  and  served  till  January  i,  1874.  During  his  pastorate  the 
church  began  the  construction  of  a  house.  Until  they  got  their  house 
ready  for  use  they  were  kindly  given  the  use  of  the  houses  of  the  Metho- 
dist and  Presbyterian  brethren. 

February  25,  1874,  Rev.  C.  A.  Woodson,  of  Virginia,  took  charge, 
and  he  served  until  October  25,  1874.  In  the  spring  of  1875  Rev.  A.  J. 
Waldrop,  of  Jefferson  County,  agreed  to  fill  the  pastorate  until  a  regular 
pastor  could  be  obtained.  October  15,  1877,  Mr.  Waldrop  retired,  and 
on  December  12th  following  Rev.  J.  H.  Hendon,  of  Union  Springs,  Ala., 
became  pastor.  Up  to  this  time  the  church  was  quite  small  and  labored 
under  trying  adversities,  and  scarcely  attracted  any  notice  in  the  commu- 
nity. The  pastor  could  do  little  more  than  hold  the  small  flock  together. 
Mr.  Waldrop  left  the  church  fairly  on  the  road  to  success. 

Birmiftg/iant.  227 

Mr.  Hendon's  salary  the  first  year  was  ;?500,  supplemented  by  $300 
from  the  Home  Mission  Board.  His  plan  was  gradually  to  bring  the 
church  up,  year  by  year,  until  they  could  pay  the  whole  salary,  and  thus 
become  self  supporting,  and  in  this  he  succeeded.  He  had  great  faith  in 
Birmingham,  and  yearned  over  the  work  most  ardently.  His  physical 
system  was  not  equal  to  the  labor  required  in  this  field,  and,  in  1882,  he 
was  forced  to  take  a  respite.  He  returned  very  little  improved,  and 
resigned  November  29,  1884.  Loving  the  work  and  his  people  as  he  did, 
it  was  with  great  sorrow  of  heart  that  he  gave  it  up,  and  resigned  after 
five  years  of  faithful,  successful  labor.  During  his  pastorate  the  church 
enjoyed  two  most  refreshing  revivals.  The  first  was  in  the  spring  of  1878, 
under  Major  Penn,  of  Texas,  and  his  chorister,  Mr.  Hart.  About  sixty 
were  added  to  the  church,  and  some  of  the  best  members  now  in  this 
church,  as  well  as  in  the  Methodist  and  Presbyterian  Churches,  were  con- 
verted at  the  Penn  meeting. 

The  second  was  conducted  by  Rev.  D.  I.  Purser,  and  his  brother, 
Rev.  John  F.  Purser,  now  pastor  of  the  Baptist  Church  at  Troy,  Ala. 
It  lasted  several  weeks  and  added  seventy-seven  to  the  church.  Both 
Penn  and  the  Pursers  had  peculiar,  but  common-sense  methods,  both 
drew  large  audiences,  and  both  left  broad  and  lasting  influences  in  the 

Rev.  D.  I.  Purser  had  been  elected  to  act  as  joint  pastor  during  Mr. 
Hendon's  absence,  in  1882,  and  when  the  latter  was  forced  by  ill-health  to 
resign,  Mr.  Purser  resigned  also,  and  Rev.  Dr.  W.  O.  Bailey,  of  Texas, 
having  been  elected,  became  pastor  January  i,  1883.  Dr.  Bailey  served 
a  little  more  than  one  year,  when  D.  I.  Purser  was  again  elected  pastor, 
and  entered  upon  his  work  April  i,   1884. 

At  this  time  the  church  had  become  about  two  hundred  and  fifty 
strong,  and  was  able  to  pay  their  pastor  about  ;^i,200  salary,  beside  mak- 
ing considerable  contributions  to  missions  abroad.  In  1882  a  new  house 
was  decided  upon,  and  several  thousand  dollars  subscribed,  but  owing  to 
a  change  in  pastors  then  the  matter  was  dropped.  During  Dr.  Bailey's 
time  the  new  church  building  was  again  discussed,  but  nothing  decisive 
was  done. 

In  1884  the  pastor  and  church  set  about  in  full  earnest  to  have  a  new 
house.  After  much  discussion  it  was  decided  to  build  upon  the  old  lot, 
and  not  on  the  one  purchased  in  1883.  By  the  spring  of  1885  a  plan  had 
been  decided  upon,  and  in  the  summer  of  that  year  the  work  was  begun. 
In  the  meantime  O'Brien's  Opera  House  was  rented  for  one  year.  At 
the  close  of  1S85  the  church  gave  up  the  Opera  House.     They  have  been 

2  28  fcjferson    Coinify. 

able  to  worship  in  the  new  church  since  January  i,  1886.  Through  the 
untiring  perseverance  of  Dr.  Purser,  aided  by  a  number  of  active  brethren 
and  sisters,  and  we  should  add  by  Captain  C.  C.  Hardman,  superintendent 
of  the  work  of  building,  the  new  house  was  ready  for  dedication  February 
28,  1886  Dr.  J.  B.  Hawthorne,  of  Atlanta,  preached  the  dedication 
sermon  from  Romans  xiii :  10,  "Love  is  the  fulfilling  of  the  law," 
to  about  eleven  hundred  people.  The  house  was  packed  to  its  fullest 
capacity,  and  the  sermon  elicited  great  enthusiasm.  At  the  close  Dr. 
Purser  stated  that  $1,500  was  needed  "to-morrow  "  to  set  the  house  and 
furniture  free  from  all  encumbrance.  The  amount  was  raised  in  a  few 
minutes,  in  contributions  of  gioo,  $50,  and  $25,  and  some  ;^io,  after 
which  S237  was  raised  by  the  basket  collection.  A  very  liberal  portion 
of  the  amount  was  given  by  Methodists,  Presbyterians,  Episcopalians, 
and  outsiders.  It  was  a  grand  occasion,  a  grand  success,  and  led  by  one 
of  the  grandest  of  men,  Dr.  J.  B.  Hawthorne.  The  new  church  and  fur- 
niture complete  cost  $12,500. 

The  year  1885  was  marked  in  the  prosperity  of  the  church  and  church 
work,  as  in  the  progress  of  the  city.  In  addition  to  the  grand  work 
just  mentioned,  three  new  churches,  all  the  outgrowth  of  mission  work, 
were  organized,  and  are  now  worshiping  in  new  houses  of  their  own. 

The  present  membership  of  this  church  is  now  about  five  hundred, 
the  financial  strength  has  been  increased  in  proportion,  and  the  whole  is 
better  organized  for  efficient  work  than  ever  before. 

The  mission  stations  organized  and  conducted  by  the  young  men  of 
the  First  Baptist  Church,  in  the  year  1885,  are  as  follows: 

The  South  Side  Mission  was  organized  into  the  South  Side  Baptist 
Church  January  i,  1886,  with  Dr.  W.  C.  Cleveland  as  pastor.  The 
church  is  flourishing,  with  a  membership  of  seventy-seven. 

The  second  mission  was  also  organized  into  a  church  in  the  spring  of 
1885,  with  Rev.  J.  F.  Purser  as  pastor,  formerly  assistant  pastor  of  the 
First  Church.     They  have  a  membership  of  seventeen. 

The  West  End  Mission  was  organized  into  a  church  in  the  fall  of 
1885,  with  Rev.  Mr.  Hogan  as  pastor.  They  have  a  membership  of 

Cotton  Mill  station  has  not  yet  organized  into  a  church,  but  still 
maintains  a  flourishing  Sunday  school. 

The  Smithfield  Land  Company  has  recently  donated  them  a  lot  to 
build  a  church  upon,  which  will  be  organized  at  an  early  day  as  the  Elyton 
Mission,  which  maintaiiTs  a  Sunday  school. 

At  the  Avondale  Mission  a  good  Sunday  school  is  progressing,  and  a 

^"Q- byEQWdhsms.e.'Bro'i^evf^-^-"^ 

y    J^U^(y(^ 


church  to  be  soon  erected  upon  land  donated  by  the  Avondale  Land  Com- 
pany, with  Rev.  W.  A.  Hobson  as  pastor.  North  Birmingham  has  also 
donated  a  lot  for  a  church  building,  as  will  doubtless  all  of  the  other  land 
companies,  upon  which  church  buildings  will  be  erected  in  the  coming 

This  work  has  all  been  accomplished  under  the  pastorate  of  Rev.  D. 
I.  Purser,  who  has  done,  perhaps,  more  for  the  cause  of  religion  than  any 
other  man  in  this  section. 

Rev.    D.wid    Ingram    Purser. 

The  subject  of  this  sketch  Vvas  born  in  Copiah  County,  Mississippi, 
December  24,  1843.  His  parents,  originally  from  South  Carolina,  easily 
traced  their  ancestry  into  the  active  scenes  of  the  Revolutionary  War, 
where  some  of  them  were  distinguished  for  their  deeds  of  devotion  in  that 
great  struggle.  In  their  westward  emigration  they  sojourned  for  a  year 
or  two  in  Pike  County,  Alabama,  thence  on  to  Mississippi,  the  native  soil 
of  our  subject. 

Mr.  Purser  had  limited  scholastic  advantages,  but,  after  his  connec- 
tion with  neighborhood  schools  in  his  native  community,  at  the  age  of 
sixteen  years  he  entered  the  high  school  at  Hazlehurst,  Mississippi,  where 
he  spent  seven  months  in  diligent  application  to  study.  He  was  reared 
on  a  farm  and  in  a  quiet  country  home,  where  the  native  talent  for  the 
practical  uses  of  things,  the  habits  of  industry,  and  close  attention  to 
business  were  developed  and  cultivated  to  a  degree  which  has  very  greatly 
facilitated  the  success  of  his  life  in  other  departments  of  noble  effort. 

The  next  turn  in  his  life  worthy  of  special  mention  is  the  fact  that  he 
entered  the  Confederate  service  at  the  age  of  seventeen  and  a  half  years, 
going  to  the  front  with  the  second  company  that  left  his  county,  ' '  The 
Seven  Stars  Artillery,"  a  company  whose  selection  of  a  name  was  put  in 
nomination  by  himself.  He  went  through  the  war  at  his  post,  and  was 
present  and  participated  in  sixteen  hard-fought  engagements. 

In  early  life,  immediately  after  the  war,  and  before  entering  the  min- 
istry, by  his  energy  and  adaptation  to  business  he  made  an  independent 
competency,  so  that  during  his  whole  ministerial  career  he  could  have 
lived  in  sufficient  bounty  without  assistance  from  a  ministerial  salary  ;  but, 
believing  that  the  workman  is  worthy  of  his  hire,  and  that  Christians 
should  be  trained  to  maintain  that  principle,  he  has  claimed  his  salary  like 
all  other  true  and  faithful  ministers. 

On  a  profession  of  faith  in  Christ  he  united  with  Damascus  Baptist 

Jefferson    Coiinty. 

Church,  in  the  country  near  Hazlehurst,  at  the  age  of  eleven  and  a  half 
years.  That  church,  recognizing  his  gifts,  gave  him  license  to  preach  the 
gospel  in  iS68,  but,  diligently  engaged  in  secular  pursuits,  he  did  not  act 
upon  his  license  for  two  years,  when  the  church  sent  a  committee  to  inform 
him  that  he  must  enter  the  work  or  surrender  his  license.  After  prayer- 
ful reflection  he  began  actively  to  preach  the  gospel,  and  in  October,  1870, 
four  months  after,  he  was  ordained  to  the  full  functions  of  the  ministry. 
His  first  year  in  the  ministry  was  devoted  to  missionary  work  in  West 
Mississippi,  between  Natchez  and  Port  Gibson,  a  region  of  seventy-five 
miles.  In  this  mission  he  constituted  three  new  churches  and  gathered 
and  established  four  scattered  ones.  At  the  end  of  the  year  he  was  pastor 
of  seven  churches,  besides  having  done  much  other  evangelistic  work. 

His  next  work  was  rendered  as  pastor  of  the  churches  in  Crystal 
Springs  and  Wesson,  Mississippi,  two  flourishing  towns.  The  ckurch  at 
Wesson  was  a  small  body  when  he  took  charge  of  it,  but  it  increased  with 
great  rapidity,  and  became  a  very  strong  church.  The  church  at  Crystal 
Springs  was  not  less  flourishing.  He  left  that  work  at  the  call  of  the 
State  Mission  Board  of  the  Mississippi  Baptist  Convention. 

During  his  connection  with  that  Board  he  arose  into  eminent  distinc- 
tion as  an  evangelist,  and  pressing  demands  were  laid  upon  him  from  other 
States,  and  in  response  to  these  calls  he  visited  and  labored  with  remark- 
able success  in  most  of  the  principal  cities  from  New  Orleans  to  St.  Louis ; 
meanwhile  he  declined  pastoral  calls  which  came  from  several  important 
cities.  It  was  while  he  was  engaged  in  this  succession  of  brilliant  work 
that  he  made  his  first  visit  to  Birmingham — a  visit  which  proved  a  great 
blessing  to  the  cause  of  his  denomination  in  this  city,  and  won  the  hearts 
of  the  Baptist  people  here. 

In  1883  he  was  called  to  the  work  of  State  Evangelist  by  the  State 
Mission  Board  of  the  Alabama  Convention.  For  twelve  months  he  held 
revival  meetings  in  the  cities  and  centers  of  influence  in  our  State,  which 
were  invariably  attended  with  success. 

It  was  a  sublime  day  for  the  Baptists  of  Birmingham  when  he 
accepted  the  call  of  the  First  Church  in  this  city,  and  entered  on  his 
work  as  their  pastor  April  i,  1884.  His  church — then  the  only  white 
Baptist  Church  in  the  city — had  only  two  hundred  and  seventy-eight  mem- 
bers, was  in  a  state  of  inefficiency,  imperfect  organization,  and  worship- 
ing in  an  unsightly  and  uncomfortable  house,  quite  inadequate  to  hold  his 

Mr.  Purser  seems  to  have  entered  this  rapidly-growing  city  with  the 
ideas  both  of  pastor  and  evangelist — as   pastor  of  the   First  Church  and 

Birmingham.  2,^3 

evangelist  for  the  whole  city  and  its  environments.     He  came  among  us 
with  the  fixed  opinion  that  church  extension  is  a  proper  theme  for  the 
pulpit  and  a  legitimate  topic  in  social  visiting  and  pastoral  work.     Over 
the  Baptist  interests  of  the  Magic  City  he  at  once  became  bishop  of  the 
situation,  and  knew  how  to  manipulate  the  responsibilities  of  his  functions. 
His  own  church  has  been  for  a  year  past  worshiping  in  a  magnificent  new 
house,  modern,  elegant,  and  grand,  with  capacity  to  seat  nine  hundred 
people.     His  membership  now  numbers  about  five  hundred.     Many  have, 
from  time  to   time,  gone   out  to   form   new  churches.     The   church    is  a 
wealthy,  intelligent,   orderly,  and  thoroughly-organized  body,  with  com- 
mendable  liberality,    a   large  congregation,    and   an    excellent   Sabbath 
school.      While  he  has  thus  developed  his   own   church,  he   has  kept  in 
constant  view  his  idea  of  church  extension,  and  as  fast  as  communities 
have   formulated    around   he    has    inspired    the  planting  of  missions  and 
Sabbath  schools,  secured  lots  for  church  sites,  and,  in  most  of  these  posi- 
tions, houses  have  been  erected  in  comfortable  chapel  form  and  churches 
have  been  organized  ;  and  now,  instead  of  one,  his  denomination  has  four 
white   churches,    with   efficient  pastors,  and   several    promising  missions. 
Two  of  these  new  churches  are  now  so  strong  and  efficient  that  they  con- 
template building  elegant    houses  at  an   early  day.      In    addition  to  his 
active  devotion  to  the  cause  and  his  consummate  tact,  being  a  man  of  large 
means  and   liberality,  he   is   capable   of  handling   men    of  position  and 
means,  and  this  has  been  used  wisely  in  securing  church  lots  and  in  erect- 
ing chapels.     When  this  end  could  not  be  achieved  otherwise  he  has 
largely  used  his  own  money  to  carry  his  point.     He  has  had  the  will,  the 
way,  and  the  capacity  to  do  the  needed  work,  and  it  has  not  been  simply 
talked  about — the  work  has  been  done  and  is  being  done.     With  all  his 
ministerial  work  faithfully  done,  he  has  the  gift  of  manipulating  money 
successfully,  and,  as  he  rapidly  moves  along,  he  takes  a  turn  at  that  quite 
frequently,  and  never  conceals  it.     He  seems  to  act  on  the  principle  of 
the  English  bishop,  who  said:   "  I  am  first  a  man,  then  a  minister  ;  and, 
however  sacred  the  work  of  my  office,  I  will  not  forget  that  I  am  a  man, 
with  the  rights  of  a  man."     As  a  preacher  in  the  pulpit  he  is  evangelical, 
clear,    instructive,    and  bold.     His  subject  is  placed  at  once  under  his 
command,  and,  with  extemporaneous  discussion,  abounding  with  appro- 
priate illustrations  and  eloquent  pathos,  the  subject  commands  the  audi- 
ence.    He  makes  frequent  use  of  current  events,  and  therefore  is  some- 
times called  a  sensational  preacher,  to  which  he  does  not  hesitate  to  reply 
that  "Sensation   is  better  than  stagnation."     He  has  the  gift  of  stirring 
inert  things  into  action,  and  the  adroitness  of  sweeping  along  with  a  reiig- 

234  Jefferson   County. 

ious  revival  or  a  secular  boom.  Tall,  erect,  earnest,  pleasing,  with  excel- 
lent mannerism,  addressing  himself  to  all  classes  and  all  vocations,  he  is 
emphatically  a  man  of  the  people — of  all  grades  of  people. 

Mr.  Purser  has  been  twice  married,  and  among  all  the  successful 
events  of  his  career  these  alliances  have  been  the  chiefest.  On  October  7, 
1864,  he  was  married  to  Miss  Dicy  Jane  Bass,  of  Covington  County,  Mis- 
sissippi, a  lady  of  fine  person,  intellectual,  cultivated,  brilliant,  a  devout 
Christian  and  an  earnest  worker  in  the  Master's  cause,  and  eminently 
"a  keeper  at  home."  To  the  tact  and  management  of  this  worthy  wife 
of  his  youth  does  our  subject  attribute,  in  a  large  degree,  his  success  in  life 
as  a  minister  of  Christ.  She  was  the  mother  of  six  children,  three  of 
whom  have  departed  this  life.      She  died  September  13,  1879. 

His  second  marriage  was  with  Miss  Sallie  A.  Moody,  of  Tuscaloosa, 
Alabama,  on  June  28,  1883.  Miss  Moody  had  already  reached  distinc- 
tion in  the  higher  relations  of  social  life,  and  that  distinction  was  based  on 
family  elevation,  wealth  and  cultivation,  earnest  piety,  and  active  Christian 
enterprise.  She  was  the  daughter  of  Judge  Washington  Moody,  a  man 
of  noble  standing  in  the  city  of  Tuscaloosa  and  in  the  State,  and  the  only 
sister  of  an  only  brother,  Mr.  Frank  Moody,  now  president  of  the  First 
National  Bank  in  that  city.  Cheerful  and  graceful  everywhere,  she  is  espe- 
cially so  in  her  charming  home,  where  hospitality  abounds  and  good 
nature  rules.  Her  Christian  character  may  be  seen  in  her  devout  conver- 
sation, generous  liberality,  and  active  effort.  She  is,  at  this,  time  in  charge 
of  a  Sabbath-school  class  of  nearly  one  hundred  men,  and  this  energy 
has  been  true  of  her  work  in  both  Tuscaloosa  and  Birmingham.  She  is 
now  the  mother  of  two  children — a  daughter  and  a  son. 

In  conclusion,  it  would  be  unjust  to  the  distinguished  brother  of  Mr. 
Purser,  who  worked  so  long  side  by  side  with  him,  if  we  should  fail  to 
mention  him ;  we  refer  to  the  Rev.  John  F.  Purser,  for  some  time  mission- 
ary pastor  of  South  Side,  now  the  popular  pastor  in  Troy,  Ala.;  the 
sweet  singer,  as  well  as  the  gifted  preacher,  who  accompanied  the  elder 
brother  through  much  of  the  evangelistic  work  referred  to  above,  and 
whose  sublime  songs  of  Zion  charmed  the  multitude  and  thrilled  the 
Christian  hearer. 

Birnimgham.  235 


-was  organized  in  February,  1872,  on  the  corner  of  First  avenue  and 
Twenty-first  street,  where  now  stands  Frank  Gafford's  livery  stable,  in  a 
small  wooden  building  which  was  erected  for  a  storehouse.  The  building 
was  rented  by  the  Methodists,  Baptists,  Presbyterians,  and  Episcopalians, 
each  denomination  having  service  under  its  own  minister.  The  North  Ala- 
bama Conference,  which  met  in  November,  1871,  did  not  consider  Birming- 
.ham  of  sufficient  importance  to  send  it  a  preacher  for  1872,  but  stationed 
Rev.  T.  G.  Slaughter  at  Elyton,  the  old  county  seat  of  Jefferson  County,  one 
and  a  half  miles  distant.  Through  his  kindness  we  succeeded  in  getting 
preaching  once  a  month  for  a  while,  and  the  church  organized.  He 
organized  with  a  membership  of  about  seventy-five.  Prominent  among 
these  were  R.  H.  Roberts.  J.  D.  Lykes,  Dr.  J.  W.  Sears,  J.  T.  Wil- 
son, Mrs.  M.  T.  Hines,  Mrs.  Dr.  Sears,  Mrs.  J.  D.  Lykes,  Mrs.  D.  F. 
Constantine,  and  many  others.  Dr.  Slaughter  was  called  away  by  the 
■bishop,  some  time  in  the  spring,  to  take  charge  of  the  church  at  Oxford, 
Alabama,  vacated  by  the  death  of  the  appointed  pastor,  after  which  time 
we  only  got  preaching  as  we  could  catch  a  preacher  on  the  wing  and 
press  him  into  service.  Soon  after  the  organization  of  the  church  a  com- 
mittee was  appointed  to  raise  funds  to  build  a  house  of  worship.  The 
Elyton  Land  Company  gave  us  a  lot  100  x  190  at  the  north-east  corner  of 
Sixth  avenue  and  Twenty-first  street,  where,  by  the  middle  of  June,  1872, 
we  had  erected,  what  we  then  considered,  a  neat  and  comfortable  build- 
ing, at  a  cost  of  ^1,600,  and  it  was  dedicated  by  Bishop  Doggin  in  Decem- 
ber, 1872.  Our  people  were  then  all  poor,  but  I  must  say  I  never  knew, 
in  all  my  life,  a  nobler  or  more  liberal  band.  From  $50  to  $100  was  paid 
by  poor  men  to  get  the  house  built.  In  November,  1872,  when  the  North 
Alabama  Conference  met,  we  were  sent  a  regular  pastor  in  the  person  of 
Rev.  T.  H.  Deavenport.  Though  very  small  of  stature,  yet  with  a  warm 
heart  and  a  big  brain,  he  filled  the  pulpit  with  marked  success  and  ability. 
In  the  summer  of  1 873,  when  the  cholera  raged,  bringing  death,  desola- 
tion, and  suffering  in  our  midst,  this  man  of  God  was  on  his  feet  and  on 
his  knees,  night  and  day,  doing  all  in  his  power  to  help  the  needy  and 
minister  to  the  sick  and  dying.  The  millionaires  who  have  invested  in 
•and  about  Birmingham  may  receive  the  commendations  of  the  press,  but 
Rev.  T.  H.  Deavenport  should  be  held  in  everlasting  remembrance  by  the 
people  of  Birmingham.  Though  the  members  of  our  church  were  all 
poor,  they  abounded  in  their  liberality,  paying  from  year  to  year  for  the 

236  Jefferson   County. 

support  of  the  pastor,  some  $50  and  some  gioo.  In  1874  and  1875  Rev. 
W.  L.  Clifton  was  pastor.  He  was  a  man  of  splendid  physique  and  large 
brain,  a  fine  preacher,  and  an  excellent  man.  Under  his  charge  the 
church  prospered.  Dr.  W.  C.  Heam  was  the  third  pastor,  from  1875  to 
1877.  Some  regarded  him  a  Talmage ;  indeed,  the  doctor  is  a  fine 
preacher  and  an  accomplished  gentleman.  Under  his  ministry  Birming- 
ham had  her  first  revival.  The  doctor  is  now  superannuated,  in  feeble 
health,  and  resides  at  Talladega,  Alabama.  From  1877  to  1881  Dr.  J.  W. 
Christian  served  us.  He  was  an  able  minister,  a  devout  Christian,  of  sweet 
disposition,  and  most  excellent  character.  He  died  in  Birmingham  as 
editor  of  the  Alabama  Christian  Advocate.  Rev.  J.  W.  Newman  served 
the  church  from  1881  to  1884.  Mr.  Newman  did  a  fine  work  for  the 
church,  both  in  the  pulpit  and  in  his  pastoral  ministrations.  The  past  two 
years  Dr.  Hardie  Brown  has  been  the  pastor.  Dr.  Brown  is  one  of  the 
finest  scholars  in  the  South.  His  sermons  are  all  highly  finished,  and 
every  sentence  sparkles  with  gems  of  thought.  The  doctor  is  doing  a  fine 
work  for  the  First  Church,  and  is  much  appreciated  by  his  people. 

When  the  new  church  was  built  the  writer  was  not  then  a  resident  of 
Birmingham,  having  entered  the  North  Alabama  Conference  as  a  travel- 
ing minister.  The  building  of  the  new  church  was  agitated  during  the 
first  year  of  Dr.  Heam's  ministry,  was  continued  under  the  ministry  of 
Dr.  Christian,  and  newly  completed  at  the  close  of  his  term  at  a  cost  of 
about  ;g20,ooo.  It  is  situated  on  the  corner  of  Fourth  avenue  and  Nine- 
teenth street,  and  is  an  ornament  to  the  city,  but  is  not  large  enough  to 
accommodate  its  immense  congregation.  It  has  a  membership  of  about 
six  hundred,  containing  many  of  the  wealthiest  citizens  of  Birmingham. 

Rev.  Hardie  Brown,  D.  D., 

the  present  pastor  of  the  First  M.  E.  Church,  Soutih,  Birmingham,  Ala., 
was  born  in  Sumner  County,  near  Gallatin,  Tenn.  Until  seventeen  or 
eighteen  years  of  age  he  worked  on  his  father's  farm  in  the  spring  and 
summer,  going  to  school  for  a  few  months  in  the  fall  and  winter  of  each 
year.  He  obtained  his  first  instruction  in  the  rudiments  of  a  classical 
education  at  the  Gallatin  Academy,  under  the  tuition  of  Professor  Mal- 
lory.  After  an  attendance  of  a  session  or  two  there,  he  was  appointed 
assistant  for  a  short  time  in  that  institution.  He  taught  a  private  school 
for  one  session,  after  which  he  entered  the  Sophomore  Class  at  Cumber- 
land University,  Lebanon,  Tenn.     After  graduation  he  was  elected  tutor 

Birmingham .  237 

in  the  preparator\'  department  of  the  University,  which  position  he  held 
for  one  collegiate  j-ear.  He  was  then  offered  the  place  of  assistant  in  the 
Dallas  Male  Academy  at  Selma,  Ala.,  which  place  he  held  for  five 
months.  Then  succeeding  the  principal,  J.  T.  Dunklin,  he  remained  at 
the  head  of  this  school  one  year,  when  he  was  called  to  Summerfield, 
Ala.,  where  he  taught  Greek  and  Latin  in  Centennary  Institute.  He 
remained  at  Summerfield  two  years,  having  married  there.  He  was  then 
admitted  into  the  Alabama  Conference  and  sent  to  the  Jonesboro  Circuit, 
whence  he  went  into  the  Confederate  army  as  chaplain  of  the  28th  Ala- 
bama Regiment,  and  went  through  the  campaign  around  Corinth,  Miss., 
and  through  Bragg's  march  into  Kentucky.  He  resigned  the  chaplaincy 
of  that  regiment  and  was  sent  by  the  conference  to  Spring  Hill  Circuit,  in 
Marengo  County,  Ala.  After  fulfilling  the  term  of  his  appointment 
there,  he  was  sent  to  the  Perryville  Circuit,  but  did  not  fill  out  the  year, 
as  he  again  went  into  the  army,  and  was  captured  in  the  battle  of  Selma 
and  imprisoned  for  a  short  time.  After  the  war  he  was  elected  principal 
of  the  Prattville  Academy,  which  position  he  held  two  years,  afterward 
moving  to  Mississippi.  He  was  a  member  of  that  conference  two  years. 
He  was  then  transferred  to  the  North  Alabama  Conference,  and  stationed 
for  three  years  at  Florence.  After  this  pastorate  he  was  elected  Professor 
of  Ancient  Languages  at  the  State  Normal  School,  which  position  he  held 
eight  years,  and  was  then  elected  to  succeed  Professor  S.  P.  Rice  as  pres- 
ident of  that  school.  In  the  meantime  he  filled  the  pulpit  at  Courtland 
for  three  years,  and  at  Decatur  one  year.  After  having  held  the  presi- 
dency of  the  State  Normal  School  for  three  years  and  a  half,  he  resigned, 
and  was  appointed  by  Bishop  Keener  pastor  of  the  First  M.  E.  Church, 
South,  at  Birmingham. 


corner  of  Seventeenth  street  and  Avenue  E,  South  Side,  was  organized  by 
Rev.  Z.  A.  Parker,  in  November,  1884,  with  eighteen  members.  A  new 
house  was  built  at  once,  and  in  twelve  months,  November,  1885,  the 
membership  had  increased  to  one  hundred  and  twenty-eight.  In  Novem- 
ber, 1886,  Rev.  L.  F.  Whitten,  the  present  pastor,  reported  that  there 
had  been  over  four  hundred  accessions  in  one  year,  with  more  than  three 
hundred  and  forty  conversions.  So  that  the  growth  of  this  young  church 
in  the  past  year  is  almost  without  precedent  in  the  annals  of  church  history. 
The  house  is  already  too  small,  many  hundreds  having  been  unable  to  get 

238  Jefferson   County. 

seats  the  past  fall.  This  church  has  built  a  parsonage  for  the  pastor  this 
year  at  a  cost  of  |1 1,600.  A  bright  future  is  promised  the  members  of 
St.  John's  Methodist  Church. 

Rev,    J.    D.    Pierce, 

Pastor  First  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  Birmingham,  was  born  in 
Laurel,  Franklin  County,  Indiana,  April  3,  1845. 

In  September,  1861,  in  the  sixteenth  year  of  his  age,  he  entered  the 
Union  army  as  a  musician  for  the  term  of  three  years,  the  last  two  of 
which  he  was  principal  musician  of  his  regiment. 

In  November,  1864,  after  three  years  and  two  months'  service,  he 
was  honorably  discharged  and  returned  home  to  engage  in  the  peaceful 
pursuits  of  life. 

In  October,  1865,  he,  with  his  father's  family,  removed  to  Shelby ville, 
Indiana,  to  take  charge  of  the  leading  hotel  of  that  city.  In  the  following 
January  he  was  converted  and  united  with  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church, 
his  parents  being  members  of  the  Presbyterian  Church.  In  February  he 
began  the  study  of  medicine  with  W.  F.  Green,  M.  D. ,  of  the  same  city, 
and  in  the  fall  attended  his  first  course  of  lectures  in  Chicago.  He 
attended  his  second  course  of  lectures  in  Cincinnati,  where  he  graduated 
in  February,   1870. 

He  practiced  medicine  five  years,  during  which  time  he  achieved  con- 
siderable success  in  the  treatment  of  chronic  rheumatism,  having  cured' 
cases  of  from  two  to  forty  years  standing. 

During  the  time  he  was  engaged  in  medicine,  his  friends,  as  well  as 
himself,  were  impressed  that  he  ought  to  enter  the  ministry.  But  as  his 
prospects  for  succe.'ss  in  his  chosen  profession  were  very  bright  it  was  with 
great  reluctance  that  he  gave  up  medicine  for  the  ministry.  Becoming 
satisfied,  however,  that  it  was  his  duty  to  try  to  preach  the  gospel,  he, 
upon  the  recommendation  of  his  presiding  elder  and  quarterly  conference, 
was  received  on  trial  in  the  traveling  connection  by  the  South-East  Indiana 
Conference  at  Madison,  Indiana,  Bishop  Foster  presiding.  In  September, 
1875,  after  serving  in  that  conference  six  years  and  a  half,  on  account  of 
the  health  of  himself  and  wife,  he  transferred  to  this  State  and  settled  at 
Andrew's  Institute,  DeKalb  County,  May,  1882.  In  November  of  that 
year  he  was  appointed  to  the  Wills  Valley  Circuit  near  his  home. 

At  the  close  of  1883  he  was  stationed  at  the  First  Methodist  Episco- 
pal Church  in  Birmingham.  During  the  time  he  served  this  charge, 
nearly  two  years,  his  labors  were  greatly  blessed.  ^ 

P>ir7ningkam.  239 

From  September,  1885,  to  1886,  he  was  stationed  in  Spirit  Lake,  Iowa, 
but  as  the  climate  disagreed  with  his  family  he  returned  to  Alabama  and 
was  appointed  by  Bishop  Fowler  to  succeed  Rev.  L.  H.  Massey  (who 
succeeded  him  the  previous  year)  as  pastor  of  the  First  Methodist  Epis- 
copal Church  in  Birmingham. 

Mr.  Pierce's  wife  is  a  daughter  of  the  late  Col.  James  H.  Grant,  the 
builder  and  resident  engineer  of  the  Nashville  &  Chattanooga  Railroad, 
and  cousin  to  Captain  John  A.  Grant,  who  recently  resigned  the  position 
of  chief  engineer  of  the  Kansas  City,  Memphis  &  Birmingham  Railroad 
to  become  the  general  manager  of  the  Texas  Pacific. 


The  building  stands  on  the  corner  of  Nineteenth  street  and  Avenue 

C.  It  is  a  neat,  framed  structure,  gothic  in  style,  and  located  in  the  cen- 
tral part  of  that  side  of  the  city.  Its  first  pastor  was  Rev.  J.  B.  Tope, 
under  whose  administration  it  was  erected  in  1881,  and  dedicated  by  the 
Rev,  I.  W.  Joyce,  D.  D.,  of  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  in  the  same  year.  In  it 
two  sessions  of  the  Alabama  Conference  have  been  held,  the  first  by 
Bishop  Matthew  Simpson,  D.  D.,  LL.  D.,  in  1881,  and  the  second  by 
Bishop  J.  M.  Walden,  D.  D.,  LL.  D.,  in   1884.     Bishop  Cyrus  D.  Foss, 

D.  D.,  and  Bishop  W.  F.  Mallahin,  D.  D.,  have  also  preached  from  its 
pulpit.  It  has  been  served  as  pastors  by  the  Revs.  J.  B.  Tope,  E.  H. 
King,  W.  P.  Miller,  J.  D.  Pierce  and  L.  H.  Massey.  At  its  altars  many 
have  been  converted,  and  following  their  denominational  preferences  have 
gone  into  other  communions,  while  others  have  united  with  it,  according 
to  the  law  of  the  denomination,  on  a  probation  of  six  months  before 
taking  its  vows,  and  during  the  time,  proving  unfaithful,  have  been  dropped 
without  admission  into  full  connection  ;  while  still  others,  proving  faithful, 
have,  from  time  to  time,  been  received,  both  from  probation  and  by  letter. 
Thus  the  growth  of  its  membership  has  been  slow  but  substantial,  and 
after  losing  many  by  removals  and  tran.sfers,  it  now  numbers  one  hundred 
and  fourteen  full  members  and  probationers.  It  has  a  live  Sunday  school, 
which  meets  at  9.30  a.  m.,  has  preaching  Sunday  morning  and  evening, 
prayer-meeting  on  Wednesday  evenings,  and  a  weekly  class-meeting,  which 
services  are  all  well  attended  by  its  members  and  friends.  The  Rev.  L. 
H.  Massey  is  its  present  pastor.  He  is  a  young  man,  a  native  of  North 
Carolina ;    was    graduated  in    East  Tennessee  Wesleyan  University  (now 

240  Jefferson   County. 

Grant  Memorial),  in  1880,  and  after  one  year  as  a  professor  in  Holston 
Seminary,  in  Tennessee,  and  five  years  in  the  pastorate,  he  was  transferred 
to  the  Alabama  Conference,  and  sent  to  Birmingham,  in  November,  1885. 
Under  his  labors  the  memberhip  has  been  considerably  increased,  and  a 
new  church  has  been  established  in  the  western  part  of  the  city,  and  on  the 
corner  of  Ninth  street  and  Third  avenue,  North  Side,  stands  the 


a  handsome,  framed  building,  just  starting  on  its  journey  of  usefulness  and 
mission  of  purity  and  love.  The  erection  of  this  structure  is  largely  due 
to  the  labors  of  Rev.  C.  W.  Miller,  as  assistant  to  the  pastor  in  the  latter 
part  of  1886.  It  stands,  the  only  church  building  in  that  part  of  the  city, 
in  the  midst  of  a  growing  population,  and  has  before  it  a  hopeful  future. 


was  organized  in  this  city  in  April,  1885,  by  R.  W.  Van  Hook,  the  State 
evangelist  of  said  church,  with  a  membership  of  twenty  men  and  women. 

Previous  to  this  time  a  small  number  of  earnest,  energetic  women 
had  been  striving  for  several  months  to  keep  up  a  small  Sunday  school. 
Owing  to  much  opposition  and  many  discouragements  they  had  found  this 
exceedingly  difficult,  and  but  for  the  indefatigable  efforts  of  our  dear 
deceased  sister,  Mrs.  A.  J.  Clarkson,  and  her  warm  coadjutors,  Mrs.  J.  P. 
Tillman  and  Mrs.  Levi  Hege,  it  would  have  been  an  unsuccessful  effort. 
But  trusting — as  such  women  do  trust — in  a  Higher  Power  for  help,  they 
succeeded  in  keeping  together  the  small  band  in  this  progressive  city,  who 
chose  to  wear  the  name  of  Christ  alone,  and  to  take  the  Bible  as  their 
only  guide,  creed  or  doctrine.  There  is  not  a  member  of  the  Church  of 
Christ  in  this  city  but  feels  his  heart  glow  with  love  and  gratitude  to  Mrs. 
Clarkson  for  her  untiring  efforts  to  effect  an  organization — her  zeal  and 
encouragement  when  others  were  almost  discouraged.  She  has  already 
received  her  reward  in  her  Master's  commendation.  Feeling  that  her 
place  could  scarcely  be  refilled,  all  felt  the  necessity  of  redoubling  their 
eftbrts,  and  the  Lord  has  blessed  them. 

In  April,    1885,   Mr.   R.   W.   Van  Hook,    then  of  Greene  County, 
knowing  of  their  weak  condition,  came  to  their  relief     He  held  a  meet- 

Birnihighain.  241 

ing,  which  resulted  in  much  encouragement  to  all.  It  was  at  this  time 
that  the  organization  was  effected.  For  some  time  after  their  organiza- 
tion this  small  body  of  Christians  met  in  Sublett  Hall,  "and  continued 
steadfastly  in  the  Apostle's  doctrine,  in  fellowship,  in  breaking  of  bread, 
and  in  prayers." 

We  give  some  names  of  charter  members,  viz :  Messrs.  C.  Perkins, 
Harry  Harsh,  J.  E.  Lee,  Henry  Brown,  Mrs.  Perkins,  Mrs.  A.  J.  Clark- 
son,  Mrs.  J.  P.  Tillman,  Mrs.  Levi  Hege,  Mrs.  Boone,  Misses  Palmer, 
AUie  Boyer,  and  Mamie  Jolly. 

They  were  all  earnest,  warm  workers,  and  in  spite  of  many  trials, 
never  wearied  in  their  united  effort  to  do  for  their  Lord  and  Master  by 
prayer,  faith,  and  works,  all  their  capacity  and  earnestness  enabled  them 
to  do. 

Being  unable  to  keep  Sublett  Hall,  for  some  reason  of  its  owner, 
they  succeeded  in  getting  the  consent  of  the  officers  of  the  Young  Men's 
Christian  Association  to  use  their  reading  room  until  they  could  make 
other  arrangements.  They  met  here  till  December,  1885,  when  they 
obtained  use  of  tiie  courtroom,  where  they  are,  at  present,  holding  their 
Lord's-day  services. 

Their  financial  condition  is  fairly  good.  They  have  purchased  a  lot, 
and  have  almost  sufficient  money  to  begin  building  their  house  of  worship, 
which,  Lord  willing,  they  will  do  this  spring  of  1887. 

In  addition  to  purchasing  the  lot,  and  the  building  fund,  they  have, 
since  October,  1886,  arranged  to  pay  the  State  evangelist  for  half  his  time, 
leaving  the  other  half  for  State  work.  Their  membership  has  increased 
from  twenty  to  about  one  hundred,  including  many  of  the  most  prominent 
business  men  in  the  city. 

They  have  a  progressive  Sunday  school,  with  Messrs.  G.  R.  Harsh 
and  Chick  as  superintendents,  and  with  energetic  teachers  and  wide-awake 
pupils.  The  Sunday  school  numbers  about  sixty  pupils,  and  all  are  much 

A  mission  school  has  been  organized  in  Avondale,  with  C.  A. 
Schoolar  as  superintendent,  and  is  in  quite  a  flourishing  condition. 

In  January  a  day  was  appointed  for  a  meeting  to  organize  a  Ladies' 
Aid  Society.  Some  time  since  the  younger  members  of  the  Sunday 
school  were  organized  into  a  society  under  the  name  of  "Little  Builders." 

We  are  happy  to  state  that  both  church  and  Sunday  school  are  in 
a  prosperous  condition. 

242  Jefferson   County. 


The  Jewish  inhabitants  of  Birmingham  are  among  its  most  substan- 
stial  trades  people.  They  appear  in  works  of  general  interest  to  society, 
and  in  the  city  government,  with  marked  influence.  Their  religious 
organization  dates  from  April  23,  1882,  when  the  Congregation  Emmanuel 
was  organized  with  thirty-two  members,  and  without  a  rabbi.  The  meet- 
ings of  the  congregation  were  held  irregularly  in  various  churches  of  the 
city  loaned  for  the  purpose. 

The  effort  was  finally  made  to  build  a  synagogue,  and  the  beautiful 
brick  structure,  corner  Fifth  avenue  and  Seventeenth  street,  was  begun 
June,  1886,  to  cost  $12,000  to  $15,000.  The  present  membership  is 

No  regular  offices  from  a  rabbi  have  thus  far  been  obtained,  although 
Dr.  Rosenpitz  officiated  for  four  months  in  the  latter  part  of  1886. 

The  board  of  trustees  are  Samuel  Ullman,  A.  S,  Hirscher,  B.  M. 
Jacobs,  H.  Lazarus,  E.  Gusfield,  A.  Stern,  S.  Spiro,  J.  R.  Hochstadter,. 
of  which  Mr.  Hirscher  is  president. 


This  is  a  brick  edifice,  erected  on  Sixteenth  street  and  Seventh  ave- 
nue, and  an  imposing  style  of  ecclesiastical  architecture. 

Rev.  W.  R.  Pettiford  is  the  pastor,  and  the  church  is  in  a  highly 
prosperous  condition.  Mr.  Pettiford  has  retained  his  charge  since  Jan- 
uary 15,  1883,  and  under  him  the  present  beautiful  church  building  has 
almost  been  completed.  The  history  of  the  church  building  is  one  of 
honor  to  the  pastor  and  his  people.  With  only  ^$300  in  the  treasury  they 
went  on  with  laying  the  foundations,  and  step  by  step,  with  hard  work 
and  grievous  delays,  accomplished  their  purpose.  The  church  has  cost 
$6,000,  and  will,  when  fully  completed,  cost  $8,500.  The  lot  is  worth 
$10,000,  or  better.  There  are  about  400  members  of  this  church,  and 
four  stations  are  also  conducted  by  it. 




Birmingham.  245 


These  are  prosperous  religious  bodies.  One  edifice  is  of  brick,  the 
others  are  frame.  All  are  well  kept,  and  attended  by  orderly  congrega- 
tions.    Services  are  regularly  held. 

There  are  other  colored  churches  in  the  city  which  do  honor  to  the 
negro  race.  They  are  owned  by  their  congregations,  and  are  mostly  out 
of  debt.  They  occupy  lots  in  the  central  parts  of  the  city,  and  are  orna- 
mental to  the  general  architecture. 


The  spirit  of  public  education  is  greatly  promoted  in  this  county  by 
the  activity  of  the  county  superintendent,  Mr.  S.  L.  Robertson,  a  native 
of  Huntsville,  Ala.,  and  an  ex-Confederate  soldier.  The  State  law 
increased  his   salary  recently  in  appreciation  of  his  fidelity  and  efficiency. 

There  are  both  common  and  high  schools  embraced  in  the  system. 
The  high  schools  teach  the  subjects  necessary  to  prepare  youths  for  college. 

At  present  the  cost  of  white  schools  is  sustained,  to  the  extent  of  one- 
third,  by  the  State  and  county  funds ;  the  colored  schools  to  the  extent  of 

The  common  schools  receive  a  greater  pro  rata  of  the  public  fund 
than  the  high  schools.  The  public  funds  at  present  only  allow  for  main- 
taining the  schools  for  three  months  in  the  year.  The  supplemental,  or 
private,  fund  must  be  relied  on  for  the  remainder  of  the  time. 

The  teachers  are  faithful,  and  the  system  is  progressive.  "^ 


The  value  of  school  buildings,  and  other  school  property,  in  Birming- 
ham is  probably  $75,000.  A  direct  appropriation  is  made  by  the  city 
government,  which  relieves  pupils  of  all  tuition  fees.  The  schools, 
therefore,  are  entirely  free.  The  wealthy  classes  send  their  children  to 
receive  instruction  from  them,  and  thus  parents,  who  themselves  are 
educated,  and  who  have  leisure  to  watch  the  interest  of  their  children, 
become  the  guardians  of  the  common  schools.  Both  moral  and  intel- 
lectual training  is  enforced,  and  the  schools  are  an  honor  to  the  city. 

246  Jefferson    County. 

The  public  school  organization  is  composed  of  a  board  of  education. 
The  city  government  does  not  control  it.  The  board  elects  a  superin- 
tendent and  the  necessary  teachers,  and  performs  all  other  acts  of 
administration,  except  fixing  the  amount  of  income  to  be  expended. 

The  board  is  now  composed  of  the  following  influential  citizens  and 
patrons  of  the  schools:  A.  O.  Lane,  President;  J.  L.  Watkins,  Vice- 
President;  A.  S.  Elliott,  W.  J.  Rushton,  D.  D.  Smith,  Samuel  Ullman, 
and  George  L.  Thomas.  City  Clerk  H.  U.  McKinney  is  ex  officio 
Secretary  of  the  Board. 

Professor  J.  H.  Phillips  is  Superintendent.  He  is  an  enthusiast  in  his 
profession,  and  is  intelligent  in  the  direction  of  the  most  modern  methods 
in  the  schools. 

The  race  division  is  adopted  in  the  system.  The  colored  schools  have 
colored  teachers.  The  most  careful  supervision  is  given  to  them  by  the 
board  and  by  the  superintendent. 

An  interesting  feature  of  the  system  pursued  by  Professor  Phillips  is 
the  division  of  the  scholastic  session  by  special  celebrations.  "  Shaks- 
peare  Day,"  "Burns  Day,"  etc.,  are  respectively  dedicated  to  observance 
of  the  memory  of  the  dead  poets,  historians,  and  the  like.  "  Arbor  Day  " 
has  been  fixed  for  Washington's  birthday,  and  upon  this  occasion  the 
schools  will  annually  unite  in  planting  trees  in  the  public  parks,  and  other 
proper  places. 

The  schools,  after  being  graded  and  located,  have  been  named  in 
honor  of  eminent  citizens  of  the  city :  "Powell  School,"  for  James  R. 
Powell,  the  founder  of  the  city  ;  "  Henley  School,"  for  Robert  H.  Henley, 
the  first  mayor ;  "Paul  Hayne  School,"  for  the  Southern  poet.  One  of 
the  colored  schools  is  named,   in  honor  of  the  mayor,  "Lane  School." 

The  number  of  pupils  enrolled  in  all  the  schools  January  i,  1887,  was 
about  2, 100,  of  which,  say,  700  were  colored. 


A  commercial  observation  respecting  Birmingham  has  always  been 
the  rapid,  though  steady,  progress  of  the  merchants  and  the  smaller 
manufacturers.  The  city  is  annually  acquiring  increased  importance  as  a 
distributive  center  for  a  varied  trade.  Its  wholesale  transactions  cover 
every  year  greater  territory  than  the  year  before.  The  city  wholesale 
trade  has  made  possible  a  score  of  villages  with  their  retail  and  bartering 
commerce   with   farmers,    mechanics,    and    miners.      Values    of  all    kinds 

Birmingham.  247 

appreciate  under  this  network  of  enterprise,  and  the  channel  through 
which  the  whole  of  this  trade  flows  is  the  banks  of  the  city.  We  will  see 
that  these  institutions  have  steadily  grown  in  number,  and  yet  relatively 
more  in  ability.  This  fact  is  readily  accounted  for  in  the  steady  and 
upward  course  of  the  trade  of  the  merchants.  In  these  facts  is  the 
unmistakable  evidence  that  the  commerce  of  Birmingham  has  been  free 
from  feverish  excitement  at  all  times ;  that  it  has  received  no  shocks  from 
over-trading,  or  from  dishonor  among  merchants.  The  tens  of  thousands 
of  dollars,  in  small  amounts  of  cash,  paid  out  weekly  to  laborers  who  live 
in  and  near  the  city,  and  who  spend  it  freely,  go  to  the  banks  through  the 
stores.  In  this  progress  we  have  the  indice  to  the  future  of  the  banks  of 
the  city.  They  are  the  aids  to  an  industrial  life  whose  sources  arc  both 
of  the  strongest  in  resource  and  of  the  most  varied  and  the  most  readily  con- 
vertible. Thus  far  the  pig-iron  industry  and  coal  have  supplied  the  main 
commerce.  But  there  are  developments  already  assured  which  will 
diversify  the  business  of  the  city,  and  add  to  the  safety  of  the  trade  and 
the  banks.  Many  kinds  of  iron  and  steel  manufactures  from  Birmingham 
pig-iron  will  enter  commerce,  and  this  commerce  will  be  as  solvent  as  the 
solvency  of  communities  in  every  part  of  the  Union,  and  ultimately  of 
the  Central  and  South  American  States. 

Besides  the  iron  manufactures  in  bridges,  chains,  piping,  stoves, 
railroad  rails,  engines,  etc.,  which  support  healthy  commerce,  the  Birming- 
ham trade  will  be  largely  based  on  cotton,  to  come  from  various  parts  of 
Alabama  and  Mississippi,  attracted  here  by  the  compress  and  facilities  for 
market.  The  completion  of  the  railroads  from  Columbus,  Miss.,  and 
Memphis  and  Sheffield  to  the  north ;  and  the  completion  of  the  line,  almost 
an  air  line,  to  connect  with  the  roads  in  Georgia  leading  to  Savannah,  will 
open  the  shortest  rail  communication  possible  between  the  Mississippi  and 
the  Atlantic. 

Thus  it  is  evident  that  the  future  of  banking  in  Birmingham  is  com- 
mensurate in  promise  with  all  the  wonderfully-varied  and  equally-powerful 
resources  of  the  surrounding  country.  Stagnation  of  business  can  never 
overtake  a  country  where  the  climate  is  never  too  cold  or  too  hot  to  forbid 
a  full  day's  work ;  where  crops  may  be  planted  upon  the  open  fields  every 
month  in  the  year;  where  the  ores  of  Red  Mountain  and  the  coke  of 
Pratt  Mines  are  in  less  than  a  half  day's  time  of  the  magnificent  prairies 
on  one  side,  and  that  land  of  matchless  fertility  and  beauty  on  the  other,, 
the  Valley  of  the  Tennessee. 

248  Jefferson   County. 

Charles  Linn. 

The  banking  interest  of  Birmingham,  now  amounting  to  about  one 
•  and  a  half  million  of  dollars,  has  in  the  subject  of  this  sketch  its  founder. 

Born  of  Swedish  parents,  in  Finland,  he  passed  for  thirty  years  an 
eventful  career  on  the  sea,  from  cabin  boy  to  captain  of  his  vessel,  during 
which  time  he  crossed  the  Atlantic  sixty-four  times,  and  made  three  trips 
around  the  world. 

Emigrating  to  America  in  1836,  he  was  engaged  in  various  mercan- 
tile pursuits  until  1840,  when  he  engaged  in  the  wholesale  mercantile 
•trade  in  Montgomery,  where  he  established  one  of  the  most  successful 
business  houses  in  the  South.  During  the  war  he  disposed  of  his  busi- 
ness and  attempted  to  run  the  blockade  with  a  vessel,  but  was  captured, 
and  taken,  as  a  prisoner,  to  New  York,  where  he  was  paroled.  Subse- 
quent to  the  war  he  became  the  financier  of  Messrs.  Flash,  Lewis  &  Co., 
wholesale  grocers,  of  New  Orleans,  his  son,  C.  W.  Linn,  having  an 
interest  in  the  firm,  with  whom  he  remained  until  the  death  of  his  son 
in  1 87 1.  In  the  same  year  he  came  to  Birmingham,  and  purchased  from 
the  Elyton  Land  Company  the  lot  on  which  the  First  National  Bank 
now  stands.  The  property  was  50x100  feet,  and  the  price  paid  was 
;?400.  The  Elyton  Land  Company  presented  him  with  a  lot  20x100 
feet  on  20th  street  adjoining,  and  upon  it  Mr.  Linn  erected  the  first  bank 
building  in  Birmingham,  at  a  cost  of  ^4,000.  He  immediately  organized 
the  First  National  Bank.  It  was  incorporated  under  the  name  of  the 
-National  Bank  of  Birmingham,  with  Mr.  Linn  as  President. 

Keen  of  perception,  and  quick  to  recognize  the  future  greatness  of 
his  adopted  home,  he  erected,  in  1872-73,  the  handsome  and  substantial 
structure  now  known  as  the  First  National  Bank  Building,  at  a  cost  of 
$2,6,000,  at  that  period  one  of  the  most  elaborate  and  costly  in  Northern 
Alabama.  Standing  alone  in  its  greatness,  it  was  the  mark  of  ridicule, 
and  was  long  known  under  the  sobriquet  of  "  Linn's  Folly."  To-day  it 
is  the  best  business  corner  in  Birmingham  ;  the  center  of  the  vast  com- 
•mercial  interests  of  the  city,  and  is  valued  at  not  less  than  $200,000. 

In  all  enterprises  tending  to  promote  and  advance  the  interests  of 
Birmingham  Mr.  Linn  was  one  of  the  leaders.  He  organized  the  Linn 
Iron  Works,  manufacturing  as  heavy  machinery  as  any  constructed  south 
of  the  Ohio  River;  was  greatly  interested  in  developing  the  mineral  wealth 
of  Alabama,  sending  experts  to  analyze  and  examine  the  different  coal  and 
iron  deposits,  and  assisted  in  building  the  first  coke  ovens. 

Bh'iningham.  249 

He  was  one  of  the  first  stockholders  of  the  Elyton  Land  Company, 
and  firm  in  the  faith  of  the  great  future  of  Birmingham  he  was  a  large 
investor  in  real  estate. 

Mr.  Linn  was  a  Lutheran  in  his  religious  belief,  but  was  charitable 
to  all  denominations,  and  a  liberal  donator  to  all  good  works. 

His  name  will  always  be  honored  as  one  who  did  all  in  his  power  to 
lay  the  city  of  Birmingham  upon  a  broad  and  substantial  foundation. 

Mr.  Linn  was  married  three  times,  and  has  four  children  now  living: 
Edward  W.,  Cashier  of  the  First  National  Bank;  Mrs.  Ellen  L.  Watts, 
widow  of  T.  H.  Watts,  who  was  a  business  man  of  Birmingham ;  Mrs. 
A.  L.  Henley,  wife  of  John  C.  Henley,  and  Mrs.  L.  L.  Scott,  widow 
of  W.  L.  Scott,  a  popular  citizen  of  Birmingham,  who  was  drowned  in 
1885,  while  on  a  pleasure  trip  to  Florida. 

Mr.  Linn  died  August  7,   1882,  aged  sixty-eight  years. 

The  National  Bank. 

Mr.  Charles  Linn  was  a  man  of  clear  judgment.  He  came  to 
Birmingham  in  its  early  days  to  fix  his  fortunes  here.  On  Twentieth 
street  he  reared  a  building  for  a  bank.  This  was  in  the  summer  of  1871. 
The  National  Bank  of  Birmingham  was  organized  October,  1871.  The 
incorporators  were  Charles  Linn,  James  R.  Powell,  President  of  the 
Elyton  Land  Company  and  Mayor  of  the  city,  Bryant  Tully,  M.  H. 
Jordan,  Willis  J.  Milner,  James  O'Connor,  and  B.  P.  Worthington,  with 
a  paid-up  capital  of  $50,000. 

The  oiTficers  elected  were  Charles  Linn,  President ;  James  R.  Powell, 
Vice-President ;  Travers  Daniel,  Cashier.  After  a  year's  service  Mr. 
Daniel  resigned  his  position,  and  Robert  B.  Jones  was  elected  to  fill  it. 
After  three  years  Mr,  Jones  resigned,  and  William  Berney  was  given  the 
place.  After  seven  years  service  Mr.  Berney  was  elected  President  to 
fill  the  vacancy  occasioned  by  the  death  of  the  founder  and  first  president, 
Mr.  Linn.  W.  L.  Scott  became  Vice-President,  and  John  C.  Henley 

250  Jefferson    County. 

The  City  Bank. 

T.  L.  Hudgins,  Josiah  Morris,  and  W.  S.  Mudd  organized  a  private 
banking  establishment  in  April,  1880,  with  a  capital  of  ^80,000.  It  was 
soon  chartered  as  the  City  Bank  of  Birmingham,  with  T.  L,  Hudgins, 
President,  and  W.  J.  Cameron,  Cashier,  and  the  capital  increased  to 
;?  1 00, 000. 

The  First  National. 

May  15,  1884,  the  City  Bank  was  merged  into  the  First  National. 
The  consolidated  capital  stock  controlled  by  the  latter  institution,  under 
the  terms  of  consolidation,  was  ^250,000.  William  Berney  was  retained 
as  President;  John  C.  Henley  became  Vice-President;  W.  J.  Cameron, 
Cashier,  with  E.  W.  Linn,  Assistant  Cashier. 

The  bank  greatly  prospered  with  the  acquisition  of  new  capital.  March, 
1885,  President  Berney  sent  in  his  resignation.  William  A.  Walker,  Jr., 
a  member  of  the  leading  law  firm  of  the  city,  a  native  of  the  vicinage, 
and  a  large  stockholder  in  the  bank,  was  elected  to  succeed  Mr.  Berney. 
The  able  cashier,  however,  was  expected  practically  to  act  the  part  of 
president.  Mr.  Walker  could  not  surrender  his  practice,  to  which  he  was 
devoted,  not  only  from  affection  for  the  science  of  law,  but  because  of 
its  rich  gains  to  him  in  fortune.  Cashier  Cameron  proved  to  be  fully 
equal  to  the  place.  Mr.  Walker  soon  discovered  that  his  extensive  legal 
clientele  frequently  imposed  duties  upon  him  at  the  bar  inconsistent 
with  his  position  as  president  of  a  Birmingham  bank.  Therefore,  on 
January  6,  1886,  the  next  annual  meeting  of  the  stockholders,  he 
tendered  his  resignation  as  president  to  the  directory,  and  Cashier 
Cameron  was  unanimously  elected  to  fill  his  place  by  rank,  as  he  had  done, 
for  some  months,  by  assignment  of  duties  to  be  performed.  In  this 
reorganization  of  bank  officers  W.  J.  Cameron  became  President;  J.  C. 
Henley  Vice-President;  E.  W.  Linn  Cashier,  and  T.  O.  Smith,  a  son  of 
the  owner  of  Smithfield,  Assistant  Cashier. 

The  present  directors  are :  T.  L.  Hudgins,  William  A.  Walker,  Jr., 
H.  M.  Caldwell,  P.  H.  Earle,  T.  T.  Hillman,  W.  T.  Underwood,  W.  J. 
Cameron,  John  C.  Henley,  and  E.  W.  Linn. 

The  offices  of  the  First  National  Bank  of  Birmingham  are  now  the 
best  arranged  and  the  most  handsomely  furnished  in  the  State. 

BirtninghLxm.  253 

Condensed  Statement  of  the  Condition  of  the  First  National  Bank,  December 
31,    1886. 


Loans  and  discounts 111,255,980  03 

Overdrafts 55, 802  40 

United  States  bonds 50,000  00 

Other  stocks  and  bonds 66, 230  00 

Real  estate,  furniture  and  fixtures 52,573  84 

Expenses  and  taxes 11.341   40 

Premiums 10,750  oo 

Due  from  United  States  Treasury 4,632  75 

Due  from  banks 433,298  92 

Cash 279,227  03 

$2,219,836  37 


Capital  stock      $250,000  00 

Surplus  and   profits 78,093  94 

Circulation 45,000  00 

Deposits — 

Banks $      63,097  90 

Individual 1,783,644  53 — 1,846,742  43 

$2,219,836  37 

At  a  meeting  of  the  board  of  directors  held  this  day,  a  dividend  of 
6  per  cent,  was  declared  from  the  earnings  of  the  past  six  months,  paya- 
ble January  4,  1887.  E.   W.   Linn,  Cashier. 

The  Alabama  National  Bank. 

The  Alabama  State  Bank  was  organized  in  April,  1884,  with  Joseph 
F.  Johnston,  President;  T.  B.  Lyons,  Vice-President;  John  W.  Read, 
Cashier.  The  Board  of  Directors  were  J.  T.  Hardie,  T.  B.  Lyons,  E. 
W.  Rucker,  A.  O.  Lane,  J.  W.  Sloss,  Joseph  A.  Shakespeare,  and 
Joseph  F.  Johnston.  The  capital  stock  paid  in  was  $200,000.  The 
bank  doubled  its  first  six  months  of  business  in  the  following  six  months. 
In  less  than  eighteen  months  it  was  paying  16  per  centum  per  annum 
on  its  capital. 

In  January,  1887,  the  corporation  increased  its  capital  stock,  paid  in. 

2  54  Jefferson    County. 

to  11500,000,  and  thus  became  the  largest  bank  in  the  State.  The  name 
was  then  changed  to  the  Alabama  National  Bank.  It  is  honorable  to  the 
business  integrity  of  Birmingham  that  the  increase  was  made,  on  the  recom- 
mendation of  the  president,  because  of  the  success  of  the  previous  aid  given 
by  the  bank  "  to  business  men  and  manufacturers."  It  was  further  to  aid 
these  classes  that  the  advice  was  accepted.  Among  the  new  stockholders 
who  promptly  subscribed  to  the  increased  capital  are  Josiah  Morris,  of 
Montgomery ;  Mr.  Norton,  President  of  the  L.  &  N.  Railroad  system  ; 
Mr.  Fetter,  President  of  the  Kentucky  National  Bank  of  Louisville  ;  Mr. 
Johnston,  President  of  the  First  National  Bank  of  Columbus,  Mississippi ; 
Mr.  Spurr,  President  of  the  Commercial  National  Bank  of  Nashville,  and 
other  bankers  of  national  reputation. 

The  corporation  owns  its  own  handsome  building  at  the  corner  of 
First  avenue  and  Twentieth  street. 

Joseph  F.  Johnston,  the  president  of  this  bank,  is  a  native  of  Lin- 
coln County,  North  Carolina,  where  he  was  born  in  1843,  ^^he  son  of  a 
gentleman  of  wealth  and  culture.  In  his  seventeenth  year  he  left  his 
educational  advantages  to  enlist  in  the  ranks  of  the  Confederate  army. 
Five  wounds  and  promotion  to  a  captaincy  attest  the  devotion  of  his  sol- 
dier's career. 

Coming  to  Alabama  Captain  Johnston  read  law,  and  soon  formed  a 
co-partnenship  with  a  young  North  Carolinian,  Captain  R.  M.  Nelson, 
who  had  also  been  a  Confederate  soldier.  Captain  Nelson  is  now  president 
of  the  Commercial  Bank  of  Selma,  and  a  gentleman  of  distinguished  influ- 
ence in  social  and  business  circles. 

Mr.  Johnston  has  been  long  known  as  a  faithful  worker  in  the  poli- 
tics of  Alabama.  He  was  chairman  of  the  Democratic  State  Executive 
Committee  in  a  trying  period,  and  distinguished  himself  in  that  position. 
He  has  been  invited  to  allow  his  name  to  be  used  for  succession  to  the 
gubernatorial  office  in  Alabama,  but  he  has  not  thus  far  been  ready  to 
accept  political  preferment. 

Mr.  Johnston  is  now  president  of  the  Sloss  Iron  and  Manufacturing 
Company  of  Birmingham,  with  a  capital  stock  of  ^3, 000, 000. 

The  Jefferson  County  Savings  Bank. 

The  erection  of  this  bank  presents  a  typical  example  of  individual 
experience  in  Birmingham.  It  is  the  result  of  the  prosperity  of  an  honest 
man  who  began  at  the  foot  of  the  ladder  of  fortune.  Charles  Enslen,  the 
founder,  came  to  Birmingham  a  stranger  and  a  day  laborer.      He  is  a  Ger- 

^da7^^  /^^/y^^^^ 

Birmingham.  257 

man  by  birth.  Fidelity  to  the  small  things  given  him  to  do  established 
his  character  in  a  community  whose  judgments  of  men  and  their  methods 
and  motives  hew  to  the  line.  Mr.  Enslen  made  fortunate  investments, 
and  used  the  suggestions  of  discretion,  and  a  quick  and  sagacious  mind,  to 
detect  opportunities  for  the  employment  of  his  earnings.  Soon  he  had 
accomplished  independence.  Like  the  prudent  head  of  a  family,  he  first 
provided  for  them  a  comfortable  home.  His  means  grew  to  proportions 
which  required  his  whole  attention  to  the  management  of  them.  Thus,  in 
casting  about  for  some  large  enterprise  to  employ  them,  he  fixed  upon  the 
then  great  need  of  the  city  in  which  he  had  cast  his  lot — a  savings  bank. 
He  bought  a  lot  in  1885  on  the  corner  of  Second  avenue  and  Twenty-first 
street  for  ^7,500,  which  three  or  four  years  before  had  been  sold  for  ^350. 
The  location  was  a  central  one,  convenient  to  the  industries  which  entiploy 
the  working  people.  Upon  the  spot  he  built  a  four-story  brick  building 
with  Mansard  roof,  the  lower  floor  being  devoted  to  the  bank  offices. 
The  proprietor  of  the  enterprise  remained  steadily  all  day  among  the  work- 
men directing  in  person  the  excavations  for  the  foundation  and  the  laying 
of  every  brick.  His  work  progressed  somewhat  tardily,  as  the  passers-by 
noted,  but  in  due  time  he  had  completed  a  beautiful  building,  and  one 
acknowledged  to  be,  at  that  time,  the  most  substantial  in  the  city. 

The  bank  was  chartered  November  2,  1885,  with  a  capital  stock, 
owned  by  the  founder,  of  5SO,ooo.  It  threw  open  its  doors  to  a  prosper- 
ous business  long  awaiting  it. 

The  incorporators  were  Charles  F.  Enslen  and  his  two  sons,  E.  F.  and 
Charles  Enslen. 

The  officers  have  been,  from  the  opening,  Charles  F.  Enslen,  Presi- 
■dent ;  E.  F.  Enslen,  Cashier,  and  Robert  H.  Sterrett,  Attorney  at  Law, 
attorney  for  the  bank. 

In  January,  1887,  this  bank  increased  its  capital  stock  to  ^150,000 — 
threefold  in  fourteen  months. 

The  Berney  National  Bank. 

Upon  the  retirement  of  Mr.  Berney  from  the  presidency  of  the  First 
National,  he  organized,  on  March  26,  1885,  the  Central  Bank,  with  a  capi- 
tal stock,  paid  up,  of  ^50,000. 

This  bank  is  situated  on  First  avenue,  between  Nineteenth  and  Twen- 
tieth streets.  It  is  an  extremely  tasteful  architectural  design,  and  adds 
greatly  to  the  effect  of  the  avenue.  It  is  built  of  pressed  brick,  orna- 
mented with  white  stone.     The  front  is  chiefly  plate  glass.     The  building, 

258  Jefferson   County. 

and  necessary  space  around,  it  only  occupied  half  of  the  lot  bought  by  Mr. 
Berney  when  he  began  to  prepare  to  build  the  bank.  In  less  than  a  year 
from  the  date  of  the  purchase  of  the  lot  he  sold  the  half,  not  required  for 
the  bank,  for  as  much  money  as  the  entire  area  had  cost. 

The  incorporators  of  the  Central  Bank  were  William  Berney,  Robert 
Jemison,  L.  D.  Aylett,  Joseph  McLester,  and  T.  H.  Aldrich.  The  char- 
ter was  obtained,  and  the  bank  began  business  on  the  date  above  men- 

The  business  of  this  institution  has  gone  forward  by  bounds.  In  nine 
months  from  the  date  of  incorporation  it  had  doubled  its  capital  stock. 
The  bank  was  then  reorganized  and  the  name  changed  from  the  Central 
Bank  of  Birmingham  to  the  Berney  National  Bank.  The  officers  chosen 
were  William  Berney,  President ;  Robert  Jemison,  Vice  President ;  J.  B. 
Cobbs,  Cashier,  and  W.  P.  G.  Harding,  Assistant  Cashier. 

In  less  than  twelve  months  from  this  first  reorganization,  with  double 
the  original  capital  stock,  the  Berney  National  had  the  second  time 
increased.  Its  capital  stock  now  is  ;?300,000,  or  sixfold  the  original  capi- 
tal stock — this  accomplished  in  less  than  two  years  from  its  foundation. 
These  facts  become  notable  in  view  of  the  rapid  strides  real  estate  has 
made  in  Birmingham.  It  is  evident  that  there  has  thus  far  been  nothing 
fictitious  or  perilous  in  the  phenomenal  advance  in  values.  They  have 
moved  in  general  accord  and  universal  sympathy. 

The  officers  of  the  Berney  National  Bank  in  its  latest  reorganization 
are  William  Berney,  President  ;  W.  P.  Armstrong,  President  of  the  City 
National  Bank  of  Selma,  one  of  the  oldest  and  strongest  of  the  Southern 
banks  of  the  new  era,  Vice-President ;  J.  B.  Cobbs,  Cashier,  and  W.  P. 
Parish,  of  Selma,  Assistant  Cashier.  Among  the  larger  stockholders  in 
the  reorganization  are  John  H.  Inman,  of  New  York  ;  W.  P.  Armstrong, 
of  Selma;  Enoch  Ensley,  of  Pratt  Mines;  H.  F.  DeBardeleben,  R.  H. 
Isbell,  of  Talladega;  T.  T.  Hillman,  P.  T.  Vaughan,  of  Selma,  and  others. 

The  confidence  which  the  Berney  National  Bank  has  been  able  to 
arrest  and  attract  to  the  city  of  its  location  is  of  the  first  consequence.  It 
has  done  its  full  part  toward  creating  stability  in  values,  even  when  they 
advance  rapidly  from  point  to  point. 

/  r  .^^^:%«;^j55'-f-;<j9^-^^*?'-^«'^-'' 

Birmingham.  261 

The  Birmingham  National  Bank. 

This  institution  will  be  incorporated  in  April,  1887,  with  a  paid-up 
capital  of  $250,000,  subscribed  by  nearly  one  hundred  of  the  leading  busi- 
ness men  of  Birmingham. 

The  President  is  to  be  John  W.  Read  ;  Cashier,  H.  C.  Ansley.  It 
will  occupy  handsome  quarters  in  the  Roden  Block,  Second  avenue  and 
Twentieth  street. 

The  banks  and  banking  capital  of  Birmingham,  March  1,  1887,  may 
be  summarized  as  follows: 

First  National r;ip;tai,  5250,000 

Alabama  National "  500,000 

Savings    .    .    .    , "  150,000 

Berney  National "  300,000 

Birmingham  National "  250,000 

J.  R.  Adams,  private  banker "  50,000 

Total  banking  capital $1,500,000 


AvoNDALE  Land  Company. — One  of  the  leading  incentives  to  the 
construction  of  the  first  in  order  of  the  Birmingham  street  railways  was 
to  connect  a  suburb  called  Avondale  with  the  center  of  Birmingham. 
The  distance  is  about  one  and  a  half  miles.  The  principal  incorporators 
of  this  railway  company  comprise  the  Avondale  Land  Company. 

Avondale  Park  consists  of  a  forty-acre  inclosure  of  romantic  wooded 
mountain  side,  abounding  in  bold  springs.  There  are  walks  laid  off,  seats 
provided,  and  a  floor  for  dancing,  laid  under  a  canopy.  There  is  a  natural 
cave  on  the  company's  property  of  much  interest.  Picnics  and  moonlight 
parties  from  the  city  delight  to  patronize  its  free  accommodations. 

The  company  has  purchased  considerable  land  around  the  park,  sur- 
veyed lots,  and  has  been  very  successful  in  disposing  of  them  to  settlers 
and  manufacturers.  Land  which  did  not  cost  it  more  than  $1,  or  even 
half  that  amount,  per  foot,  is  now  readily  sold  at  $25  to  $75,  or  into  the 
hundreds,  three  years  after  the  original  purchase.  The  stock  of  the  com- 
pany is  held  at  $4.25  to  ?5  to  one,  face  value. 

The  president  is  B.  F.  Roden. 

262  Jefierson   Coiatty. 

Smithfield. — West  of  Birmingham  city  limits,  one  and  a  half  miles 
down  the  valley,  is  the  suburban  village,  Smithfield.  The  area  comprises 
500  acres,  once  a  cornfield.  Bordering  the  valley  part  is  a  narrow  line 
of  hills,  yet  in  the  scrubby  growth  of  a  virgin  and  rocky  soil. 

Three  years  ago  the  owner  of  this  tract  of  land,  Dr.  Joseph  R.  Smith, 
decided  to  lay  it  off,  after  a  plan  of  his  own  fertile  brain,  into  streets  and 
avenues,  and  to  offer  lots  for  sale  and  settlement.  It  was  found  that  good 
water  could  be  obtained  by  sinking  wells  into  the  rocks,  beneath  the  sur- 
face, from  twenty-five  to  seventy-five  feet  deep.  So  long  as  the  territory 
should  remain  sparsely  inhabited,  these  wells  would  supply  suitable  water. 
When  residences  should  be  erected  on  lots,  not  too  far  apart,  one  well 
would  readily  supply  several  families.  The  breezes  from  the  mountains 
fanned  Smithfield,  and  in  the  hottest  day  the  wide  expanse  of  open  area  on 
every  side  secured  a  current  of  pure,  fresh  air.  A  wholesome  draught  of 
pure  water,  not  dangerous  to  health,  as  is  ice,  but  cool  and  refreshing 
from  the  rocks  beneath,  was  at  command  of  the  cottagers  at  all  hours. 

Smithfield  assumed  a  color  of  romance  from  the  first.  It  is  a  solid 
name  it  bears.  It  means  an  honest  purpose  in  every  feature.  Coming  to 
the  broad  avenues  and  streets,  we  find  them  called  after  the  names  of  the 
living,  or  dead.  Smiths.  Here  in  Birmingham  we  go  to  the  arithmetic,  with 
its  hard  figures  for  the  most  unromantic  of  nomenclature  for  our  high- 
ways. But  the  highways  of  the  suburban  town  went  to  the  family  tree 
of  the  Smiths,  and  immortalized  genealogy  by  fixing  its  record  in  the 
map  of  a  city. 

The  founder  of  Smithfield  determined  upon  this  unique  scheme  for 
perpetuating  family  history.  The  avenues  were  laid  off  from  due  east  to 
due  west,  and  these  he  named  for  the  female  members  of  the  Smith  family 
backward  into  the  generations,  to  cover  as  many  names  as  there  were 
highways.  Therefore  we  have  Cornelia,  Louisa,  Kate,  Sallie,  etc.,  ave- 
nues. The  streets  crossing  the  avenues  at  right  angles  are  John,  Thomas, 
Mortimer,  etc.  The  eastern  border  of  the  limits  is  a  wide  boulevard  called 
Walker  street.  This  is  named  for  Mr.  William  A.  Walker,  one  of  the 
early  settlers  of  Jefferson  County,  and  of  Elyton,  and  a  life-time  friend  of 
Dr.  Smith.  Bisecting  this  site  of  the  town  is  a  wide,  macadamized  pub- 
lic highway,  running  with  the  compass  from  east  to  west,  which  is  called 
Smithers'  boulevard,  in  honor  of  the  founder's  wife's  maiden  name. 

The  sale  of  Smithfield  lots  began  soon  after  the  old  cornfield  had  been 
laid  off  into  streets  and  avenues,  which  had  received  their  names  to  the 
honor  of  the  family  record  of  the  founder.  In  order  to  convince  the 
public  of  his  own  confidence  in  the  future  of  his  city-building  project.  Dr. 

Birmingham.  263 

Smith  laid  off  on  the  opposite  side  of  Walker  avenue,  and  therefore 
nearer  the  city,  a  wide  and  beautiful  oblong  drive.  The  track  was  well 
shaded  by  the  forest  growth,  and  graded  at  heavy  cost  to  himself  The 
interior  of  the  ground  was  cleared  of  undergrowth,  which  left  hundreds 
of  shade  trees,  under  which,  it  was  predicted,  the  spring  and  summer  pic- 
nics of  the  school  children  would  be  held.  The  whole  was  surrounded 
by  a  substantial  plank  fence,  kept  whitewashed,  and  broken  by  gates  for 
the  entrance  of  vehicles  on  both  the  Birmingham  and  Smithfield  sides. 

Liberal  advertising  of  Smithfield  claims,  to  the  attention  of  investors, 
soon  brought  them  to  close  important  transactions  in  its  lots.  Year  by 
year  and  season  by  season  the  prices  of  Smithfield  lots  rose  higher. 
From  5ioo  they  went  to  $500.  The  location  seemed  favorable  to  real 
estate  speculators.  It  lay  between  the  great  Pratt  Mines  to  the  north  and 
their  several  furnaces,  in  course  of  construction.  On  the  same  side,  but 
nearer  to  Smithfield,  was  the  very  strong  Pioneer  Mining  and  Manufactur- 
ing Company,  busily  opening  mines  and  building  blast  furnaces;  this 
latter  being  the  property  of  the  wealthy  Pennsylvanians,  theThomases. 
To  the  west,  four  miles  away,  was  Oxmoor,  a  growing  iron  manufacturing 
village.  To  the  east  was  Birmingham  and  the  banks,  and  the  juncture 
of  nine  or  more  lines  of  railroad.  It  seemed  plain  to  the  quick  eye  of 
the  real  estate  speculator  that  in  this  property  lay  opportunity  for  his 
safest  ventures,  even  in  the  season  of  the  most  energetic  "booms"  of 

Smithfield  Land  Company. — Thus  it  happened  that  in  the  first  few 
days  of  December,  1886,  a  syndicate  was  quietly  formed  of  leading  capi- 
talist of  Birmingham,  who  bought  about  200  acres  of  Smithfield  at  about 
$1,200  the  acre.  The  company  was  organized  as  the  Smithfield  Land 
Company,  and  the  stock  was  all  sold,  immediately,  to  many  eager  pur- 

The  board  of  directors  are  A.  O.  Lane,  Mayor  of  Birmingham,  J.  D. 
Moore,  J.  V.  Richards,  C.  H.  Worrell,  E.  A.  Thompson,  W.  A.  Smith, 
and  W.  A.  Handley.  A.  O.  Lane  is  President,  and  L.  H.  Martin  Secre- 
tary and  Treasurer.  The  capital  stock  of  the  Smithfield  Land  Company 
is  $850,000. 

North  Birmingham  Land  Company. — This  very  strong  corporation 
has  located  a  town  two  miles  north  of  Birmingham,  on  Village  Creek. 
Its  realty  consists  of  some  twelve  hundred  acres  favorably  situated  for 
manufactories.      It  is  now  erecting  a  blast  furnace  of  one   hundred  tons 

264  Jefferson   County. 

capacity.  The  streets  and  avenues  have  been  very  judiciously  laid  off 
with  a  view  to  placing  the  manufacturing  industries  of  the  future  on  the 
low  lands  bordered  by  the  stream,  and  the  residences  of  the  population 
upon  the  adjacent  high  lands. 

John  W.  Johnston,  President  of  the  Georgia  Pacific  Railroad,  is 
President  of  the  company,  and  his  brother,  A.  B.  Johnston,  is  the  Secre- 
tary and  Treasurer.     The  capital  stock  of  the  company  is  ,$700,000. 

The  Village  Creek  Land  Company. — This  corporation,  with  a 
capital  stock  of  ;$  100, 000,  was  organized  September,  1886.  They  own 
forty-seven  acres  of  land  two  miles  from  the  city,  on  Village  Creek,  favor- 
ably situated  for  manufacturing  enterprises.  They  sell  lots  at  reasonable 
rates.  The  lands  lie  on  the  western  extension  of  the  Georgia  Pacific 
Railroad,  and  are  suitable  for  residences  for  workingmen,  being  dry  and 

The  officers  are  E.  Eastman,  President,  and  B.  F.  Moore,  Secretary 
and  Treasurer. 

East  Lake  Land  Company. — The  F)ast  Lake  property  is  situated 
from  four  and  a  half  to  six  and  a  half  miles  eastward  from  the  city.  It 
comprises  two  thousand  acres  of  land  among  the  hills  at  the  head  of 
Village  Creek. 

The  organization  is  capitalized  at  5 100  the  share,  and  each  share 
represents  one  acre.     The  capital  stock,  therefore,  is  $200,000. 

The  purpose  of  the  company  is  to  connect  their  property  with  the 
city  by  rail.  They  will  then  lay  off  the  area  into  lots  for  residences  and 
for  the  erection  of  trading  shops  suited  to  commerce  in  family  supplies, 
dry  goods,  and  the  like.  They  do  not  propose  to  encourage  the  building 
of  any  great  iron  manufactories.  But  rather  their  effort  is  to  furnish 
homes  for  families  of  workingmen  and  business  men  who  would  escape 
the  smoke,  and  other  annoyances,  of  an  iron  manufacturing  town. 

Among  the  plans  of  the  company  for  beautifying  their  property  is 
the  creation  of  a  lake  of  some  forty  acres,  to  be  formed  from  the  numer- 
ous springs  around  the  valley.  They  will  thus  have  an  abundance  of  the 
purest  water  for  all  purposes  of  a  town. 

The  East  Lake  settlement  embraces  the  Ruhama  neighborhood,  long 
known  as  the  seat  of  the  best  educational  facilities  of  Jefferson  County, 
and  as  the  home  of  a  large  number  of  well-to-do  farmers. 

The  surrounding  country  is  famous  for  the  salubrity  and  equability  of 
the  climate. 

Birmingham.  265 

It  is  evident  that  East  Lake  has  a  distinctive  character  of  its  own. 
It  is  an  enterprise  destined  to  add  much  to  the  value  of  Birmingham  by 
creating  a  delightful  place  of  residence  for  business  men  and  workingmen 
in  easy  reach  of  the  trade  and  manufactories  of  the  city.  Fifteen  minutes 
wiL  serve  for  the  dummy  to  run,  with  the  street  car  attached,  from  the 
center  of  Birmingham  to  the  center  of  the  East  Lake  settlement.  The 
initial  sale  of  lots  has  been  very  satisfactory  in  prices  bid. 

E.AST  Birmingham  Land  Company. — Late  in  November  a  few  citizens 
of  Birmingham  organized  this  promising  company.  They  bought  some 
six  hundred  acres  of  land  near  Village  Creek,  to  the  east  of  the  city,  a 
mile  or  more  distant  from  the  corporate  limits.  They  have  already  entered 
upon  plans  to  establish  important  manufactories  on  their  tract. 

The  English  owners  of  the  Alabama  Great  Southern  Railroad  are 
interested  in  this  enterprise.  Altogether,  it  controls  very  large  capital  for 
supporting  its  stock. 

The  company  put  its  lots  on  the  market  as  soon  as  they  could  be 
surveyed,  but  rapid  sales  induced  it  to  withdraw  them. 

Mr.  Goldsmith  B.  West,  a  well-known  correspondent  of  leading 
industrial  journals,  is  President;  George  C.  Kelley,  President  of  the 
Baxter  Stove  Works,  is  Secretary,  and  W.  J.  Cameron,  President  of  the 
First  National  Bank,  is  Treasurer.  This  is  a  very  strong  organization 
and  a  very  active  one.     The  capital  stock  is  $1,500,000. 

The  lands  of  this  company  front  on  Village  Creek  and  on  the  Louis- 
ville &  Nashville  Railroad,  and  will  be  connected  with  the  Georgia  Pacific 
Railroad.     They  are  very  favorably  located  for  manufacturing  enterprises. 

The  Birmingham-Ensley  Land  and  Improvement  Company  was 
organized  December  13,  1886,  by  H.  F.  DeBardeleben,  R.  H.  Pearson, 
Robert  Warnock,  J.  H.  Slaton,  John  W.  Reed,  John  W.  Tomlinson, 
James  W.  Sloss,  Jr.,  and  W.  P.  Pinckard.  The  object  of  the  company  is 
to  carry  on  a  general  manufacturing  and  industrial  business,  to  buy,  sell, 
and  hold  lands,  to  improve  the  same  by  laying  off  into  lots,  streets,  and 
parks,  the  construction  of  lakes,  race  tracks,  and  other  pleasure  resorts, 
the  quarrying  of  limestone  and  preparing  the  same  for  market,  to  manu- 
facture pig  iron,  steel,  and  all  other  articles  which  can  be  made  with  coal 
or  coke  and  iron  ore,  or  from  wood,  iron,  or  steel,  alone,  or  in  conjunction 
with  any  other  material,  to  erect  buildings,  dwellings,  stores,  and  shops, 
and  all  machinery  to  accomplish  the  ends  sought,  to  build  and  operate 
tramways,  railroads,  and  to  construct  water  works. 

266  Jefferson   County. 

The  capital  stock  is  ;^450,ooo,  divided  into  four  hundred  and  fifty 
shares.  At  a  meeting  of  stockholders  on  December  14,  when  books  of 
subscription  were  opened,  more  than  half  the  stock  was  subscribed  hna 
fide,  of  which  more  than  20  per  cent,  was  paid. 

The  directors  are  J.  H.  Slaton,  Robert  Warnock,  J.  H.  Tomlir.son, 
H.  F.  DeBardeleben,  W.  P.  Pinckard,  Andrew  Adger,  R.  H.  Pearson. 
Officers:  J.  H.  Slaton,  President  and  General  Manager;  Robert  Warnock, 
Secretary  and  Treasurer. 

Glendale  Land  Company. — Was  organized  September  14,  1886,  and 
incorporated  by  D.  M.  Drennen,  John  W.  Read,  and  Robert  Warnock. 
The  purpose  is  to  deal  generally  in  real  estate,  and  to  improve  the  same  by 
laying  off  streets  and  avenues,  and  grading  them,  and  to  connect  their 
property  with  the  city  of  Birmingham  by  streets,  graded  roads,  or  other- 
wise; to  build  lakes,  and  to  otherwise  beautify  their  possessions. 

The  capital  stock  is  268,000,  of  six  hundred  and  eighty  shares,  with 
the  privilege  secured  of  increasing  the  capital  stock.  When  the  books  of 
subscription  were  opened  on  September  20,  1886,  all  the  stock  was  sub- 
scribed by  bona  fide  subscribers.  Some  of  the  stock  was  subscribed  in 
land  and  some  in  money,  and  the  whole  of  the  cash  subscription  was  at 
once  paid  in.  The  directors  appointed  were  D.  M.  Drennen,  R.  War- 
nock, John  W.  Read.  Officers:  R.  Warnock,  President;  John  W.  Reed, 
Vice-President ;  D.  M.  Drennen,  Secretary  and  Treasurer.  All  the  cash 
subscriptions  and  all  the  land  subscribed  were  then  secured  to  the  com- 
pany, the  former  by  actual  payment  and  the  latter  by  legal  transfer. 

Belt  Road  Land  Company. — Organized  December  3,  1886,  by  F. 
W.  Gaines,  Nashville,  Tenn.,  A.  A.  Clisby,  and  A.  K.  Shepard,  Jr.,  of 
Birmingham,  Ala.  The  object  is  to  buy,  hold,  own,  sell,  and  convey 
real  estate.  The  capital  stock  is  $160,000,  of  1,600  shares  of  the  par  value 
of  ^100  each,  with  the  privilege  of  increasing  the  capital  stock  to 

On  the  4th  of  December  all  the  capital  stock  was  subscribed.  The 
directors  are  A. 'A.  CHsby,  A.  K.  Shepard,  Jr.,  F.  W.  Miller.  Officers: 
A.  A.  Clisby,  President;  A.  K.  Shepard,  Jr.,  Secretary  and  Treasurer. 
Twenty-five  per  cent,  of  the  capital  stock  was  then  paid  in  by  the  sub- 

The  Mutual  Land  and  Improvement  Company. — Was  organized 
December  24,  1886,  and  incorporated  by  H.  Lowenthal,  L.  H.  Schmidt,. 

Birmingham.  267- 

and  E.  Lesser.  The  purpose  is  to  buy,  sell,  build  upon,  and  otherwise 
improve  real  estate.  Capital  stock  is  ^7,500,  of  120  shares.  December 
27  the  whole  of  the  stock  was  taken.  A  board  of  directors,  composed  of 
the  three  names  above  given  as  incorporators,  was  appointed,  and  H. 
Lowenthal  was   made  President,  and  E.  Lesser  Secretary  and  Treasurer. 

The  Walker  Land  Company. — Was  organized  December  31,  1886, 
and  incorporated  by  William  A.  Walker,  Jr.,  John  C.  Morrow,  Mary  A. 
Morrow,  Rufus  H.  Hagood,  and  America  Hagood,  all  of  Birmingham  ; 
and  Margaret  Walker,  James  C.  Long,  Fannie  W.  Long,  Thomas  S. 
Smith,  and  Lucy  E.  Smith,  all  of  Elyton.  The  object  is  to  improve  such 
lands  as  they  may  acquire,  and  to  lay  the  same  off  into  streets,  lots, 
parks,  and  alleys,  and  to  supply  illuminating  agents  of  all  kinds,  and  to 
carry  on  a  general  industrial  and  manufacturing  business. 

The  capital  stock  is  ^1,200,000,  divided  into  12,000  shares.  The 
directors  appointed  were  John  C.  Morrow,  Rufus  H.  Hagood,  James  C. 
Long,  Thomas  S.  Smith,  William  A.  Walker,  Jr.  Officers:  William  A. 
Walker,  Jr.,  President;  Thomas  S.  Smith,  Secretary.  All  of  the  capital 
was  paid  promptly  on  the  completion  of  the  organization  of  the  company. 

The  South-Side  Land  Company. — Was  organized  September  28,  1886, 
and  incorporated  by  John  Phelan,  William  F.  Smith,  and  Richard  C. 
Bradley.  The  purpose  is  to  buy  and  sell  real  estate,  and  to  improve  the 

Capital  stock,  $100,000;  divided  into  1,000  shares.  On  October  6 
all  of  the  stock  was  subscribed  on  opening  the  books  by  bona  fide 
subscribers.  Directors:  John  W,  Moore,  W.  F.  Smith,  John  Phelan,  M. 
Bostick,  William  T.  Wheless.  Officers:  John  W.  Moore,  President;  W. 
F.  Smith,  Secretary ;  William  T.  Wheless,  Treasurer.  All  of  the  stock 
was  at  that  time  paid. 

Village  Creek  Land  Company. — Organized  October  12,  1886. 
Incorporated  by  Benjamin  F.  Moore,  R.  D.  Smith,  and  Elwell  Eastman. 
The  purpose  is  to  build  upon  the  land  a  city  to  be  called  "  Mound  City," 
and  the  nature  of  the  business  it  proposes  to  do  is  to  acquire  land  by 
subscription  to  the  capital  stock,  and  by  purchase.  The  company  also 
proposes  to  put  up  all  kinds  of  industrial  enterprises. 

The  capital  stock  is  $100,000,  divided  into  200  shares.  On  October 
12,  1886,  books  of  subscription  were  opened,  and  99  per  cent,  of  the 
stock  taken.     The  directors  consist  of  B.   F.  Moore,  R.   D.   Smith,  and 

268  Jefferson    County. 

Elwell  Eastman.  Officers:  Elwell  Eastman,  President;  Robert  D.  Smith, 
Vice-President;  Benjamin  F.  Moore,  Secretary  and  Treasurer.  All  the 
stock  was  paid  in  lands. 

East  P^nd  Land  Company. — Organized  November  6,  1886.  Incor- 
porated by  W.  P.  Pinckard,  H.  F.  DeBardeleben,  Andrew  M.  Adger,  and 
T.  H.  Aldrich.  The  object  of  the  corporation  is  to  deal  in  real  estate,  and 
the  nature  of  the  business  is  to  buy,  own,  and  improve,  exchange, 
mortgage,  and  take  mortgage  on  real  estate. 

Capital  stock,  $100,000;  divided  into  i,000  shares,  with  the  privilege 
of  increasing  to  ^1,000,000.  The  stockholders  are  A.  M.  Adger,  400 
shares;  W.  P.  Pinckard,  200  shares;  H.  F.  DeBardeleben,  200  shares; 
T.  H.  Aldrich,  200  shares.  Directors:  A.  M.  Adger,  T.  H.  Aldrich,  H. 
F.  DeBardeleben,  VV.  P.  Pinckard.  Officers:  W.  P.  Pinckard,  President; 
A.  M.  Adger,  Secretary  and  Treasurer.  More  than  20  per  cent,  of  the 
capital  stock  was  paid  in  money  on  November  20,  and  the  rest  secured  to 
be  paid  in  installments.  All  the  amount  then  subscribed  was  paid  into 
the  hands  of  the  treasurer. 

Ensley  Land  Company. — The  petition  to  incorporate  this  company 
was  filed  December  7,  1886,  by  Enoch  Ensley,  Memphis,  Tenn.  ;  Thomas 
D.  Radcliff,  Pratt  Mines,  Ala.  ;  T.  T.  Hillman,  and  William  A.  Walker, 
Jr.     The  principal  place  of  business  is  to  be  at  Ensley,  Jefferson  County. 

The  general  purpose  and  nature  of  the  business  is  the  buying  and 
selling  of  lands  ;  improving  the  same  by  surveying  and  laj'ing  off  into 
lots,  parks,  streets,  and  alleys ;  to  construct  gas,  electric,  or  other 
illuminating  works,  and  manufacture  and  sell  the  products  and  results 
thereof;  to  construct  all  kinds  of  pleasure  resorts,  to  quarry  stone;  to 
manufacture  pig-iron,  steel,  and  other  articles  which  can  be  made  with 
coal,  coke,  or  other  fuel,  out  of  iron  ore,  or  any  other  ore  or  metals,  or 
from  wood,  stone,  earth,  cotton,  iron,  or  steel,  either  alone  or  in  con- 
junction with  any  other  material,  to  buy,  use,  or  sell  the  same;  the 
-erection  of  such  buildings,  dwellings,  stores,  shops,  and  all  the  machinery 
that  may  be  necessary  for  carrying  on  such  business ;  to  build  and  operate 
necessary  railroads  and  tramways;  to  carry  on  stores,  and  necessary 
mercantile  establishments ;  to  construct  and  operate  water  works ;  to 
construct  and  maintain  reservoirs,  conduits,  canals,  and  pipes. 

The  capital  stock,  ;gio,ooo,ooo,  is  divided  into  ;gioo-shares.  Books 
of  subscription  were  opened  December  8,  at  the  office  of  Hewitt,  Walker 
&  Porter,  and  the  whole  amount  of  the  capital  was  subscribed  \yy  bo7ia  fide 

Birmingham.  269 

subscribers.  The  directors  elected  were  Enoch  Ensley,  T.  T.  Hillman, 
Thomas  D.  Radcliffe,  William  A.  Walker,  Jr.,  John  H.  Inman,  of  New 
York ;  William  N.  Duncan,  and  Nathaniel  Baxter,  Jr.  The  officers 
elected  were  Enoch  Ensley,  President ;  Thomas  D.  Radcliffe,  Secretary 
and  Treasurer.  Twenty  per  cent,  of  the  capital  subscribed  was  then  paid 
to  the  treasurer,  and  the  remainder  secured  to  be  paid  as  required  by  law. 

Cahaba  Valley  Land  Company. — Organized  September  20,  1886; 
incorporated  by  Henry  Milner,  J.  B.  C.  Elliott,  James  I.  Abercrombie, 
J.  A.  Milner,  E.  S.  Jones,  J.  W.  Bass. 

The  purpose  is  to  buy,  sell,  and  lease  real  estate  ;  to  buy,  sell,  and 
lease  personal  property ;  to  build,  sell,  and  lease  houses  ;  to  build  rail 
and  street  railroads,  tram  roads,  water  works,  and  to  do  all  other  things 
necessary  to  accomplish  their  purpose.  Principal  place  of  business  is  at 
Leeds,  Ala.  Capital  stock  is  ;?i 5,000,  divided  into  one  hundred  and  fifty 
shares,  with  the  privilege  of  increasing  the  same.  Subscribers  to  the 
capital  stock  are  as  follows  :  Henry  Milner,  Leeds,  five  shares  ;  J.  B.  C. 
Elliott,  Leeds,  eleven  shares  ;  James  L  Abercrombie,  Leeds,  five  shares ; 
J.  A.  Milner,  Leeds,  two  shares ;  George  L.  Young,  Leeds,  five  shares  ; 
Dr.  E.  S.  Jones,  Leeds,  four  shares ;  J.  W.  Bass,  Leeds,  three  shares. 

More  than  20  per  cent,  of  the  capital  stock  was  then  subscribed  by 
these  parties  in  money,  which  was  paid  into  the  hands  of  the  treasurer, 
and  the  remainder  secured  to  be  paid  in  money  in  installments. 

East  End  Land  and  Improvement  Company. — Organized  April  6, 
1886;  board  corporators,  R.  H.  Pearson  and  T.  B.  Lj^ons. 

General  purpose  is  to  carry  on  an  industrial  business  in  Jefferson 
County  ;  to  manufacture  textile  fabrics  and  all  articles  of  wood,  stone,  and 
metal ;  to  purchase,  hold,  and  convey  real  estate  and  personal  property, 
and  to  develop  and  improve  the  same.  Capital  stock  is  to  be  :Sioo,ooo, 
divided  into  shares  of  $100  each,  with  the  privilege  to  increase  the  same 
to  such  amount  as  the  stockholders  desire.  On  April  6th  more  than  half 
of  the  capital  stock  was  subscribed  by  bo7ia  fide  subscribers,  and  more 
than  20  per  cent,  of  the  said  amount  subscribed  was  paid  in.  Directors  : 
T.  B.  Lyons,  J.  V.  Richards,  George  L.  Morris,  J.  F.  Johnston,  and  R. 
H.  Pearson.  Officers:  R.  H.  Pearson,  President;  T.  B.  Lyons,  Secre- 
tary and  Treasurer. 

The  Clifton  Land  Company. — Organized  December  31,  1886,  by 
B.  F.  Roden,  E.  K.   Fulton,  M.  T.   Sumner,  A.   G.    Morris,  and  C.   W. 

2  70  Jefferson    County. 

Van  Vleck,  of  Cincinnati,  Ohio.  The  purpose  is  to  carry  on  any  manu- 
facturing, mining,  or  industrial  business  ;  to  deal  generally  in  real  estate 
and  personal  property;  to  build  and  operate  railroads,  street  railroads,  and 
tramways  ;  to  build  and  sell  houses  ;  to  erect  furnaces,  factories,  and  saw 
mills ;  to  own,  operate,  and  sell  the  same. 

The  capital  stock  is  ;^225,ooo,  divided  into  2,250  shares.  Only 
^190,000  of  the  stock  is  to  be  issued,  leaving  a  reserve  fund  in  the  treas- 
ury of  ^35,000,  to  be  used  at  the  discretion  of  the  company  for  the 
improvement  of  their  property. 

Officers:  B.  F.  Roden,  President;  D.  H.  Sumner,  Secretary  and 
Treasurer.  More  than  20  per  cent,  of  the  capital  then  subscribed  has 
been  paid  in  money  to  the  treasurer,  and  the  remainder  subscribed,  pay- 
able in  money,  has  been  secured,  and  will  be  paid  in  installments  as 
needed  for  the  company's  use  as  by  the  directors  ordered. 

College  Hill  L.\nd  Company. — Organized  December  7,  1886,  by  W. 
P.  Pinckard,  H.  F.  DeBardeleben,  W.  H.  Johnston,  Andrew  M.  Adger, 
David  Roberts,  M.  E.  Lopez,  Augustine  T.  Smythe,  Charleston,  S.  C. 

The  general  purpose  is  to  acquire  lands,  by  purchase  or  otherwise, 
or  subscription  to  the  capital  stock. 

The  capital  stock  is  $210,000,  divided  into  2,100  shares.  On  Jan- 
uary 7th  all  the  stock  was  subscribed  for  by  bona  fide  subscribers,  to  be 
paid  in  lands  and  transferred  by  proper  deeds  of  conveyance  to  the  com- 
pany. The  officers  are  W.  P.  Pinckard,  President ;  A.  M.  Adger,  Sec- 
retary and  Treasurer. 

Bessemer  Land  and  Improvement  Company. — Organized  January 
6,  1887.  Henry  F.  DeBardeleben,  Andrew  M.  Adger,  David  Roberts, 
Charleston,  S.  C. ;  Moses  E.  Lopez,  Charleston,  S.  C,  and  Augustine  T. 
Smythe,  Charleston,  S.  C,  are  the  incorporators. 

The  nature  of  the  enterprise  is  to  acquire  lands,  cither  by  subscrip- 
tion to  its  capital  stock  or  by  purchase  or  otherwise  ;  to  build  a  town  or 
■city,  to  be  called  Bessemer,  by  laying  off  property  for  that  purpose  ;  also,  to 
have  parks  or  other  suitable  pleasure  resorts,  to  dispose  of  the  lots  laid 
off,  and  to  build  all  kinds  of  industrial  establishments  and  dwelling  houses. 

Capital  stock,  $2,500,000,  divided  into  twenty  thousand  shares. 
Directors:  H.  F.  DeBardeleben,  Andrew  M.  Adger,  Augustine  T. 
Smythe,  William  Berney,  Moses  E.  Lopez,  and  David  Roberts.  Officers : 
H.  F.  DeBardeleben,  President;  Andrew  M.  Adger,  Secretary;  William 
Berney,  Treasurer  ;  Augustine  T.  Smythe,  Solicitor. 

BirmingJiam.  2  7 1 

The  Bradfield  Company. — Organized  January  5,  1887,  by  L.  T. 
Bradfield,  R.  L.  Houston,  John  W.  Bush,  John  Vary,  William  M.  Brooks; 
to  buy,  sell,  and  deal  in  real  estate  and  coal,  and  mineral  lands,  and  in 
stocks,  bonds,  bills,  notes,  and  negotiate  loans  on  mortgage  securities, 
and  for  the  purpose  of  establishing  a  general  land  and  collecting  agency. 

Capital  stock,  $25,000,  divided  into  twenty-five  shares.  Each  of  the 
parties  named  have  subscribed  for  and  own  five  shares  of  stock. 

Highland  Lake  Land  Company. — Organized  January  13,  1887,  by 
A.  P.  Bush,  J.  W.  McConnell,  H.  F.  Wilson,  C.  H.  Francis,  and  W.  H. 
Williams,  to  deal  generally  in  real  and  personal  property,  as  may  be 
necessary  to  the  successful  prosecution  of  their  business;  also,  to  have 
the  right  to  deal  in  lumber,  and  such  other  materials  as  are  necessary  to 
build  houses. 

The  object  is  to  buy  and  sell  real  estate,  to  borrow  money  upon 
mortgages  of  its  real  estate,  to  lend  money  upon  mortgages  of  real  estate, 
or  upon  other  security,  and  to  improve  the  real  estate  of  the  company  by 
erecting  such  structures  thereon  as  may  be  necessary  for  the  profitable  use 

The  capital  stock  is  $250,000,  divided  into  2,500  shares. 

Central  Land  and  Improvement  Company. — Organized  January  14, 
1887,  by  John  B.  Boddie,  Eugene  V.  Gregory,  Willis  J.  Milner,  Marcel- 
lus  G.  Hudson,  Erastus  S.  Ferryman,  David  P.  Bestor,  George  A.  Pearce, 
Charles  S.  Dumont,  William  H.  Ketchum,  Margaret  Reese,  Orville  F. 
Cawthon,  of  Mobile  ;  Charles  Handy,  of  Atlanta  ;  John  Moore,  of  Colum- 
bia, Tenn. 

The  capital  stock  is  $250,000,  divided  into  2,500  shares. 

The  officers  are  John  W.  McConnell,  President;  Charles  H.  Francis, 
Secretary  and  Treasurer,  and  E.  T.  Taliaferro,  Attorney. 

Fifty  per  cent,  of  the  capital  stock  subscribed  was  paid  to  the 
secretary  and  treasurer. 


Alabama  Real  Estate  and  Loan  Association. — Organized  August 
30,  1886,  by  James  T.  Meade,  Charles  M.  Erwin,  and  J.  L.  Ward,  to  do 
business  as  a  real  estate  and  insurance  agency,  either  for  themselves  or 
others.  The  capital  stock,  $15,000,  with  authority  to  increase  to  $100,000, 
is  divided  into  150  shares  of  the  par  value,  $100, 

272  Jefferson   County. 

All  subscriptions,  payable  in  money  and  property,  were  then  delivered 
to  the  treasurer. 

North  Highlands  Company. — Organized  December  6,  1886.  The 
petitioners  for  incorporation  were  John  W.  Johnston,  John  B.  Boddie, 
and  A.  B.  Johnston.  The  purpose  is  to  buy,  sell,  hold,  improve  real 
estate,  and  to  rent  the  same,  and  to  build  on  the  lands  acquired,  when 
expedient  to  further  the  ends  of  the  company. 

Buildings  are  to  include  shops,  mills,  foundries,  furnaces,  and  other 
works,  or  establishments  such  as  may  tend  to  the  development  of  its  prop- 
erty in  and  around  Birmingham.  The  principal  place  of  business  is  to 
be  in  or  near  Birmingham.  The  capital  stock,  $350,000,  is  divided  into 

On  January  10,  1887,  all  the  capital  stock  of  the  corporation  was  sub- 
scribed, payable  partly  in  money  and  partly  in  property,  at  its  money 
value,  named  in  the  subscription. 

The  officers  elected  were  John  W.  Johnston,  President ;  A.  B.  John- 
ston, Secretary  and  Treasurer. 

All  the  subscriptions,  payable  in  money  and  pro])crty,  were  then 
delivered  to  the  treasurer. 

North    Birmingham   Building  Associ.\tion. — Organized    December 
6,  1886,  by  John  W.  Johnston,  A.  B.  Johnston,  John  B.  Boddie. 
Capital  stock,  g  100,000. 

Alabama  Co-operative  Company. — The  general  purpose  is  to  da 
business  as  manufacturers,  money-lenders,  and  borrowers,  and  real  estate 
and  personal  property  owners,  and  to  buy,  own,  sell,  and  deal  generally 
in  such  real  and  personal  estate  and  securities  as  may  be  necessary  to  the 
successful  conduct  of  their  business.  The  capital  stock  is  S  10,000,  divided 
into   100  shares  of  the  par  value,  $100. 

The  following  officers  were  elected  :  Grattan  Britton,  President;  E.  T. 
Cox,  Vice-President;   R.  M.  Brown,  Secretary  and  Treasurer. 

Birmingham  Corrugating  Company. — Incorporated  January  13,  1886,. 
by  Richard  W.  Boland,  W.  T.  Underwood,  VV.  G.  Lunsford,  A.  O. 
Lane,  and  Goldsmith  B.  West. 

The  purpose  is  to  corrugate  iron  and  other  metals  ;  to  stamp,  galvan- 
ize, or  otherwise  manufacture  and  sell  the  products  of  mines  and  furnaces, 
and  to  manufacture  and  sell  mineral  paints.  The  capita!  stock  is$ioo,000- 
of  1,000  shares. 


Birmingham  Investment  Company. — The  object  is  to  invest  a  certain 
amount  of  capital  paid  in  by  each  member  in  such  speculative 
enterprise  as  the  Association  shall,  from  time  to  time,  direct.  Each 
member  pays  into  the  common  fund  $5  per  share  monthly.  The  capital 
stock  consists  of  two  hundred  shares  of  ^100  each,  payable  in  monthly 

Rogers  Printing  Company. — Incorporated  December  29,  1886.  The 
purpose  is  to  carry  on  a  general  publishing,  printing,  and  lithographing 
business;  to  manufacture,  deal  in,  and  bind  blank  books.  The  capital 
stock  is  ;^2S,ooo.  On  January  1  more  than  50  per  cent,  of  the  stock  was 
subscribed,  all  of  which  was  paid  in.  The  officers  are  George  H.  Rogers^ 
General  Manager  and  Treasurer;   Hooper  Harris,  Jr.,  Secretary. 

Ullman  Hardware  Company. — The  object  is  to  engage  in  the  buying 
and  selling  of  hardware  building  material.  The  company  is  composed  of 
a  general  partner,  .Samuel  Ullman,  of  Birmingham,  Ala.,  and  Julius 
Weiss,  of  New  Orleans,  La.,  special  partner.  Each  partner  contributed 
^10,000.  The  partnership  is  to  continue  two  years,  from  November  i, 

The  Watts  Coal  and  Iron  Company. — Incorporated  May  4,  1886, 
by  J.  F.  B.  Jackson,  Blount  Springs,  Ala.  ;  Norman  W.  Smith,  Birming- 
ham, Ala.  ;  Eugene  Morehead,  Durham,  N.  C.  ;  A,  W.  Graham,  Hills- 
boro,  N.  C. 

The  general  purpose  is  to  carry  on  a  mining  and  manufacturing 
business.     The  place  of  business  is  at  Warrior,  Jefferson  County,  Ala. 

The  different  purposes  are  to  mine  and  sell  coal,  to  mine  iron  ore, 
and  other  minerals,  to  manufacture  coke,  and  to  use  and  sell  all  the  above 
articles,  and  to  operate  blast  furnaces  ;  to  own,  sell,  and  construct  turn- 
outs, tramroads  and  trainways,  and  the  right  to  condemn  the  right  of  way 
for  railroads ;  to  own,  sell,  and  hold  and  dispose  of  real  and  personal 

Capital  stock,  $210,000,  to  be  increased  at  the  necessity  of  the 
corporation.  Two  thousand  one  hundred  shares,  at  the  meeting  to 
complete  the  organization  May  6,  1886,  more  than  one-half  of  the  capital 
stock,  were  subscribed,  and  20  per  cent,  placed  in  the  hands  of  the 
treasurer,  and  the  rest  secured  to  be  paid. 


2  74  Jefferson    County. 

The  Birmingham  Paint,  Glass,  and  Wall  Paper  Company. — Incor- 
porated by  John  C.  Hendricks  and  T.  T.  Ashford,  of  Birmingham,  Ala., 
October  28,   1886. 

The  object  is  to  buy,  manufacture,  sell,  own,  and  deal  generally, 
either  wholesale  or  retail,  in  paints,  oils,  glass,  wall  paper,  window  shades, 
picture  frames,  moldings,  sash,  doors,  blinds  of  every  kind  and  descrip- 
tion, and  to  deal  in  personal  and  real  estate  to  such  an  extent  as  will 
further  their  business,  and  to  borrow  and  lend  money  in  carrying  on  the 
business.      Capital  stock,  $10,000,  of  100  shares. 

Birmingham  Insurance  Company. — Organized  April,  1883.  Capital 
stock,  $100,000.  B.  F.  Roden,  President ;  H.  M.  Caldwell,  Vice-Presi- 
dent ;  John  G.  Smith,  Secretary  and  Treasurer. 

The  business  of  the  company  has  been  very  successful. 

Iron  and  Oak  Insurance  Company. — Organized  February,  1886, 
with  capital  of  $200,000,  divided  into  200  shares.  The  name  of  this 
company  is  indicative  of  the  homes  of  its  incorporators,  Birmingham,  the 
Iron  City,  and  Tuscaloosa,  the  Oak  City.  Robert  Jemison  is  President' 
and  John  G.  Smith  Secretary. 

The  company  does  a  general  fire  and  marine  insurance  business,  and 
is  highly  prosperous. 

Roval  Insurance  Company. — Organized  August,  1886,  with  $100,000 
capital,  and  thirty-five  stockholders.  F.  C.  Morehead  is  President ;  F. 
C.  Dunn,  General  Manager.  Outstanding  risks  by  January  i,  1887,  had 
reached  $1,500,000.  The  business  reached  by  it  is  as  far  off  as  Boston, 
New  York,  Philadelphia,  and   Fort   Leavenworth,  and   is  prosperous. 

Land  and  Investment  Agency. — Organized  January  17.  1887,  by 
R.  D.  Peck,  J.  T.  S.  Wade,  and  J.  L.  Ward.  General  purpose  is  to  con- 
duct a  real  estate  agency  and  to  invest  money  for  clients  on  commission. 
The  capital  stock  of  the  corporation  is  $5,000,  divided  into  one  hundred 
shares.  Officers:  R.  D.  Peck,  President;  J.  T.  S.  Wade,  Vice-Presi- 
dent and  Manager. 

Alabama  Asphalt  Mining  and  Land  Company. — Incorporated 
January  6,  1887.  The  company  proposes  to  develop  asphalt,  petroleum, 
coal,  iron,  gold,  silver,  copper,  tin,  zinc,  and  lead,  and  oleaginous 
substances.     The  capital  is  $300,000,  of  3,000  shares.      Charles  L.  Handy 

BirmingJiam.  275 

is  President;  C.  M.  Erwin,  Secretary  and  Treasurer;  D.  T.  Marable, 
General  Manager;  H.  L.  Watlington,  Attorney.  The  whole  amount  of 
the  capital  stock  has  been  paid  to  the  treasurer  of  the  company.  The 
asphalt  branch  of  the  business  is  very  promising. 

Three  Rivers  Coal  .\nd  Iron  Company. — Incorporated  January  7, 
1887,  by  M.  L.  Hershey  and  G.  W.  Ellis,  of  Morris,  Ala.  Principal  place  of 
business  is  to  be  at  or  near  Birmingham.  The  general  purpose  is  to 
engage  in  handling  farming  lands,  timber  lands,  mineral  lands,  and  city  or 
town  lots,  and  other  lands,  timber  rights,  mineral  rights,  natural  gas 
rights,  to  develop  the  same.  Also,  to  erect  furnaces,  mills,  coke  ovens, 
and  all  other  establishments  for  the  purpose  of  the  preservation  and 
reduction  of  wood,  coal,  coke,  pig-iron,  and  all  other  productions  of  ores 
and  minerals;  to  build  railroads,  houses,  towns,  and  waterworks. 

The  capital  stock  is  ;g45,000,  450  shares,  with  the  right  to  increase. 
At  a  meeting  of  those  interested  on  January  6,  1887,  ;?22,6oo  was 
subscribed,  and  more  than  20  per  cent,  has  been  paid  on  the  subscriptions. 
G.   W.  C.   Lomb,   President ;    S.    A.    lillis.   Secretary. 

First  National  Coal  and  Iron  Land  Company. — Incorporated 
January  17,  1887,  by  F.  W.  Miller  and  F.  B.  Clements.  Its  object  is  to 
buy  and  sell  real  estate  and  personal  property  of  all  kinds,  and  also  to 
borrow  and  lend  money,  with  the  right  to  charge  a  commission  for  said 
loans  besides  the  legal  rate  of  interest,  and  a  commission  on  sales  of  real 
estate  and  personal  property,  and  also  to  do  such  other  things,  and  to 
exercise  all  such  other  rights,  as  may  be  necessary  and  convenient  in 
carrying  on  their  business.  The  capital  of  the  company  is  ;^2, 500,000, 
divided  into  25,000  shares. 

Peacock  Coal,  Iron,  and  Improvement  Company. — Incorporated 
January  18,  1887.  The  principal  place  of  business  is  at  Birmingham.  It 
is  the  purpose  of  the  company  to  carry  on  industrial  business ;  to  engage 
in  the  manufacture  of  textile  fabrics,  and  all  articles  of  wood,  stone,  and 
metal ;  to  purchase,  hold,  and  convey  real  estate  and  personal  property, 
and  to  develop  and  improve  the  same. 

The  capital  stock  is  fixed  at  $200,000,  of  2,000  shares.  The  incorpo- 
rators were  B.  A.  Thompson,  J.  C.  Kyle,  and  P.  H.  Moore. 

North  Alabama  Colored  Land  Company. — Organized  January  5, 
1887.     The  nature  of  the  business  is  to  buy  and  sell  real  estate,  to  build, 

276  Jefferson    County. 

rent,  and  lease  houses,  and  to  do  a  general  land  business,  and  to  buy  and 
sell  wood,  and  to  promote  among  the  negroes  the  industries  of  agricul- 
ture, mechanics,  and  the  training  of  skilled  labor. 

The  capital  stock,  $50,000,  is  divided  into  500  shares.  January  15, 
1887,  50  per  cent,  of  the  capital  stock  was  subscribed,  and  20  per  cent, 
was  paid  in  cash.  A.  L.  Scott  was  made  President,  G.  W.  Jones 
Secretary,  and  P.  F.  Clark  Treasurer. 

Birmingham  Abstract  Company. — Incorporated  bj-  H.  F.  DeBar- 
deleben,  W.  P.  Pinckard,  and  D.  A.  Green,  all  of  Birmingham,  Ala.,  on 
October  28,   1886.     The  object   is  to  furnish  abstracts  of  titles. 

The  capital  stock  is  $10,000. 

Alabama  Abstract  Company. — Incorporated  November  2,  1886,  by 
N.  W.  Trimble,  Mobile,  Ala.;  E.  N.  Cullom  and  John  H.  Wallace,  Bir- 
ingham,  Ala.  The  object  is  to  prepare  and  furnish  certificates  and 
abstracts  of  titles. 

The  capital  stock  is  $25,000,  divided  into  250  shares. 

Birmingham  Construction  Company.  — Organized  August  13,  1886, 
by  John  W.  Johnston,  I.  Y.  Sage,  W.  J.    Cameron,  Joseph  F.  Johnston. 

The  capital  stock  is  $50,000,  divided  into  500  shares. 

The  object  is  to  construct  railroads,  tramroads,  poleroads,  turnpikes, 
canals,  and  to  build  other  structures,  and  to  furnish  stone,  brick,  iron, 
and  wood  for  the  same ;  to  operate  quarries,  brickyards,  factories,  saw, 
sash,  and  planing  mills;  to  pave  and  improve  streets  and  sidewalks,  and  to 
furnish  material  for  the  same  ;  to  deal  in  real  estate  necessary  to  the  prose- 
cution of  tlieir  business,  and  to  do  all  other  acts  incident  to  a  construction 

People's  Homestead  Building  and  Loan  Association. — Incorpor- 
ated October  2,  18S6,  by  M.  J.  IVIullane,  Simon  Blach,  Louis  Swarz,  B. 
F.  Oldham,  T.  F.  Thornton,  H.  McGeever,  R.  M.  Hahn,  M.  Clifford, 
August  Schillinger,  Mrs.  L.  H.  Schmidt,  all  of  Birmingham. 

Capital  stock,  $1,500,000,  of  7,500  shares,  consisting  of  three  series — 
A,  B,  and  C,  and  each  series  consisting  of  2,500  shares. 

The  object  is  to  accumulate  a  fund  from  monthly  installments 
on  account  of  subscriptions  to  the  capital  stock,  rentals,  premiums,  and 
interest  on  loans;    the  fund  so  accummulated  to  be  used  for  the  purchase 

Birniinghaiii.  277 

and  sale  of  real  estate,  the  building,  renting,  and  selling  of  homesteads, 
and  the  loaning  of  funds  upon  mortgages  on  real  estate  in  Jefferson 
County,  Ala. 

Central  Trust  Company  of  Alabama. — Incorporated  August  7, 
1886,  by  H.  M.  Caldwell,  John  W.  Johnston,  Joseph  F.  Johnston,  E.  VV. 
Rucker,  T.  B.  Lyons,  all  of  Birmingham,  Ala. 

The  capital  stock  is  $100,000,  in  1,000  shares. 

The  objects  of  the  company  are  the  loaning  of  money  on  real  estate 
security  ;  the  purchase  of  mortgages  ;  the  purchase  and  sale  of  municipal 
bonds,  and  other  securities  and  evidences  of  indebtedness,  and  of  such 
real  and  personal  property  as  may  be  desirable  for  its  use,  or  necessary 
for  the  collection  or  security  of  any  debts  or  claims  owing  to  the  com- 
pany, or  in  which  it  may  have  an  interest ;  the  negotiation  of  loans  ;  the 
acceptance  and  execution  of  such  trusts  as  may  be  committed  to  it,  and 
the  buying  and  selling  on  commission  of  real  and  personal  property. 

Co-operative  Manufacturing  and  Building  Company  of  Birming- 
ham.— Incorporated  in  the  fall  of  1886,  by  J.  J.  Leteworth,  Peter  Gayler, 
C.  H.  Bowling,  M.  A.  Bird,  VV.  J.  Marshall,  all  of  Birmingham. 

Capital  stock,  $10,000,  divided  into  2,000  shares. 

General  purpose  is  to  carry  on  a  manufacturing  and  industrial  business. 

Industrial  Protective  Association  of  Birmingham. — Incorporated 
October  11,  1886,  by  WiUiam  Wright,  R.  M.  Hahn,  S.  White,  Wilson 
Mitchell,  P.  Kinney.  The  object  is  mutual  assistance,  and  the  accumu- 
lation of  a  fund  by  dues,  assessments,  and  contributions  from  its  members, 
from  which  benefits  may  be  paid  to  its  sick  or  disabled  members,  and  upon 
the  death  of  a  member,  the  benefit  may  follow  to  his  family,  or  to  those 
dependent  upon  him,  or  such  person  as  he  may  designate. 

This  association  has  power  and  authority  to  enjoy  succession  for 
twenty  years,  and  to  do  all  such  things  as  are  usually  granted  corporations. 

Birmingham  Land  and  Loan  Association. — Founded  September 
10,  1886.  Officers:  A.  A.  Clisby,  President;  John  S.  Jemison,  Secretary 
and  Treasurer.     Capital  stock,  $50,000. 

This  concern  does  a  general  loan  business  on  real  estate,  and  sells  real 
estate  on  commission.  It  sold,  by  one  transaction,  four  thousand  feet 
on  the  Belt  Railroad  at  the  round  sum  of  $100,000  in  September, 
1886.  In  two  weeks  time  it  sold  for  the  purchasers  the  same  property 
for  $160,000. 

278  Jefferson    County. 

Birmingham  Real  Estate  and  Investment  Company. — Organized 
December  15,  1886,  by  B.  F.  Roden,  W.  H.  Morris,  J.  F.  B.  Jackson, 
W.  D.  McCurdy,  J.  H.  Bankhead,  J.  W.  Moore,  to  buy  and  sell  real 
estate,  stocks,  bonds,  and  to  conduct  an  insurance  and  banking  business, 
to  negotiate  loans  on  real  estate  and  other  securities,  and  to  purchase, 
own,  and  dispose  of  personal  property. 

The  capital  stock,  $100,000,  is  divided  into  1,000  shares,  with  the 
right  to  increase,  as  the  business  of  the  company  may  require.  On 
December  15   all  the  stock  was   taken,  and   10  per  cent,  paid  in   cash. 

The  officers  are  W.  D.  McCurdy,  President;  J.  H.  Bankhead,  Vice- 
President;  J.  W.  Moore,  Secretary  and  Treasurer. 

Birmingham  Land  and  Loan  Company. — Organized  October  2,  1886. 
Capital  stock,  $50,000. 

Colored  Mutual  Investment  Association  of  Birmingham,  Ala. 
Incorporated  March  3,  1886.  The  principal  place  of  business  is  Birming- 
ham. The  purpose  is  to  buy  and  sell  real  estate,  to  build  houses,  and 
establish  homes. 

The  capital  stock  is  $50,000,  divided  into  500  shares.  On  April  9 
50  per  cent,  of  the  capital  stock  was  subscribed,  and  20  per  cent,  of  the 
amount  subscribed  paid  in  cash.  A  board  of  directors  consists  of  W.  S. 
Robinson,  T.  S.  Hazle,  J.  T.  Peterson,  J.  H.  Binford,  T.  W.  Coffee, 
William   Robinson,  Henry  Hall,  C.  M.  Hayward,  and   Jesse  B.  Claxton. 

A  sufficient  number  of  the  corporations  and  manufactories  of  Jef- 
ferson County  have  been  given  to  illustrate  the  general  character  of  all. 
Many  remain  unmentioned  under  the  head  of  such  institutions  because 
in  view  of  their  rapid  increase  they  were  not  organized  or  not  established 
until  after  the  enumeration  given  in  these  pages  had  been  completed. 
The  history  of  some  appears  in  the  biographies  of  their  founders. — The 


The  Birmingham  Gas  and  Illuminating  Company. — Was  incorpor- 
ated in  1878  with  a  capital  stock  of  $20,000,  which  has  been  increased  to 
$100,000.  It  is  believed  that,  with  judicious  management,  the  coal  near 
the  city  is  admirably  suited   to  gas  manufacture. 

The  stock  of  the  company  is  quoted  at  $2.  Thomas  Jeffers  is  Super- 
intendent of  the  company. 

Birmingham.  279 

Church's  Machinery  and  Fine  Tool  Works. — The  capital  stock  of 
this  establishment  is  ;^9,ooo  only,  but  it  is  a  profitable  and  highly  useful 
enterprise.  It  manufactures  drill  presses,  planers,  and  fine  machine  tools. 
It  is  the  only  establishment  of  the  kind  in  the  South.  Markets  are  found 
for  the  products  of  the  works  over  the  South,  generally  in  the  principal 
cities  and  towns.  Only  skilled  labor  is  employed,  and  wages  are  from  $2 
to  $3  per  day.  Negroes  are  not  found  available  for  this  kind  of  employ- 
ment.    Ten  men  are  employed. 

The  most  important  order  filled  was  for  the  Calera  Charcoal  Company 
for  brass  pumps. 

Railroads  are  disposed  to  make  liberal  concessions  to  the  shippers  of 
these  manufactured  goods. 

The  erection  of  this  establishment  has  already  done  much  to  divert 
Birmingham  trade,  in  the  specialties  turned  out  by  it,  from  other  points 
to  itself 

The  Southern  Bridge  Company. — Organized  with  a  capital  stock  of 
1125,000.  Principal  business  is  the  manufacture  of  iron  and  combination  iron 
bridges.  The  market  is  chiefly  confined  to  Alabama,  and  the  patronage 
is  all  the  industry  can  supply. 

The  principal  order  thus  far  is  for  a  bridge  over  the  Coosa  River  at 

As  to  labor,  about  three  fourths  employed  are  native  Southern 
whites.     Negroes,  as  a  class,  will  not  become  skilled  laborers. 

The  railroads  are  exceedingly  liberal  in  respect  to  freight  charges. 

The  officers  are  W.  J.  Cameron,  President;  E.  VV.  Linn,  Secretary 
and  Treasurer. 

The  Birmingham  Agricultural  Implement  Works. — The  capital 
stock  is  ;^5o,ooo.  The  object  is  to  manufacture  implements  for  cotton 

This  important  enterprise  was  set  on  foot  by  W.  H.  Mercer  and  D. 
T.  Marable.     Dr.  J.  D.  S.  Davis  is  President. 

W.  H.  Mercer  invents  many  of  the  implements  here  manufactured. 
A  negro  man,  an  employe,  invented  a  double-foot  plow  which  is  manu- 
factured and  sold  by  these  works.      Wages  here  are  ^i  and  $l  per  diem> 

The  inventor,  Mr.  Mercer,  is  a  South  Carolinan  by  birth. 

The  labor  is  all  Southern  born. 

2  8o  Jefferson    County. 

Birmingham  Iron  Works. — These  works  were  founded  by  men  of 
.Alabama  birth.  John  T.  Hardie,  now  of  New  Orleans,  is  President,  and 
William  Hardie,  of  Birmingham,  is  Secretary  and  Treasurer. 

The  capital  is  $50,000.  The  market  is  chiefly  Jefferson  County  and 
other  parts  of  Alabama.  Birmingham  is  now  a  good  market,  and  is 
increasing  as  such.  The  principal  or  larger  single  contracts  filled  are  the 
piping  and  pumps  entire  for  the  Talladega  Water  Works,  and  the  one 
hundred  and  fifty-horse-povver  Corliss  engine  for  the  Wharton  Flouring 
Mills,  of  Birmingham. 

The  railroads  are  inclined  to  grant  special  terms  to  some  points,  but 
not  to  all.      Wages  range  from  $\  to  $5  per  diem. 

Wharton  Flouring  Mills. — Capital,  $50,000,  all  owned  in  the  city. 

The  products  of  the  mills  are  flour,  meal,  and  bran.  The  principal 
market  for  the  products  is  in  the  city. 

All  labor  employed  is  Southern  born.  Negroes  are  not  to  be  relied 
on  except  for  lower  grades  of  employment.      Wages  are  $\  to  $3.50. 

This  concern  does   not  ship  much  of  its  products. 

It  manufactures  finest  grades  of  flour  from  Tennessee  wheat. 

The  mill  company  propose  to  erect  at  once  an  elevator  adjoining  their 

This  establishment  was  founded  by  W.  G.  Wharton.  G.  C.  Ball  is 
the  President ;  J.  M.  Wharton  is  Secretary  and  Treasurer. 

AvoNDALE  Ice  Factory. — W.  R.  Brown,  President. 

The  Birmingham  Ice  Factory  is  one  of  the  prominent  industries, 
managed  with  energy  and  keeping  pace  with  the  demand  for  its  products. 

Jefferson  Pressed  Brick  Works. — The  capacity  of  the  works  is 
150,000  brick  per  day,  mostly  made  by  negroes,  who,  in  this  occupation, 
receive  $  I  to  $1.25  per  day,  and  are  satisfactory.  The  city  and  county 
afford  a  fine  and  regular  market. 

The  railroads  are  very  encouraging  to  the  business,  reducing  regular 
rates  when  thought  necessary. 

Birmingham  Bridge  and  Bolt  Works. — Founded  May,  1886,  by 
C.  W.  Wood  &  Co.  Capital,  January  i,  1887,  $50,000.  Manufactures 
wrought-iron  and  combination  bridges,  viaducts,  trestle  piers,  girders, 
roofs  and  structural  iron  works,  bridge  and  machine  bolts,  rivets,  screws, 
etc.     This  is  the  pioneer  company  in  this  line  in  Birmingham. 

Binningliani.  281 

This  work  pays  labor  from  30  cents  to  50  cents  per  hour.  Only 
Southern-born  white  labor  in  the  higher  grades  is  employed,  and  the  works 
make  it  an  object  to  employ  it  as  far  as  practicable. 

The  negro  is  used  for  common  grades.  The  superintendent  thinks 
there  can  be  no  possible  future  employment  for  the  negro  as  a  skilled 

In  respect  to  the  difference  between  Northern  labor  and  Southern 
whites,  the  latter  evince  a  natural  aptitude  to  learn  to  take  the  part  of 
skilled  labor  but  they  do  not  possess  "staying  qualities"  so  far  as  dispo- 
sition may  be  concerned.  They  work  for  good  wages  until  they  acquire  a 
round  sum.  They  then  spend  it  and  work  for  more.  Meantime  they  are 
idle  or  half  employed. 

Business  in  this  line  is  fairly  patronized  in  the  city,  and  this  estab- 
lishment has  custom  in  various  parts  of  the  South.  At  this  writing  they 
run  all  day  and  night  to  fill  their  orders. 

The  management  thinks  the  railroads  ought  to  be  more  liberal  than 
they  are  with  their  freight  charges. 

Smith  Sons'  Gin  and  Machine  Company. — This  establishment  was 
founded  November,  1886.  The  capital  stock  is  ^100,000.  The  incor- 
porators are  A.  W.  Smith,  J.  W.  Sloss,  Birmingham  ;  D.  L.  Smith,  Gal- 
veston, Texas ;  E.  Ensley,  Memphis. 

The  character  of  the  enterprise  is  the  manufacture  of  machines  and 
implements,  as  well  as  gins  ;  also,  wood  work.  The  market  is  in  the  sev- 
eral Southern  States.  Wages  are  from  $\  to  ^y^o  per  diem.  Negroes 
cannot  be  relied  on  for  other  than  the  lower  grades. 

"The  railroads  are  liberal  in  their  commissions  to  us,  and  never  dis- 
criminate against  us." 

Alabama  Iron  Works. — Founded  January,  1886.     Capital,  $20,000. 

The  character  of  the  business  is  the  manufacture  of  the  Van  Pelt 
DoubleActing  Force  Pump,  wrought-iron  work,  frogs,  switches,  tram 
■cars,  miners' needles,  iron  fencing,  drills,  etc.,  consuming  one  and  a  half 
tons  of  pig  iron  daily.  The  home  market  and  the  general  markets  of  Ala- 
bama and  Mississippi  patronize  the  establishment. 

Wages  run  from  $\  to  $1  per  diem.  Work  no  negroes,  because  that 
kind  of  labor  cannot  be  relied  on. 

About  one  half  of  the  white  labor  employed  is  native  Southern. 

Southern  white  labor  shows  a  remarkable  aptness  for  acquiring  the 
habits  of  skilled  labor. 

282  Jefferson    Comity. 

Terms  with  railroads  depend  upon  the  degree  of  competition  they 
offer  for  traffic  among  themselves. 

Henry  Behrens  is  President,  Jacob  Schmidt  Superintendent,  and  W. 
W.  Barclay  Secretary  and  Treasurer. 

Southern  Foundry  and  Manufacturing  Company. — Founded 
August,  1886,  by  William  Veitch,  George  Veitch,  Jacob  Schmidt,  and 
W.  Barclay.  The  articles  manufactured  are  all  kinds  of  hoUowware, 
grate  fronts,  sash  weights,  frogs,  crossings,  and  general  foundry  work. 

General  market  is  found  in  the  Southern  States.  The  home  city 
market  and  the  Alabama  market  grow  rapidly. 

Wages  run  from  $\  to  $2.60  per  diem. 

Work  no  negro  labor.  Four-fifths  of  the  white  labor  is  Southern 

Baxter  Stove  Works. — This  mammoth  enterprise  broke  ground 
July  30,  1886.  In  December  following  they  were  turning  out  one  hun- 
dred complete  stoves  per  day,  consisting  of  all  styles  of  heating  and  cook- 
ing. Their  plant  covers  four  acres  of  land.  They  employ  three  hundred 
men,  nearly  all  being  white  men.  They  own  thirteen  acres  of  land, 
bought  for  the  sole  purpose  of  erecting  thereon  cottages  for  their 

The  capital  stock  is  ^200,000.  George  C.  Kelley,  the  President,  is  a 
native  of  Wilmington,  North  Carolina,  and  formerly  a  large  hardware  mer- 
chant of  Birmingham.  The  other  officers  are  W.  H.  Woolbridge,  First  Vice- 
President;  W.  D.  Hill,  Second  Vice-President;  C  W.  Sisson,  Secretary 
and  Treasurer. 

The  company  is  overrun  with  business,  and  doubled  its  large  working 
room  in  less  than  sixty  days  from  the  opening. 

Brewer's  Sash,  Door,  and  Blind  Manufactory. — This  is  a  two- 
story  brick  establishment  located  on  First  avenue,  the  property  of  a  work- 
ingman  doing  a  large  business,  and  is  one  of  the  most  notable  examples 
of  success  gained  from  the  bottom  rung  in  the  ladder  of  fortune  to  be 
found  in  Birmingham.  A  boy,  with  the  suit  of  clothes  he  wore  as  his 
wardrobe  and  $10  cash  capital,  which  he  had  gained  by  working  at  night, 
set  out  into  Montgomery  County  to  become  a  builder  and  contractor.  In 
1871  he  came  to  Birmingham,  and  worked  in  the  building  of  the  Relay 
House.  With  his  savings  he  put  up  a  foot-power  scroll  saw,  and  began 
to  manufacture  fancy  scroll  work.      After  a  time  he  put  up  three  additional 

Birnmighain.  285 

machines,  to  which  he  applied  water  power.  Soon  he  bought  the  Tate 
planing  mill.  The  business  capacity  of  the  present  establishment  is  about 
$100,000  per  annum,  which  is  the  largest  in  its  line  in  Alabama.  The 
owner  possesses  property  in  Birmingham  worth  more  than  $100,000, 
besides  valuable  timber  lands  in  Jefferson  County.  His  manufactory  has 
all  the  custom  its  capacity  can  supply. 

AvoNDALE  Ironworks. — Founded  November  i,  1886,  by  P.  Bourne 
and  F.  P.  Fitzwilliams. 

The  nature  of  this  enterprise  is  the  manufacture  of  warehouse  eleva- 
tors, hoisting  machinery,  and  architectural  iron  works. 

Market  is  found  in  all  parts  of  the  South. 

Wages  paid  are  $1  to  $2.50  per  day.  Keep  only  a  few  negroes  for 
common  work.  Do  not  consider  them  reliable  for  higher  grades  of 
employment.  About  one-half  of  white  labor  employed  is  Southern 
born,  and  the  remainder  Northern  born. 

The  Birmingham  market  takes  up  four-fifths  of  the  product  of  these 
works,  with  tendency  always  upward  in  demand. 

The  railroads  at  Birmingham  are  very  liberal,  more  so  than  at  other 
points  in  the  experience  of  the  same  management.  Indeed,  the  railroad 
rates  comprise  a  very  material  inducement  to  the  location  of  the  business 
of  the  works  at  Birmingham. 

Excelsior  Foundry  and  Machine  Shop. — Founded  May,  1886,  by 
E.  R.  Jones.  Capital,  ^20,000.  Output,  fifty  thousand  pounds  castings, 
machinery,  and  wrought  iron  per  diem.  Market,  as  to  foreign  parts,  in 
Tennessee,  South  Carolina,  and  other  Southern  States. 

About  three-fourths  of  the  labor  employed  are  Southern  born.  The 
management  finds  that,  with  training,  negroes  may  learn  to  become  skilled 
labor.  Wages  run  from  $  I  to  $3  per  day.  Birmingham  is  the  most  liberal 
customer,  and  the  city  custom  increases. 

A  large  order  has  been  filled  forthe  Pioneer  Manufacturing  Company 
of  Jefferson  County,  another  is  being  filled  for  the  Sloss  Furnace  Com- 
pany, and  yet  another  for  the  Glen  Mary  Coal  Company  of  Tennessee. 

The  railroads  make  liberal  terms  for  the  company,  but  sometimes 
there  is  trouble  in  the  transferring  of  cars  from  one  railroad  to  another. 

Avonuale  Stove  Works. — Present  capital,  $40,000.  Founded 
November,   1885,  by  Schoch,  Wood  &  Co. 

Business  is  the  manufacture  of  hollowware,  stoves,  plumbers'  sup- 
plies, and  light  castings  generally. 

Icffcrson    Lonnty. 

Market  in  Birmingham.  There  is  demand  in  \arious  parts  of  the 
South,  but  the  local  city  market  has  consumed  all  the  establishment  can 
turn  out. 

Common  labor  is  paid  ^i  and  skilled  $2  per  day. 

Birmingham  Chain  Work..s. — Founded  September,  i88j,  by  B.  F. 
Roden  and  Oliver  Weiser. 

Present  capital,  ^§30,000.  Manufactures  chains.  Principal  markets 
are  in  the  South. 

Labor  is  paid  ninety  cents  for  common  and  $4  for  skilled.  The  man- 
agement does  not  find  negro  labor  available  except  as  common  labor. 
About  25  per  cent,  is  Southern-born  white  labor. 

Railroads  protect  the  manufacturers  to  a  reasonable  extent. 

Birmingham    Axe    and    Tool    Company. — Incorporated    December, 

1886,  with  a  capital  of  ;^I00,000.  The  incorporators  are  J.  D.  Moore.  B. 
F.  Moore,  W.  A.  Handley,  and  C.  L.  Jeffords.  The  site  is  a  beautiful 
one  just  beyond  the  city  limits,  lying  on  the  Alabama  Great  Southern 

Thompson  Brick  Company. — Organized  December  27,  1886,  by  T. 
C.  Thompson,  J.  C.  Kyle,  J.  B.  Francis,  and  B.  A.  Thompson,  to  manu- 
facture and  sell  brick ;  to  buy  and  sell  real  estate ;  to  build  houses ;  to 
purchase  and  hold  machinery  and  apparatus  necessary  for  the  prosecution 
of  the  business. 

The  capital  stock,  $20,000,  is  divided  into  two  hundred  shares,  with 
the  privilege  of  increasing  to  ^100,000. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  subscribers  on  January  3,  1887,  more  than  50 
per  cent,  of  the  capital  stock  was  subscribed.  Directors  elected  were 
T.  C.  Thompson,  B.  A.  Thompson,  J.  C.  Kyle,  J.  B.  Francis,  W.  A. 
Chenoweth,  J.  A.  Kelly,  and  M.  T.  Richards.  The  officers  are  T.  C. 
Thompson,  President ;  J.  C.  Kyle,  Vice-President ;  H.  L.  Johnson,  Sec- 
retary; B.  A.  Thompson,  Treasurer;  J.  A.  Kelly,  Superintendent. 

AvoNDALE  Lumber  and  Milling  Company. — Organized  January  22, 

1887,  by  W.  C.  Dean,  J.  J.  Edmonson,  both  of  St.  Clair  County,  Ala., 
and  H.  F.  Trammell,  R.  W.  Trammell,  and  Peyton  G.  King.  The  prin- 
cipal place  of  business  is  at  Avondale,  Ala.  The  purpose  is  to  buy,  sell, 
and  deliver  lumber  ;  to  manufacture  any  and  all  wooden  goods,  imple- 
ments and  machinery,  lumber,   doors,    sash,    blinds,    stairways,  office  and 

Birmingha7n.  2<S7 

store  fixtures,  coffins,  building  materials,  and  all  other  things  commonly 
used  and  manufactured  out  of  wood  ;  to  build  houses  of  wood,  brick,  or 
iron  ;  to  buy,  sell,  own,  and  deal  generally  in  real  and  personal  property 
necessary  to  the  successful  prosecution  of  their  business. 

The  capital  stock  is  $30,000,  at  the  par  value  of  $100  per  share.  More 
than  20  per  cent,  of  the  capital  stock  has  been  paid  into  the  hands  of 
the  secretary  and  treasurer. 

Al.akama  Gas,  Fuel,  and  Manufacturing  Company. — Incorporated 
November  30,  1886,  by  Robert  P.  Duncan  and  Robert  Jemison,  both  of 
Birmingham.  Its  principal  business  is  the  manufacture  and  sale  of  the 
Biddison  heater,  or  burner,  and  the  sale  of  State  and  county  rights. 

Capital  stock,  $30,000,  divided  into  300  shares. 

Birmingham  Soap  Works. — Incorporated  September  15,  1886,  by  W. 
R.  Rosser,  T.  C.  Simpson,  C.  H.  Francis,  D.  Drennen,  J.  T.  Wilson,  all 
of  Birmingham,  Ala.  Capital  stock,  $50,000,  with  the  privilege  to  increase 
at  pleasure.     There  are  1,000  shares  of  $50  each. 

The  object  is  to  manufacture  soaps  of  various  kinds,  and  to  soil  the 
same,  and  to  purchase  sufficient  real  estate  for  carrying  on  their  business, 
and  to  own  and  hold  personal  property  to  any  amount. 

The  officers  elected  for  one  year  are  D.  M.  Drennen,  President ;  W. 
N.  Malone,  Vice-President ;   C.  H.  Francis,  Secretary  and  Treasurer. 

Birmingham  Land,  Tanning  .\nd  Manufacturing  Companv. — Incor- 
porated December  30,  1886.  The  general  purpose  is  the  tanning  of  hides, 
skins,  and  finishing  and  dressing  of  leather,  and  the  manufacture  of  the 
same  into  the  various  articles  for  which  leather  is  used.  The  capital  stock 
is  $250,000,  of  2,500  shares. 

The  officers  are  Robert  D.  Smith,  President  ;  Joseph  B.  West,  Vice- 
President  ;  James  Hays,  Secretary  and  Treasurer. 

Sixty  per  cent,  of  the  capital  stock  has  been  paid  into  the  hands  of 
the  treasurer. 

Alabama  W.\gon  and  Carri.age  Company. — Incorporated  January 
13,  1887,  by  C.  B.  Powell,  Helena,  Ark.;  C.  B.  Gordon,  Racine,  Wis.; 
J.  A.  Powell,  luka.  Miss.  The  purpose  is  to  manufacture  wagons,  bug- 
gies, carriages,  and  other  vehicles. 

The  capital  is  Sioo,ooo,  of  1,000  shares,  to  be  increased  at  option. 

2  88  Jeff  CI- son    County. 

Birmingham  Axe  and  Tool  Company. — Incorporated  December  8, 
1886.  The  business  is  to  manufacture  axes,  hatchets,  picks,  hammers, 
bolts,  tools,  wedges,  crowbars,  etc. 

The  officers  are  J.  D.  Moore,  President ;  VV.  A.  Handley,  Vice-Pres- 
ident ;   B.  F.  Moore,  Secretary ;  C.  L.  Jeffords,  Manager. 

The  capital  stock  is  ^100,000,  divided  into  1,000  shares.  The  stock 
was  all  taken  on  December  10. 

Twenty  per  cent,  of  the  capital  stock  was  then  paid  into  the  hands  of 
the  treasurer. 

Birmingham  Machine  and  Foundry  Company. — Incorporated  Jan- 
uary 14,  1887.  It  is  the  purpose  of  the  company  to  manufacture 
machinery,  tools,  implements,  all  kinds  of  railroad  supplies,  and  furnace 
work,  that  can  be  made  of  wood,  wrought  or  cast  iron,  or  other  metals, 
or  of  wood  and  other  metals. 

The  capital  stock  is  ;^ioo,000,  divided  into  1,000  shares. 

The  Birmingham  Brewery. — In  1884  Mr.  Philip  Schillinger,  a  suc- 
cessful brewer,  of  Louisville,  Ky.,  one  of  the  organizers  of  the  Phoenix 
Brewing  Company,  of  that  city,  among  the  most  noted  in  the  South, 
came  to  Birmingham  to  investigate  the  prospect  for  a  similar  enterprise  in 
the  city.  Possessing  many  of  the  superior  characteristics  of  the  steady 
German  race,  he  was  quick  to  perceive  the  many  advantages  offered,  chief 
among  them  the  central  location  and  clear  field.  He  was  quick  to  decide 
upon  his  plans.  In  the  same  year  he  established  the  Birmingham  Brew- 
ery, the  only  one  in  the  State. 

The  buildings  erected  by  him,  between  Avenues  Eand  F  and  Twenty- 
first  and  Twenty-second  streets,  were  thought  to  be  ample  for  years  in 
the  future.  But  the  remarkable  growth  of  the  city,  and  the  popularity 
of  his  product,  made  it  imperative  that  his  works  should  be  enlarged. 
In  the  fall  of  1 886  he  erected  an  additional  35x70  feet,  which  increases 
his  storage  capacity  threefold. 

Mr.  Schillinger  began  business  with  all  of  the  improved  machinery 
necessary,  including  two  Arctic  refrigerators.  By  means  of  this  machinery 
the  cellars  and  storage  vaults  can  be  kept  at  any  degree  of  temperature 
from  freezing  to  more  intense  cold.  He  has  added  new  machinery,  and 
enlarged  from  time  to  time,  until  this  establishment  presents  a  model  of 
its  kind. 

Mr.  Schillinger's  trade  has  steadily  increased.  The  first  year's  sales 
were   about   8,ooo   barrels,   and  for   1886  about    10,000  barrels,   which  is 

Birmingham.  289 

chiefly  sold  in  this  city,  where  he  has  practically  the  entire  trade.  With 
his  present  facilities  and  a  storage  capacity  of  6,000  barrels,  he  intends 
to  extend  his  trade  as  well  as  the  reputation  of  his  product. 

Mr.  Schillinger  is  ably  assisted  in  the  management  and  control  of  his 
business  by  his  three  sons.  August  has  charge  of  the  city  trade  ;  Louis 
is  superintendent,  and  is  a  practical  brewer,  having  learned  his  trade  at  one 
of  the  largest  breweries  in  Cincinnati,  the  Moerlein  Brewing  Compan}' ; 
and  Erwin,  who  superintends  the  bottling  department. 

Notwithstanding  their  recent  enlargements  and  improvements,  they 
propose  to  incorporate,  in  May,  1887,  the  Schillinger  Brewing  Company, 
with  a  capital  stock  of  $100,000,  with  the  following  as  incorporators  and 
officers  :  Philip  Schillinger,  President ;  August  Schillinger,  Treasurer ; 
Louis  Schillinger,  Superintendent  and  Manager,  and  Erwin  Schillinger 

They  will  increase  their  facilities  from  time  to  time,  and  have  already 
ordered  two  new  boilers  and  another  refrigerator  from  Cleveland,  Ohio, 
to  be  delivered  in  the  fall  of  1887. 

Cigar  Manufactories. — There  are  three  cigar  manufactories  in  Bir- 

H.  J.  McCafferty,  established  1884,  employs  five  men. 
B.  F.  Oldham,  established  January,  1886,  with  five  men. 
Seig  &  Surman,  established  March,  1887. 

Birmingham  Silk  Culture  and  Silk  Manufacturing  Company. — 
Organized  in  the  autumn  of  1886,  with  ;?5,ooo  capital. 

W.  A.  Handley  is  President;  C.  C.  Brennan,  Secretary;  William 
Berney,  Treasurer,  all  of  Birmingham. 

Birmingham  Machine  and  Foundry  Company. — In  1881  R.  W. 
Boland  came  to  Birmingham  and  began,  on  a  small  scale,  to  manufacture 
frogs,  switches,  etc.,  for  railroads.  The  business  advanced  rapidly.  He 
moved  from  his  small  shop,  on  First  avenue  and  Fourteenth  street,  to  the 
new  and  large  shops  built  by  himself  on  First  avenue  and  Twenty-ninth 
street,  near  the  Sloss  furnaces,  placed  there  new  and  improved  machinery, 
and  organized  a  company  with  $100,000  capital,  of  which  he  became  Presi- 
dent, to  operate  his  works. 

Edison  Electric  Illuminating  Company. — Incorporated  Novem- 
ber, 1886.  Capital  stock,  $75,000.  The  incorporators  are  William  Shaw 
and  Leigh  Carroll,  of  Birmingham. 

290  Jeffei'so^i    Co2inty. 

Kreble  E^ngine  Manufacturing  Company.— Incorporated  in  the  fall 
of  1886.  The  object  of  this  corporation  is  to  manufacture  an  improved 
engine,  invented  by  Kreble,  of  Birmingham,  Ala. 

The  capital  stock  is  $25,000. 

Birmingham  Iron  Bridge  and  Forge  Company. — Incorporated 
November,   1886.      Capital  stock,  $250,000. 

J.  D.  Moore,  Robert  Jemison,  A.  P.  Sims,  Nashville;  W.  H.  Sellers, 
Ohio;  H.  T.  Welty,  Cleveland,  Ohio;  C.  D.  Reamer,  Oberlin,  Ohio,  and 
Thomas  Hearney,  New  York,  are  the  incorporators. 

The  directors  elected  are  H.  M.  Caldwell,  President;  H.  G.  Welty, 
Vice-President;  C.  E.  Kingseed,  Secretary  and  Treasurer. 

Birmingham  Furn.a,ce  and  Manufacturing  Company. — Incorporated 
December,  1886.      Capital  stock,  $1,500,000. 

The  incorporators  are  Robert  D.  Smith  and  Elwell  Eastman,  of  Bir- 
mingham, Ala.;  Jasper  M.  Thompson,  Robert  Hogsett,  Fuller  Hogsett, 
Frank  Ewing,  of  Uniontown,  Pa. 

This  corporation  has  begun  the  erection  of  two  furnaces  on  the  Ala- 
bama Great  Southern  Road  at  Irondale,  seven  miles  north-east  of  Bir- 
mingham. They  own  several  thousand  acres  of  coal  and  iron-ore  land  in 
the  vicinity. 

Red  Mountain  Mining  and  Manufacturing  Company. — Incor- 
porated November,  1886.     Capital  stock,  $300,000,  all  paid  up. 

The  incorporators  are  John  T.  Milner  and  George  McLaughlin.  The 
object  is  to  build  a  furnace. 

Birmingham  Steam  Laundry. — R.  W.  A.  Wilda  established  the 
Birmingham  Steam  Laundry  on  Avenue  C,  South  Side,  in  November, 
1883.  It  employs  twelve  hands,  and  has  several  thousand  dollars  worth 
of  latest  improved  machinery. 

Enterprise  Manufacturing  Company. — Manufacturers  of  all  kinds 
of  woodwork.  Incorporated  November,  1886.  Capital  stock,  $100,000. 
Stockholders  are  J.  F.  B.  Jackson,  W.  H.  Morris,  W.  A.  Smith,  T.  C. 
Thompson,  B.  F.  Roden,  W.  J.  Cameron,  William  A.  Walker,  Jr.,  J.  P. 
Mudd,  Samuel  L.  Truss,  and  M.  Gilbreath,  of  Columbia,  South  Carolina. 
J.  F.  B.  Jackson,  President.  The  Directors  are  Messrs.  Morris,  Walker, 
Cameron,  Smith,  Roden,  and  Thompson.  Works  located  on  Third  ave- 
nue and  Eighth  street. 

Birmingham.  291 

Caldwell  Printing  Works. — In  a  9x12  oval  vase  in  the  business 
office  of  the  above  firm  is  a  2  x  3  J^  inch  "  Gelding  Official  "  press,  which, 
ten  years  ago,  by  C.  H.  Caldwell,  then  a  boy  of  13,  son  of  Mr.  H.  M. 
Caldwell,  was  the  beginning  of  the  present  large  and  well-equipped  estab- 
lishment known  far  and  near  as  the  Caldwell  Printing  Works.  The  firm 
is  now  composed  of  Messrs.  C.  H.  Caldwell  and  T.  W.  Carpenter,  the 
latter  of  Richmond,  Va. ,  who  became  a  partner  one  year  ago — both  young 
men  of  fine  business  sagacity  and  energy. 

The  large  three-story  brick  building  on  Morris  avenue  is  too  small  for 
their  growing  business,  and  another  story  is  soon  to  be  added. 

The  work — book  and  job  printing,  from  a  leaflet  to  a  book  of  a  thou- 
sand pages,  and  from  a  small  label  to  a  many-sheet  poster,  and  blank-book 
making  and  binding  of  the  finest  description — turned  out  by  this  house, 
has  gained  for  it,  and  Birmingham  also,  an  enviable  notoriety  in  this  line 
of  business. 

Their  material  is  all  of  the  very  best  makes,  combining  the  latest 
modern  improvements — their  ten  presses,  three  cylinders,  one  Universal, 
and  six  improved  Gordons,  a  28-horse-power  Ball  engine,  wood  and  metal 
type  of  the  newest  faces,  their  stereotyping  apparatus,  and  the  bindery 
filled  with  all  the  latest  appliances  known  to  the  trade,  their  stockroom  a 
veritable  paper  warehouse,  all  attest  the  rare  tact  and  business  qualifica- 
tions of  these  young  men  in  seeing  and  providing  for  the  present  and 
future  needs  of  the  Magic  City.  A  more  honorable  example  than  this 
cannot  be  found  for  illustrating  the  enterprise  of  young  men  of  family 
wealth  who  have  determined  to  make  fortunes  on  their  own  resources  in 
the  channel  of  hard  work. 

The  Printing  Department  is  presided  over  by  Mr.  J.  D.  McClintock, 
and  the  Bindery  by  Mr.  Charles  R.  Patterson. 

Mineral  Water  Manufacturers. — There  are  two  manufactories  of 
carbonated  water  in  this  city,  both  supplied  with  the  latest  improved 

Davis  &  Herbert  estabhshed  the  first  in  order  in  1884,  on  Avenue  G 
and  Eighteenth  street.  Their  successors  are  Davis  &  Worcester,  on 
Avenue  C  and  Twenty-second  street.  They  are  young  men  of  enterprise 
and  tact. 

A.  F.  Hochstadter  established  a  similar  business  in  1885  on  Third 
avenue,  between  Eighteenth  and  Nineteenth  streets.  He  has  entered 
upon  a  very  successful  trade,  based  on  the  quality  of  his  goods. 


292  Jefferson    Coimty. 


Groceries.  — The  wholesale  business  was  initiated  in  Birmingham  by 
James  A.  Allen  &  Co.  m  1876,  in  the  grocery  line.  The  firm  consisted 
of  James  A.  Allen,  John  C.  Henley,  and  W.  L.  Scott.  The  volume  of 
business  for  several  successive  years  was  about  $100,000.  In  1880  it  had 
increased  to  $150,000.  In  1883  the  firm  became  Allen,  Scott  &  Sherrod. 
In  1885  F.  O.  Sherrod  retired  to  open  in  the  same  line  on  his  own 
account.  The  firm  of  Allen,  Scott  &  Co.  now  occupy  a  large  three-story 
house,  built  and  owned  by  themselves.  James  A.  Allen  has  retired  from 
active  business,  but  retains  an  interest  in  the  capital  of  the  firm.  His  son 
is  now  one  of  the  partners,  and  the  business  is  in  a  very  prosperous  condi- 

F.  O.  Sherrod  was  prostrated  by  disease  soon  after  opening  a 
hopeful  and  successful  business  in  the  wholesale  grocery  line.  After  a 
year's  attempt  to  conduct  it,  from  a  sick  bed,  he  sold  out. 

T.  L.  Hudgins  established  a  wholesale  grocery  business  in  1877,  and 
in  1878  sold  it  to  J.  M.  Maxwell  &  Co. 

J.  M.  Maxwell  and  J.  A.  Van  Hoose,  both  of  Tuscaloosa,  opened 
trade  in  the  fall  of  1878.  In  twelve  months  they  had  done  a  volume  of 
business  of  $200,000. 

In  1 88 1  the  firm  of  Maxwell  &  Co.  was  succeeded  by  McLester  & 
Van  Hoose.  The  business  of  this  pioneer  concern  so  increased  that  in 
1885  they  moved  into  a  large  brick  storehouse  by  the  railroad  track, 
bordering  Morris  avenue,  and  their  progress  has  been  steady  aad  uninter- 

In  1882  the  house  of  Wimberly,  Malone  &  Co.  opened  trade. 
In  1885  C.  S.  Simmons  established  himself.     The  same  year  Clisby, 
Wigginton  &  Co.  entered  the  business,  and  in    1886  sold  out  to   E.  C. 
Mackey,  who  does  a  large  and  increasing  business. 

In  1886  Wimberly,  Malone  &  Co.  became  Adler,  Malone  &  Co. 
The  wholesale  grocery  trade  of   1886  of  the  city  of   Birmingham 
reached  §3,000,000,  with  a  steady  tendency  to  advance. 
The  brokerage  business  in  the  grocery  trade  is  active. 

Hardivare. — The  wholesale  hardware  trade  of  Birmingham  is  very 
prosperous,  and  rapidly  increasing. 

Thompson,  Francis  &  Chenowith  do  about  $150,000  per  year,  and  in 
the    winter   of  1886-87  their   business  was  increased  fully  40  per  cent. 

Birynmghmn.  293 

Moore,  Moore  &  Handley  are  probably  the  largest  house.  They 
have  done  a  business  averaging  $1,000  per  day  for  much  of  the  winter 
season  of  18S6-87. 

The  Towers  Hardware  Company,  successors  to  George  C.  Kelley, 
does  a  volume  of  business  of  about  5150,000  per  year. 

Chenowith,  Estes  &  Horan  do  about  $75,000  per  year  in  stoves,  tin- 
ware, etc. 

The  Ullman  Hardware  Company  does  about  $60,000  per  year,  with 
steady  increase. 

H.  T.  Beggs  &  Sons,  established  1871.  They  make  stoves,  archi- 
tectural iron-work,  mining  machinery,  and  general  foundry  and  machine 
work.  Their  capital  stock  is  $100,000.  They  employ  thirty  to  sixty 
men,  an  average,  perhaps,  of  thirty.  Their  best  market  is  Birmingham, 
and  this  patronizes  them  liberally.  They  ship  also  to  New  Orleans, 
various  points  in  Florida,  Mississippi,  and  the  country  nearer  Birmingham, 
and  throughout  other  portions  of  Alabama.  Wages  run  from  $2.50  to  $3 
per  day.  Negroes  cannot  be  worked  at  all  in  the  skilled  work  of  this 

The  Baxter  Stove  Works  manufacture  and  sell  one  hundred  stoves 
per  diem,  and  will  increase  their  business. 

Wholesale  Miscellanies.  — The  wholesale  fruit  business  is  rapidly 
advancing,  as  is  the  wholesale  clothing  business.  The  increasing  well- 
paid  wage  class  in  the  city  and  in  the  extended  and  extending  provincial 
towns  create  a  demand. 

In  the  wholesale  fruit  and  produce  line  are  Higdon  &  McCary,  W.  C. 
Hill,  and  S.  W.  Emmons.      All  are  successful  and  enlarging  their  trade. 

James  B.  Hopkins  &  Co.,  wholesale  tin,  opened  June  i,  1886.  Their 
trade  from  that  time  up  to  January  i,  1887,  was  $30,000.  Seventy-five 
per  cent,  of  their  business  is  wholesale. 

The  Wallis-Duggan  Tobacco  Company. — This  company  was  estab- 
lished 1886.  Business  per  year  is  $50,000.  They  carry  all  kinds  of 
tobaccos  and  cigars.     Their  business  is  increasing  rapidly. 

Harralson  Bros.  &  Co. ,  tobacco,  cigars,  snuff,  and  pipes.  Established 
in  Birmingham  in  September,  1886.     Trade  has  been  successful. 

E.  Oppenheimer  &  Co.  opened  November  10,  1886.  Percentage  of 
increase,  100.  They  carry  tobacco,  cigars,  liquors,  and  wines.  This  is  a 
branch  house  of  the  well-known  firm,  L.  Oppenheimer  &  Sons,  distillers, 
of  Louisville. 

294  Jefferson    County. 

H.  W.  Perry  &  Co.  opened  business  October  i,  1883,  on  Twentieth 
street,  between  First  and  Morris  avenues.  They  are  wholesale  dealers  in 
tobacco  and  cigars.  Volume  of  trade,  $150,000.  The  rate  of  increase  so 
far  has  been  about  50  per  cent,  per  year. 

Milner  &  Kettig. — The  importance  of  manufacturing  enterprises  to  the 
natural  growth  and  prosperity  of  great  cities  is  apparent  to  all  observers 
of  commercial  progress.  Situated  in  the  heart  of  boundless  fields  of  coal 
and  iron,  Birmingham  seems  destined  to  be  one  of  the  greatest  manufac- 
turing centers  of  the  country.  But  manufacturing,  to  be  carried  on 
successfully,  must  have  a  base  of  supplies,  as  a  near  depository  of  these  is 
of  the  most  vital  importance. 

In  looking  over  the  list  of  enterprises  in  Birmingham,  we  feel  that  we 
may  well  mention  here  some  of  the  typical  merchants  who  are  rapidly 
marshaling  the  city  into  one  of  the  greatest  trade  markets  of  the  South. 
By  indomitable  energy  and  superior  business  sagacity,  the  firm  of  Milner 
&  Kettig  has  succeeded  in  building  up  the  largest  manufacturers'  and 
miners'  supply  business  in  the  South.  The  manufacturers  of  Birmingham 
and  of  the  South  need  no  longer  look  toward  the  North  and  East  for  their 
supplies,  but  can  find  at  home  as  large  a  stock  of  machinery,  mill  and 
mining  supplies,  pumps,  pipe,  and  fittings  as  are  contained  under  one  roof 
south  of  Cincinnati.  Everything  needed  by  the  mining  operator  to 
develop  and  open  his  mines  can  be  found  here  at  prices  that  defy  competi- 
tion. It  is  here,  also,  that  the  furnaces,  mills,  factories,  etc.,  can  find  all 
the  supplies  necessary  to  carry  on  their  business.  The  firm  is  also  largely 
engaged  in  the  plumbing,  steam,  and  gas-fitting  business,  employing  the 
best  talent  obtainable  for  this  special  department,  and  doing  all  this  work 
on  a  scientific  plan,  using  the  best  sanitary  appliances.  The  people  of 
Birmingham  have  not  been  slow  in  attesting  their  appreciation,  which  can 
be  seen  by  the  immense  amount  of  work  and  contracts  this  firm  have  con- 
stantly on  hand.  To  keep  their  customers  posted  on  the  ever-increasing 
variety  and  volume  of  their  business,  the  firm  has  just  published  and 
issued,  at  much  expense,  a  neatly-bound  and  excellently-arranged  book, 
showing  all  the  goods  they  handle,  illustrated  for  the  convenience  of  their 
customers.  This  is  the  first  illustrated  catalogue  issued  by  a  Southern 
house.     They  also  send  out  a  monthly  price  list. 

Having  the  interest  of  the  city  at  heart  this  house  has  several  times 
been  instrumental  in  starting  younger  manufacturers  into  business  by 
giving  them  substantial  aid.  Their  trade  extends  from  Tennessee  to  the 
Gulf,  and  from  the  Carolinas  far  into  the  West.  This  house  is  not  a 
vendor  only.      It  has  lately   established   the   Milner  &   Kettig   Iron   and 

Birmiftgham.  295 

Brass  Manufacturing  Company,  which  promises  to  become  one  of  the 
leading  industries  of  the  South.  Mr.  Kettig  is  Secretary  and  Treasurer 
of  the  company. 

Harris  Bros.,  wholesale  paints,  oils,  glassware,  paper,  moldings,  etc., 
opened  April  9,  188 1.  Situated  on  Twenty-first  street,  between  First  and 
Second  avenues.  Volume  of  trade  for  1886  was  ^30,000,  is  increasing 
rapidly,  and  will  more  than  double  in  1887. 

Nabers  &  Morrow  commenced  the  wholesale  drug  business  in  March, 
1885.  The  business  has  grown  very  rapidly.  The  volume  of  trade  for 
1886  was  ;g  1 20,000. 

Shaw  &  Davin,  wholesale  engines,  boilers,  pumps,  cotton  presses, 
cotton  gins,  saw  mills,  corn  mills,  pulleys,  shafting,  hangers,  journal 
boxes,  brass  goods,  belting,  pipe  and  fittings,  machinists'  and  railway 
supplies,  opened  business  May  i,  1886.  Business  has  been  very  satisfac- 
tory. From  that  time  in  1886  to  January  i,  1887,  the  volume  of  trade 
amounted  to  $90,000.  The  percentage  of  increase  over  the  first  month's 
business  is  about  75.  The  fact  of  being  situated  on  Morris  avenue,  and 
immediately  on  the  railroad,  has  facilitated  business  in  no  small  degree, 
and  has  greatly  increased  their  sales,  on  account  of  quick  delivery,  having 
a  most  favorable  position. 

The  wholesale  trade  of  Birmingham  increases  rapidly  as  transporta- 
tion lines  reach  out  from  the  city  farther  into  the  country,  and  as  new 
industries  rise  in  the  suburbs.  It  will  increase  lOO  per  cent,  in  1887. 
Retail  dealers  often  have  a  wholesale  department  connected  with  their 

The  Birmingham  Cotton  and  Produce  Exchange  is  a  branch  of  the 
City  Cotton  and  Produce  Exchange  of  Atlanta,  Ga.  Mr.  S.  H.  Phelan, 
of  Atlanta,  who  is  a  member  of  the  New  York  Cotton  Exchange,  and  of 
the  Chicago  Board  of  Trade,  is  proprietor  of  both  Exchanges,  but  the 
former  is  under  the  personal  management  of  Captain  John  Phelan. 

The  Birmingham  office  was  opened  January  i,  1886,  and  for  the  first 
year  had  a  most  gratifying  and  successful  career.  This  is  alike  an  indorse- 
ment of  its  management  by  citizens  of  Birmingham,  and  a  credit  to  the 
business  activity  of  the  city.  There  are  few  institutions  of  any  kind  which 
for  the  first  year  can  show  up  so  well. 

The  advantage  of  such  an  ofifice  to  the  merchants  of  the  city  cannot 
well  be  estimated.  It  affords  the  quickest  and  most  reliable  means  to  the 
merchant  of  keeping  accurately  up  with  the  tone  of  the  market  in  other 
important  centers.  They  have  not  been  slow  to  avail  themselves  of  this 
privilege,  and  many  of  them  have  profited  by  it. 

296  Jefferso7i   County. 

To  those  who  are  investors  from  day  to  day  this  office  holds  out  the 
most  complete  means  of  knowing  when  and  how  to  invest.  There  are 
neatly  arranged  blackboards,  upon  which  are  given  every  few  minutes  the 
quotations,  so  that  no  one  can  complain  of  imperfect  facilities. 

The  rooms  in  which  the  business  is  conducted  are  arranged  with 
special  reference  to  the  needs  of  those  desiring  to  transact  business  there. 
They  are  handsome,  well-appointed  and  equipped  in  every  sense  to  meet 
all  demands  that  may  be  made. 

The  officers  connected  with  the  Exchange  are  polite  and  affable,  and 
ready  at  all  times  to  extend  every  aid  to  those  who  wish  to  try  fortune, 
either  in  the  stock,  grain,  cotton,  or  meat  markets. 

Judging  the  coming  year  by  the  past,  one  cannot  but  suppose  that 
1887  will  be  the  most  successful  part  of  its  career. 


The  rapid  and  extensive  growth  of  the  street  railways  of  Birmingham 
is  one  of  the  remarkable  incidents  of  its  career.  The  city  has  already  as 
many  lines  of  this  description  of  public  carriage  as  would  be  considered 
liberal  in  one  of  one  hundred  thousand  inhabitants.  The  explanation  can 
only  be  found  in  the  prosperity  of  the  working  people  and  general  class 
of  employes  who  are  able  to  pay  five-cent  fares. 

The  Birmingham  Street  Railway  Company. — Was  incorporated  in 
1879  with  a  capital  stock  of  $40,000.  They  now  have  five  miles  of  track 
in  daily  use,  and  are  preparing  to  increase  the  track  laying.  This  company 
originally  obtained  from  the  city  a  monopoly  of  street-railway  privileges 
on  a  large  number  of  streets.  After  some  years  a  new  company,  the 
"Birmingham  and  Pratt  Mines,"  came  forward  with  a  petition  to  the  city 
to  grant  it  right  of  way  along  some  of  the  streets  heretofore  exclusively 
allowed  to  the  Birmingham  Railway  Company.  The  city  administration 
reconsidered  its  action  and  allowed  the  new  concern  the  same  privileges 
with  the  other.  This  course  brought  about  tedious  litigation,  which  was 
finally  dismissed  by  the  decree  of  the  State  Supreme  Court,  which  sustained 
the  action  of  the  city  in  rescinding  the  monopoly  originally  granted  to  the 
first  company.  The  streets  had  been  given  by  the  Elyton  Land  Company 
in  perpetual  trust  to  the  city  for  the  benefit  of  the  public.  The  city  gov- 
ernment had  no  rights  over  them  except  police   rights.      If  two  or  more 

Birmiyighani.  299 

lines  of  railway  might  be  laid  without  detriment  to  the  public  good  on 
any  one  or  more  streets,  then  the  city  government  could  not  grant  a 
monopoly  to  one  line. 

The  fare  on  the  Birmingham  Street  Railway  Company's  lines  is  five 

The  stock  of  the  company  is  quoted  at  $2. 

The  first  president  of  the  company  was  B.  F.  Roden,  a  large  grocery 
merchant  and  investor  in  the  city.  The  present  president  is  W.  H.  Mor- 
ris, who  came  to  the  city  a  young  man,  became  mayor,  and  has  made  a 
fortune  on  his  energies  and  good  judgment  only. 

The  Birmingham  Street  Railway  Company  was  the  pioneer  in  this 
line,  and  began  to  run  its  first  cars  from  the  western  end  of  First  avenue 
to  Avondale,  a  distance  of  about  three  miles,  in  the  spring  of  1885. 
After  this  line  had  greatly  extended  its  tracks  in  different  parts  of  the  city, 
and  after  the  Birmingham  and  Pratt  Mines  street  railway  had  built  and  put 
in  operation  about  seven  miles  of  track,  the  two  companies  united  under 
one  management,  of  which  J.  A.  Van  Hoose  is  President. 

HighlaJid  Avenue  Dummy  Line  Railway. — The  original  purpose  of  the 
projector,  the  Elyton  Land  Company,  was  to  build  a  drive  for  vehicles 
along  the  base  of  the  southern  range  of  mountains  confining  the  city. 
This  purpose  matured  into  the  railway  as  an  inevitable  sequence  of 
the  good  judgment  of  President  Caldwell  in  originating  the  plan  for 
the  drive. 

The  line  skirts  the  base  of  the  mountains,  meandering  along  the  val- 
ley the  whole  length.  Reaching  Lakeview  Park,  it  runs  on  a  shorter 
route  across  the  valley  into  the  heart  of  the  city,  terminating  at  the  Opera 
House,  corner  of  First  avenue  and  Nineteenth  street. 

There  was  a  protracted  contest,  before  the  courts,  by  the  projection  of 
this  road,  with  the  Birmingham  Street  Railway  Company,  involving 
right  of  way  over  ground  in  the  city  claimed  by  the  latter.  This  question 
being  settled,  to  the  satisfaction  of  all  concerned,  the  completion  of  the 
Highland  Avenue  road  was  pushed  forward  with  rapidity. 

There  are  four  motors  on  the  line  running  constantly,  yet  the  tra\'el  is 
even  greater  than  these  can  well  accommodate.  It  far  exceeds  the  expec- 
tations of  the  company  owning  the  property.  The  rails  are  steel,  coke  is 
used  for  fuel,  and  entire  immunity  from  accident  to  life  or  limb  has,  thus 
far,  prevailed  in  the  operation  of  it. 

The  object  of  this  road  was  to  open  to  settlement  some  fifteen  hun- 
dred acres  of  land  owned  along  its  route  by  the  Elyton  Land  Company. 

300  fefferson    Coiuity. 

In  this  it  has  been   exceedingly  successful.      Many    beautiful    residences 
crown  the  elevations  along  the  line  from  first  to  last. 

Belt  Railroad. — The  object  of  this  line  is  to  distribute  heavy  freights, 
by  the  car  load,  brought  into  the  city  by  the  various  trunk  lines  of  road, 
and  from  the  home  manufactories  to  these  roads.  Warehouses  and  ele- 
vators are  expected  to  be  built  at  convenient  places  along  the  line,  as  a 
part  of  the  benefit  it  will  confer.  The  length  of  the  main  line  is  twelve 
miles,  but  radii  in  various  directions  will  run  out  to  accommodate  public 
demand.  The  average  cost  per  mile,  single  track,  will  be  about  ;$io,ooo, 
but  much  of  the  bed  will  carry  double  track. 

All  of  the  leading  iivdustries  will  be  connected,  by  its  I'adii,  with  each 
other,  and  with  the  trunk  lines.  Its  value  to  the  growth  of  the  town 
must  be  incalculable. 

Passenger  cars,  drawn  by  dummy  engines,  will  be  run  over  the  line. 

The  Belt  road  is  the  property  of  the  Elyton  Land  Company.  It  is 
expected  to  incorporate  the  two  lines  of  railroad  belonging  to  this  great 
corporation,  the  Belt  and  the  Highland  Avenue,  into  one  concern  and  give 
it  separate  management. 

Birtningham  &  Jones  Valley  Railroad. — Suburban  street  railroad 
extension  is  opening  up  to  settlement  a  wide  territory  adjacent  to  the  city 
of  Birmingham.  The  line  we  here  describe  is  eight  miles  long,  pene- 
trating a  region  of  unsurpassed  healthfulness,  with  abundance  of  the 
purest  water  and  shade. 

The  capital  stock  is  ^60,000.  The  incorporators  are  John  T.  Hefflin, 
Samuel  Green,  C.  C.  Brenneman,  Robert  Warnock,  Birmingham  ;  T.  G. 
Bush,  Mobile ;   P.  Resing,  Lancaster,  Ohio. 

The  line  begins  in  the  center  of  the  city  and  runs  to  Ensley  City. 
Ultimately  it  will  proceed  to   Bessemer.     Steam  motors  will  be  used. 

East  Lake  Djintniy  Line. — This  line  was  organized  as  a  stock  company 
June,  1886.  It  is  intended  to  promote  the  interest  of  the  East  Lake  Land 
Company  by  connecting  their  property  with  the  heart  of  the  city.  The 
direct  line  is  eight  miles  long.  All  of  the  most  modern  approved 
appliances  will  be  used  to  operate  this  line.  It  will  be  built  of  steel  rails, 
and  will  be  heavy  enough  to  carry  loaded  freight  cars. 

Western  Valley  Street  Railroad. — Capital  stock  is  ^50,000.  The 
object  of  this  line  is  to  connect  the  property  of  the  North  Birmingham 
Land  Company  with  the  center  of  the  city.     It  will  be  four  miles  long. 

Birmingha7!i.  301 

East  Biniiingkam  Duniniy  Line. — This  line  will  connect  the  center  of 
the  city  with  East  Birmingham,  and  the  track  is  now  being  laid. 

Demcre  Transfer  Company. — Incorporated  October,  1886.  Capital 
stock  is  $15,000.  Incorporators  are  William  Berney,  B.  F.  Moore,  F.  L. 
Demere,  A.  J.  Camp,  Walter  Moore,  and  W.  M.  Bethea,  all  of  Birming- 

Other  transportation  lines  to  use  steam  motors  have  been  incorpora- 
ted and  will  be  built  in  1887. 


Knights  of  Pythias,  Jefferson  Valley  Lodge,  No.  11. — This  lodge  was 
organized  April,  1874,  with  eleven  members.  It  now  carries  one  hundred 
and  eighteen  on  its  rolls.  Its  standing,  financially  and  in  other  respects, 
has  always  been  first-class.  Every  duty  of  the  order  has  been  met  faith- 
fully, and  all  legitimate  claims  have  been  promptly  paid.  The  benevolent 
feature  of  the  organization  has  been  prominent.  It  maintains  an  insur- 
ance department,  and  the  policies  range  from  $1,000  to  $3,000.  In  the 
five  years  of  the  operation  of  this  department  about  $15,000  have  been 
paid  by  it.  The  taking  out  of  a  policy  is  entirely  optional  with  members. 
"Sick  benefits,"  which  include  accidents,  of  all  kinds,  to  persons,  area 
common  enjoyment  with  all  members  in  good  standing.  Sick  benefits  are 
paid  direct  from  the  treasury  of  the  local  lodge,  but  the  insurance  policies 
are  paid  from  the  treasury  of  the  Supreme  Lodge  of  the  World.  These 
pass  through  the  Indianapolis  office. 

Cyrene  Coinuiandety,  No.  lO,  Knights  Templar. — Organized  March  14, 
1874,  opened  April  28  following,  for  dispatch  of  business. 

The  dispensation  issued  from  the  Commandery  of  the  State  of  Ala- 
bama in  conclave  at  Montgomery. 

The  commandery  is  now  prosperous  and  steadily  increasing  its  mem- 

The  companions  in  attendance  at  the  organization  were  Sir  Knights 
J.  B.  Luckie,  E.  C;  James  M.  Ware,  Generalissimo;  Thomas  Jeffers, 
Captain  General;  F.  P.  O'Brien,  Yx^idX^  pro  tern.;  George  M.  McLaugh- 
lin, Senior  Warden;  W.  L.  Gude,  Junior  Warden /w /?;«.;  Stephen  W. 
Dupuy,  Treasurer  pro  tern.;  Julius  L.  Lockwood,  Recorder  pro  tetn. 

The  present  officers  of  the  commandery  are  Charles  Wheelock, 
Eminent  Commander ;   Silas  Hine,  Generalissimo ;    H.  J.   Falls,  Captain 

302  Jefferson   County. 

General;  Thomas  Jeffers,  Treasurer;  George  McLaughlin,  Senior  Warden  ; 
William  A.  Jones,  Recorder;  George  T.  Alexander,  Sword  Bearer;  R. 
M.  Cunningham,  Standard  Bearer ;   Eli  Mullens,  Captain  of  the  Guard. 

The  Eminent  Commanders  have  been  in  order  as  follows :  Sir  Knight 
J.  B.  Luckie,  W.  L.  Gude,  F.  L.  Wadsworth,  J.  L.  Lockwood,  and  the 
present  incumbent,  Charles  Wheelock. 

Binmngham  Fraternal  Lodge,  No.  384,  Free  ajid  Accepted  Masons. — 
Established  December,  1871,  by  Charter  Members  Henry  Horton,  A. 
Marre,  John  A.  Milner,  and  Julius  L.  Lockwood.  Organized  with  seven 
members.  Present  membership  is  one  hundred  and  sixty,  and  the  lodge 
is  hopeful  and  flourishing.  It  is,  perhaps,  doing  more  work  than  any 
other  lodge  in  the  State. 

Henry  Horton  was  the  first  Master,  and  Dr.  George  M.  Morrow  is 
now  Master,  in  his  fourth  year. 

December,  1885,  Dr.  Morrow  was  appointed  Grand  Junior  Deacon 
of  the  State  Lodge,  and  in  December,  1886,  was  elected  Junior  Grand 
Warden  of  the  same. 

The  following  are  the  present  officers  of  the  lodge :  James  McDon- 
ald, Senior  Warden ;  George  S.  Moore,  Junior  Warden;  William  Hood, 
Treasurer ;  James  M.  Peteet,  Secretary ;  William  Jones,  Senior  Deacon  ; 
Eli  Mullins,  Tyler. 

Mr.  Mullins  has  been  Tyler  since  the  organization  of  this  lodge,  and 
is  also  Tyler  for  all  the  lodges. 

Binmngham  Encampt?ient,  No.  21,  /.  0.  0.  F. — E.  Erswell,  District 
Deputy  Grand  Patriarch.  Officers :  W.  H.  Herrick,  Chief  Patriarch  ;  E. 
Erswell,  High  Priest ;  L  R.  Hochstadter,  Senior  Warden  ;  G.  R.  Ward, 
Scribe;  B.  Wellman,  Treasurer ;  M.  Murphy,  Junior  Warden.  Member- 
ship seventeen,  and  prosperous,  holding  city  and  county  bonds. 

Mineral  City  Lodge,  No.  74. — Organized  November  8,  1872,  by  Dis- 
trict Deputy  Grand  Master  E.  P.  Jones. 

Charter  members :  C.  F.  Enslen,  F.  A.  Duval,  B.  F.  Williams,  D. 
A.  Johnston,  and  Jacob  Faber. 

Meetings  are  held  weekly,  in  rooms  over  First  National  Bank.  Present 
officers  are :  W.  A.  Turner,  Noble  Grand ;  B.  L.  Hibbard,  Vice  Grand  ; 
G.  R.  Ward,  Secretary  ;   E.  Erswell,  Treasurer. 

Membership  is  sixty-eight,  and  the  lodge  is  in  a  highly  prosperous 

Bii'minghani.  303-. 

Finance  Committee :  C.  P.  Williamson,  W.  T.  Underwood,  and  G. 
R.  Ward. 

Knights  of  Honor,  Golden  Rule  Lodge,  No.  963. — Organized  March  19, 
1878,  and  reorganized  in  1880.  This  organization  is  in  a  highly  prosper- 
ous condition.  The  order  numbers  seventy-three.  Only  three  members 
have  been  lost  since  organization,  and  these  by  death,  viz:  W.  L.  Scott, 
F.  L.  Wadsworth,  and  J.  F.  Smith. 

The  work  of  this  organization  in  charities  has  been  active.  Each 
member  is  required  to  carry  an  insurance  on  his  life  for  the  specific  sum- 
of  $2,QOO.  There  are  also  "sick  benefits"  for  the  common  benefit  of 
members  who  suffer  from  accidents. 

The  present  officers  are :  W.  H.  Herrick,  Dictator;  George  R.  Ward, 
Vice  Dictator;  S.  D.  Cole,  Assistant  Dictator ;  J.  B.  Simpson,  Reporter; 
J.  B.  Alford,  Financial  Reporter;  George  T.  Hill,  Treasurer;  Harry 
Atkins,  Guide;  T.  H.  Holt,  Chaplain;  D.  R.  Dunlap,  Guardian;  G.  W. 
Morefield,  Sentinel. 

This  lodge  was  organized  with  twelve  members  only,  viz:  J.  L. 
Lockwood,  James  M.  Ware,  James  E.  Hawkins,  J.  P.  Buggett,  R.  S. 
Montgomery,  F.  P.  O'Brien,  Frank  Wadsworth,  John  Creel,  J.  B.  Luckie, 
Ellis  Phelan,  Joseph  R.  Smith,  Jr.,  and  George  W.  Allen. 

Evening  Star  Lodge,  No.  i  lOO,  Knights  and  Ladies  of  Honor. — This  has 
been  a  very  prosperous  lodge.  It  was  organized  by  Mrs.  Sally  A.  Daw- 
son, starting  with  fifty  members,  in  1885.  Mrs.  Dawson  was  soon  taken 
ill  and  never  returned  to  her  place.  Harry  E.  English  was  made  Secre- 
tary, and  O.  C.  Frazer  Protector. 

In  a  few  months  from  the  date  of  organization  the  members  admitted, 
and  ready  for  admittance,  justified  an  additional  lodge.  Mr.  English,  the 
Secretary,  therefore,  withdrew  to  organize  the  Iron  City  Lodge,  No.  1146, 
in  April,  1886.  He  became  Secretary  of  the  new  lodge,  and  F.  M.  Irion- 
Protector.     Mr.  William  Workman  took  his  resigned  position. 

The  combined  membership  is  three  hundred  and  fifty.  The  death 
claims  paid  aggregated  $7,000  in  the  first  eighteen  months  of  the  life  of  the 
two  lodges. 

Each  lodge  has  a  room  of  its  own,  and  there  is  a  weekly  meeting  of 

United  Charities. — This  organization  is  non-sectarian.  A  meeting  of 
citizens  was  called  in  January,  1884,  at   the  First   Methodist    Episcopal 

304  Jefferson   Coimty. 

Church,  South.  The  attendance  was  large,  and  the  work  of  the  society 
began  at  once. 

Mrs.  J.  F.  Smith  was  elected  President;  Mrs.  A.  O.  Lane,  Vice- 
President,  and  John  G.  Smith,  Secretary.  At  the  next  election  of  officers 
Mrs.  John  C.  Morrow  was  made  President;  the  other  officers  remaining 
the  same  except  that  Mrs.  R.  H.  Sterrett  was  added. 

A  reorganization  was  effected  in  January,  1886.  Mrs.  W.  J.  Pierce 
was  elected  President;  Mrs.  J.  C.  Henley,  Vice-President;  Mrs.  Samuel 
J.  UUman,  Second  Vice-President;  Mrs.  L.  L.  Scott,  Secretary,  and  Mr. 
John  G.  Smith,  Treasurer.  There  was  a  board  of  directors  which  was  com- 
posed as  follows :  Mrs.  W.  T.  Underwood,  Protestant  Episcopal ;  Mrs. 
J.  C.  Dozier,  Methodist ;  Mrs.  William  Berney,  Presbyterian ;  Mrs.  J.  R. 
Hochstadter,  Jewish  Congregation ;  Mrs.  Charles  Whelan,  Roman  Catho- 
lic; Mrs.  J.  P.  Tillman,  Christian  Church;  Mrs.  VV.  C.  Denson,  Cumber- 
land Presbyterian ;  Mrs.  John  W.  Johnston,  Baptist. 

In  October  following,  a  reelection  of  officers  was  ordered.  Mrs.  Pierce, 
the  President,  was  reelected  but  declined  to  serve.  Mrs.  L.  L.  Scott, 
thereupon  became  her  successor.  Mrs.  T.  O.  Smith  was  elected  Secre- 
tary.    The  other  officers  were  retained. 

This  most  efficient  and  timely  organization  is  entirely  the  work  of  the 
ladies  of  Birmingham.  Their  ultimate  object  was  the  erection  of  a 
charity  hospital.  Meanwhile  they  have  been  active  in  the  administration 
of  practical  relief  to  the  needy.  Thus  far  Birmingham  has  been  remark- 
ably exempt  from  suffering  poor. 

The  scheme  for  the  erection  of  the  hospital  has  taken  shape.  A 
board  of  incorporators  has  taken  the  subject  up,  and  some  of  the  most 
prosperous  business  men  comprise  it.  Robert  Jemison,  William  Berney, 
E.  W.  Linn,  John  G.  Smith,  Samuel  J.  Ullman,  J.  T.  Nixon,  R.  W. 
Boland,  and  Dr.  Bryce  Hughes,  are  their  names.  In  connection  with  the 
efforts  of  these  gentlemen  there  is  a  board  of  control  composed  of  the 
following  ladies:  Mesdames  W.  T.  Underwood,  W.  J.  Pierce,  I.  Y.  Sage, 
J.  C.  Henley,  L.  L.  Scott,  Samuel  J.  Ullman,  C.  E.  Slade,  T.  D.  Smith, 
and  J.  W.  Johnston.     The  subscriptions  now  assure  its  completion. 

Young  Men  s  Christian  Association. — In  August,  1884,  five  young  men 
of  Birmingham  met  together,  in  the  bedroom  of  one  of  their  number,  and 
agreed  to  form  a  Young  Men's  Christian  Association,  and  set  to  work  to 
secure  members.  In  a  few  weeks  the  organization  was  perfected  by  the 
election  of  the  following  Board  of  Managers:  F.  S.  Wilson,  G.  W.  Nor- 
wood, Win.  T.  Wilson,  L.  M.  Barclift,  Charles  A.  Merrill,  J.  H.  Mohns, 

Birmingham.  305 

W.  W.  Barclay,  J.  H.  Lee,  S.  B.  Johnston,  Sinclair  Bennie,  F.  P.  Fos- 
ter, W.  K.  Simpson,  and  C.  C.  Steward. 

The  association  first  occupied  a  room  at  No.  19O9  Second  avenue, 
jointly  with  the  Christian  Church,  which  had  just  organized.  Soon  they 
increased  the  number  of  their  meetings  and  fitted  up  a  reading  room. 
Their  efforts  met  with  encouragement  from  the  best  citizens,  and  a  work 
for  young  men,  by  young  men,  was  successfully  inaugurated.  Beside 
holding  meetings  in  their  own  rooms,  the  young  men  initiated  services  at 
the  city  and  county  jails  on  Sundays,  which  still  continue  an  interesting 
feature  of  their  work. 

On  the  first  of  November,  1885,  they  rented  four  rooms  in  Roden's 
Block,  two  of  which  were  converted  into  a  beautiful  little  hall  and  another 
into  a  reading  room,  and  an  effort  made  to  provide  all  that  is  called  for  by 
a  Young  Men's  Christian  Association,  moral  instruction,  intellectual  cul- 
ture, social  amusement,  physical  development,  and  spiritual  welfare. 
These  rooms  continue  the  attractive  resort  of  young  men,  and  are 
open  to  all  from  8  a.  m.  to  10  p.  m.  Charles  A.  Merrill  was  the  first  Gen- 
eral Secretary.  W.  O.  Marble,  Jr.,  served  a  short  term,  and  he  was  fol- 
lowed by  Mr.  W.  W.  Barclay,  who  held  that  responsible  position  until 
near  the  close  of  the  second  year.  The  election  at  that  time  resulted  in 
the  selection  of  the  following  Board,  who  are  now  in  office :  James  A. 
Stratton,  J.  H.  Mohns,  R.  M.  Holman,  T.  B.  Alford,  B.  W.  Eddy,  W. 
K.  Simpson,  H.  W.  Barkhau,  J.  L.  Loftis,  S.  B.  Johnston,  R.  R.  Brown, 
Charles  A.  Merrill,  Dr.  W.  E.  B.  Davis,  and  W.  W.  Barclay  ;  General 
Secretary,  W.  G.  Chamberlin. 

The  second  anniversary  meeting  was  held  in  O'Brien's  Opera  House 
on  the  evening  of  November  28,  1886.  The  attendance  was  very  large, 
and  impressive  addresses  were  made,  and  the  third  year's  work  began 
with  renewed  vigor. 

November,  1886,  they  published  the  first  volume  of  a  monthly  maga- 
zine, which  is  "  devoted  to  the  best  interests  of  the  young  men  of  Ala- 
bama." The  publishing  committee  is  J.  A.  Stratton,  W.  E.  B.  Davis, 
and  B.  W.  Eddy.  It  is  a  neat  and  attractive  pamphlet,  and  destined  to 
do  good  work  for  the  association. 

Binnvigkam  Press  Club. — One  of  Birmingham's  most  notable  and 
important  local  organizations  is  the  Press  Club,  an  association  composed 
of  the  leading  newspaper  men  in  the  city.  This  club  was  organized  Jan- 
uary I,  1887,  and  its  birth  celebrated  with  a  grand  press  banquet,  served 
at  Gasser's.     The  officers  of  the  club  are:  J.  L.  Watkins,  editor  of  the 

3o6  Jeffei'son   Cojinty. 

Age,  President ;  George  W.  Cruikshank,  editor  of  the  Chronicle,  Vice- 
President;  J.  D.  Ponder,  city  editor  of  the  Chronicle,  Secretary;  W.  L. 
Hawley,  city  editor  of  the  Age,  Treasurer;  F.  C.  Morehead,  R.  H. 
Watkins,  C.  M.  Hayes,  Goldsmith,  Barnard,  West,  Directors. 

The  club  has  twenty-three  members,  and  is  in  a  flourishing  condition. 

Women's  Cliristiaii  Temperance  Union. — In  the  autumn  of  1884  Mrs. 
Sally  F.  Chapin,  of  Charleston,  South  Carolina,  reached  Birmingham  in 
her  course  of  a  general  canvass  of  the  Southern  States  in  the  interest  of 
temperance  reform.  She  was  superintendent  of  the  Southern  depart- 
ment of  the  national  temperance  movement  known  under  this  name. 
Mrs.  Chapin  succeeded  in  organizing  a  branch  of  the  Union  here,  con- 
sisting of  twenty-three  members  to  start  on.  The  number  soon  grew 
threefold.  The  work  of  the  organization  in  Birmingham  is  to  disseminate 
temperance  literature,  promote  temperance  meetings  and  lectures,  and 
excite  general  inquiry  into  the  consequences  of  intemperance.  The 
organization  is  active  and  untiring  in  its  work,  but  never  offends  those 
opposed  to  its  principles  by  precipitate  or  unreasonable  measures. 

The  original  organization  was  made  with  Mrs.  George  L.  Thomas, 
President ;  Mrs.  Godden,  Mrs.  Pierce,  Mrs.  Ross,  Mrs.  Dozier,  Vice- 
Presidents ;  Mrs.  J.  P.  Tillman,  Corresponding  Secretary;  Mrs.  Robert 
Jemison,  Recording  Secretary,  and  Mrs.  E.  M.  Prine,  Treasurer. 

Superintendents  have  systematized  the  work  of  this  branch  of  the 
Union  with  much  enthusiasm.  Committees  have  the  press,  the  Sabbath 
school,  scientific  instruction,  and  other  themes  for  elaboration  and  enforce- 
ment.     Wholesome  influences  already  appear  from  its  efforts. 

The  present  organization  retains  the  original  officers,  except  that  Mrs. 
Rose  has  moved  away.  Mrs.  W.  H.  Jeffries  has  been  made  Recording 
Secretary,  Mrs.  C.  B.  Spencer  Vice-President,  and  Mrs.  J.  P.  Tillman 
Corresponding  Secretary.  The  State  Convention  of  the  Union  was  held 
in  Birmingham  in  1885. 

Yard  Masters'  Mutual  Benefit  Association. — This  is  a  branch  of  the 
national  association,  with  headquarters  at  Indianapolis,  Indiana.  The 
object  is  to  insure  members  against  death  and  accidents.  The  association 
•discountenances  strikes.  Its  influence  is  acknowledged  by  the  railroads  as 
in  the  interest  of  peace  and  conservatism. 

There  are  now  sixteen  members  in  the  Birmingham  branch,  which 
was  organized  April,  1885,  with  only  eight  charter  members.  J.  L. 
Welch  is  President. 

Birmingham.  307 

The  annual  assessment  of  members  is  $2.  The  sum  derived  is 
divided,  a  part  going  to  pay  current  expenses,  the  surplusage  standing  sub- 
ject to  meet  insurance  risks.  Insurance  is  limited  to  $1,000.  All  finan- 
cial transactions  are  conducted  by  the  home  office  at  Indianapolis. 

Order  of  Railway  Conductors,  Division  No.  186. — Organized  Sep- 
tember 20,  1885.  This  is  a  select  body  of  railroad  men  organized  for  pro- 
tection, in  a  general  way,  of  its  members.  The  division  is  very  pros- 
perous, numbering  at  present  thirty-seven  men.  The  number  is  thus 
small  because  the  passenger-train  conductors  are  members  of  divisions 
located  at  the  termini  of  their  runs,  whereas  Birmingham  is  on  middle 

The  charter  members  on  organization  were  C.  F.  Shumate,  John  T. 
Alexander,  H.  J.  Crenshaw,  J.  M.  Tuck,  R.  G.  De  TreviUe,  Charles 
Flanders,  W.  D.  Hester,  S.  L.  Lineberry,  C.  E.  Triggs,  D.  F.  Hood,  T. 
A.  Cole,  T.  J.  Howell. 

The  present  officers  are  :  John  T.  Alexander,  Chief;  J.  M.  Tuck, 
Assistant ;  E.  T.  Cox,  Secretary  and  Treasurer  ;  J.  B.  Read,  Senior  Con- 
ductor ;   Henry  Le  Roy,  Junior  Conductor. 

There  is  an  optional  insurance  feature.  The  policy  is  arbitrarily  fixed 
at  $2, 500,  neither  more  nor  less.  The  members  are  all  assessed  to  pay  the 
mortuary  dues  of  the  division.  Dues  are  paid  at  the  general  office  in 
Chicago.  Sickness  or  accidents  not  producing  death  are  such  cases  as  fall 
under  the  local  management  and  care  of  the  division.  Widows  and 
orphans  are  also  attended  to  by  the  local  authority. 

Phanix  Lodge,  Knights  of  Pythias,  No.  25. — This  Lodge  was  moved 
to  Birmingham  from  Oxmoor,  where  it  had  been  organized  under  the 
name  of  Shade's  Valley  Lodge.  The  object  of  the  organization  is  to 
furnish  optional  insurance  and  sick  benefits  to  its  members.  The  insurance 
policies  run  from  one  thousand  to  three  thousand  dollars. 

The  Alabama  Club. — Was  established  by  eight  gentlemen,  originally 
as  the  Shakespeare  Club,  April  4,  1884.  The  club  was  organized  by 
Joseph  A.  Shakespeare,  Mayor,  at  that  time,  of  New  Orleans  (and  for 
him  it  was  named) ;  John  T.  Hardie,  a  prominent  capitalist  of  New 
Orleans;  J.  M.  Lewis,  of  Talladega;  Joseph  F.  Johnston,  President  of 
the  Alabama  National  Bank;  James  Spence,  E.  W.  Rucker,  Bernard  Pey- 
ton, and  T.  B.  Lyons,  of  Birmingham.  T.  B.  Lyons  was  made  President, 
and  has  filled  the  office  ever  since.     James  Spence  is  Secretary. 

5o8  JcJ]erson   Coimty. 

The  membership  at  present  is  about  one  hundred  and  fifty,  and  could 
readily  be  extended  to  five  hundred.  No  unpleasant  occurrences  have 
marred  its  history. 

The  name  was  changed,  in  July,  to  the  Alabama  Club.  The  change 
was  made  more  for  the  purpose  of  expressing  the  enlarged  influence  it 
had  attained,  and  the  suggestion  to  make  it  came  from  Mr.  Shakespeare 

A  clubhouse  has  been  built  for  them  by  the  Elyton  Land  Company 
at  Lakeview.  They  have  the  gratuitous  use  of  it  as  long  as  they  wish. 
This  house  is  used  as  their  summer  quarters.  The  club  has  contracted 
for  a  handsome  building,  five  stories  high,  now  being  built  for  them  on 
Twenty-first  street,  between  Second  and  Third  avenues.  When  done  it 
will  be  one  of  the  handsomest  buildings  in  Birmingham. 

The  German  Society. — The  name  indicates  that  this  is  an  organization 
of  Germans  resident  in  Birmingham.  The  organization  was  made  in  1884, 
and  in  1886  there  were  seventy  members.  The  original  object  of  the  asso- 
ciation was  to  cultivate  the  science  of  music  and  art  among  the  members. 
The  population,  of  the  German  nationality,  so  increased  in  the  city  that  the 
society  petitioned  the  public  school  authorities  to  teach  their  native  tongue. 
It  was  agreed  that  if  the  city  would  pay  half  the  salary  of  the  professor 
engaged  to  give  the  instruction  the  society  would  make  up  the  other  half. 
The  new  branch  of  study  soon  proved  so  attractive  that  the  city  assumed 
the  whole  expense  of  instruction  in  it. 

The  officers  of  the  society  arranged  an  imposing  Mardi  Gras  display 
at  the  celebration  of  its  anniversary  in  1886,  which  paraded  the  streets 
to  the  delight  of  the  city. 

E.  Lesser  is  President;  H.  Pearl,  Vice-President;  Paul  Sieg,  Secre- 
tary, and  C.  T.  Rambow,  Treasurer. 

Grand  Army  of  the  Republic,  George  A.  Custer  Post,  No.  49. — Organ- 
ized, with  thirteen  members,  December,  1885,  by  Colonel  E.  S.  Jones, 
Department  Commander  of  Nashville.  Officers  installed  were  E.  N. 
Edmonds,  Commander;  W.  H.  Hunter,  S.  V.  C.  ;  S.  H.  Morgan,  J.  V. 
C. ;  F.  G.  Sheppard,  Adjutant;  W.  M.  St.  Clair,  O.  M.  ;  A.  J.  Silas, 

Knights  of  Labor,  District  Assembly  No.  173. — Organized  October 
16,  1886,  comprising  twelve  assemblies.  C.  H.  Bowling,  D.  R.  .S.  Box 
No.  407. 

Birmiiighani.  309 

Labor  Assembly,  No.  5,009,  was  organized  Decembers,  1885.  Labor 
Assemblies,  Nos.  5,337,  8,058,  8,059,  8,758,  8,334,  and  9,331  have  been 
organized  since,  and  also  three  others  not  yet  numbered.  A  State  Assem- 
bly was  recently  formed  in  this  city  that  has  jurisdiction  over  the  order 
throughout  the  entire  State. 

The  order  is  gaining  in  members,  and  has  at  its  head  men  of  sound 
discernment  and  good  standing  in  the  community  in  which  they  live. 
They  have  a  local  organ. 

There  have  been  no  serious  disputes  between  the  order  and  capital, 
now  unadjusted,  except  in  the  Iron  Age  Publishing  Company  and  the 
Eureka  Furnace  Company.  Non-Union  men  are  employed  by  these  cor- 
porations. The  order  has  taken  no  political  course  as  yet,  but  supported 
a  candidate  for  mayor  of  Birmingham  at  the  election  of  1886,  who  was 


O'Briefts  Opera  House. — Was  commenced  in  May,  1882,  and  the 
following  November  was  opened  to  the  public.  The  building  covers  a 
space  of  100  X  140  feet,  and  89  feet  high,  and  is  well  stocked  with 
scenery,  etc.  The  seating  capacity  is  about  1,200.  Mr.  O'Brien  will, 
during  the  year  1887,  enlarge  the  capacity,  and  refurnish  the  house. 

The  proprietor  and  manager  is  consistent  in  his  efforts  to  command 
the  best  patronage  by  supplying  the  best  plays  of  good  companies.  He 
is  very  liberal  in  allowing  the  use  of  his  handsome  house  for  public  conve- 
niences as  occasions  arise. 

The  Casino. — This  establishment  is  well  conducted  by  its  proprietor, 
Mr.  J.  M.  Caldwell.  It  is  a  brick  building,  and  the  interior  is  arranged 
conveniently  to  seat,  perhaps,  1,600  people.  The  seats  are  classed,  and 
paid  for  accordingly. 

Academy  of  Music. — To  be  built  in  the  summer  of  1887. 

Tlte  Caldivell  Hotel  Company. — Incorporated  February,  1886.  This 
corporation  undertook  to  build  the  earliest  first-class  hotel  for  Birmingham. 
The  plan  of  the  building  is  si.x  stories,  of  a  very  chaste  and  attractive 
architecture.  It  rests  on  an  elevation  commanding  a  wide  view.  Tl  tre 
will  be  an  observatory  on   the  tower   of  the   building.     The  architect   is 

3IO  Jefferson   County. 

Edouard  Sidel,  a  resident  of  the  city.  Dr.  H.  M.  Caldwell  subscribed  the 
lot,  on  which  his  handsome  residence  then  stood,  for  the  site.  He  is  also 
the  largest  individual  stockholder,  and  is  President  of  the  company. 
Joseph  F.  Johnston,  President  of  the  State  National  Bank,  is  Secretary 
and  Treasurer. 

The  incorporators  were  H.  M.  Caldwell,  John  W.  Johnston,  A.  B. 
Johnston,  Joseph  F.  Johnston,  William  A.  Walker,  Jr.,  E.  W.  Rucker, 
Willis  J.  Milner,  and  John  B.  Boddie,  all  of  Birmingham. 

Among  other  good  hotels  are  the  Florence,  Richards,  Wilson,  Metro- 
politan, Commercial,  Morris  Avenue,  Belmont,  Brunswick,  First  Avenue, 
and  Oswald.  Mr.  F.  P.  O'Brien  will  build  one  adjoining  his  Opera  House, 
and  a  corporation  will  build  another  in  the  summer  of  1887. 


The  bench  anb  bar.. 


\l/     Q     rnM<^<d     Though  not,  by  right  of  nativity,  an  Alabamian,  the  subject  of 

'   y'    I    y  '    this  sketch,  from  infancy  to  the'grave, lived  and  prospered  in  this 

world's  honors  and  its  goods  in  Jefferson  County. 

Born  in  Kentucky  in  1816,  he  came  to  Alabama  in  1817  and  gathered  his  first  intui- 
tions in  the  beautiful  border  land  of  North  Alabama,  in  Madison  and  Lawrence 

Little  is  known  of  his  early  instruction  in  Jefferson,  where  he  received  his  aca- 
demic education,  but  some  of  his  old  schoolmates  still  surviving  remember  him  as  a 
quiet,  resolute,  discreet,  and  brave  boy,  neither  very  social  nor  yet  repulsive  in  his 
manners ;  always  modest  and  yet  ambitious  ;  just  the  kind  of  boy  to  possess  a  magnet- 
ism over  his  fellows  and  to  keep  on  a  little  higher  plane  than  they.  These  character- 
istics were  prominent  in  his  whole  career,  showing  themselves  in  the  old  man  with 
greater  distinctness  than  when,  in  the  noon  of  his  vigor,  they  were  kept  in  abeyance 
by  stronger  passions  and  more  urgent  thoughts. 

The  education  of  the  young  man  at  college  was  in  harmony  with  his  natural  incli- 
nations. It  was  gained  upon  the  medium  ground  between  the  puritanic  and  the  chiv- 
alric.  It  was  encompassed  by  the  golden  mean  of  discreet  conservatism.  This  was 
the  path  into  which  he  was  led  and  kept  while  in  the  classic  walls  of  St.  Joseph's  Col- 
lege, Bardstown,  Ky. 

In  that  day  and  time  it  was  not  easy  for  a  young,  ambitious,  and  brilliant  man, 
with  no  special  religious  bias,  to  escape  personal  difficulties  and  encounters.  But, 
though  notedly  brave  and  chivalrio,  his  walk  was  held  with  such  shrewd  discretion,  in 
his  chosen  path  of  peace,  that  strife  and  bitterness  seemed  to  keep  afar  off  from  him. 

3 1  2  Jefferson   County. 

Kentucky  has  furnished  Alabama  some  noted  men,  among  the  number  the  two 
Baylors,  both  men  of  culture  and  high  intellect— if  not  the  gift  of  genius.  In  the  office 
of  W.  K.  Baylor,  Esq.,  young  Mudd  received  his  first  lessons  in  the  lore  of  law  books. 
Doubtless  the  teacher  has  more  to  do  with  character  building  than  we  are  apt  to 
imagine,  and  if  he  be  a  man  of  strong  will  and  magnetism,  the  young  under  his  tuition 
being  of  the  plastic  kind,  will  receive  impressions  which  mature  into  habits  as  lasting 
as  life.  Young  Mudd's  opening  career  showed  the  hand  of  the  master.  If  the  line  of 
Wadsworth  be  true,  that 

'•  The  child  is  father  to  the  mau." 

we  are  enabled  by  having  a  knowledge  of  the  boy  to  infer  the  history  of  the  man's 
whole  life.  We  have  here  known  the  man,  and  by  reasoning  backward 
we  have  here  learned  the  boy.  He  was  well  taught  from  earliest  manhood. 
At  the  age  of  twenty-three  we  find  him  in  our  legislative  halls,  by  the  side  of  Jere 
Clemens,  of  Madison,  and  L.  P.  Walker,  of  Lawrence,  and  W.  L.  Yancey,  of  Coosa, 
together  with  a  brilliant  galaxy  of  young  "  solons,"  many  of  whom  became,  in 
after  years,  great  in  the  forum  and  field — jurists,  lawyers,  soldiers,  and  literati.  From 
this  early  stage,  on  to  the  close  of  his  life,  honors  of  one  kind  or  other  awaited  him. 
For  three  terms  he  sat  in  the  legislature,  and  by  his  wisdom  and  legal  acumen  was  in 
the  front  rank  of  those  who  shaped  the  destinies  of  our  people.  Stepping  from  the 
legislative  hall  he  took  the  State  solicitorship,  with  its  arduous  responsibilities.  From 
the  solicitorship  he  stepped  into  the  circuit  judgship.  From  the  bench,  which  he 
held  through  many  popular  elections  for  near  thirty  years  with  undiminished  confi- 
dence, the  strong  arm  of  death  only  removed  him.  No  Alabamian  ever  pursued  more 
remarkable  a  career  than  Judge  Mudd  From  earliest  manhood  popular  and  admired, 
till  the  last  flickering  of  life's  spark,  he  retained  his  hold  on  the  affection  of  the  masses 
and  the  respect  and  admiration  of  our  most  distinguished  citizens. 

His  name  is  now  a  household  word  in  Jefferson,  Walker,  Marion,  Blount,  and  other 
counties,  where  the  people's  differences  for  so  long  were  tried  before  him.  His  memory 
is  part  of  the  history  of  these  hill  country  people.  His  individuality  was  of  so  marked 
a  character  that  it  amounted  almost  to  genius.  So  eminently  practical  and  just  were 
his  motives  that  it  was  a  habit  with  him  to  sit  apparently  idle,  in  the  deepest  musing 
for  hours,  analyzing  the  cases  that  were  to  be  tried  at  his  tribunal,  researching  for  the 
bottom  principle  of  the  matter  in  dispute,  delving  down  beneath  the  cloak  of  legal 
technicalities  and  prying  into  the  heart  of  it  for  the  silent  equities  hidden  beneath. 
He  loved  justice!  A  few  weeks  before  his  death  he  said  to  the  writer  of  this  sketch  : 
"  The  judgship  is  a  thorny  honor.  I  have  often  been  in  perfect  anguish  when  cases 
of  great  crime  came  before  me.  Night  after  night  I  have  read  and  studied  the  evi- 
dence for  and  against  the  prisoner,  and  have  always  dreaded  lest  I  might  cause  the 
destruction  of  an  innocent  person.  In  trials  of  the  rights  of  property  1  have  studied 
hard  the  best  authorities  for  weeks  and  months,  and  yet  when  the  case  had  come  up 
for  judgment  I  have  found  my  mind  and  heart  deeply  pained  and  in  a  struggle  of 
doubt  when  I  saw  the  legal  triumphing  over  the  equitable,  and  I,  the  judge,  irresolute 
as  to  how  I  should  decide.  No  case,  however  insignificant,  has  ever  been  set  aside  by 
me  without  giving  it  a  fair  chance." 

Conscientiousness  and  magnanimity  are  twin  brothers.  No  heart  can  be  but  good 
that  loves  justice.  Judge  Mudd's  bitterest  enemy  had  no  just  cause  to  fear  unfairness 
at  his  hands  when  arraigned  before  him  in  the  court-room,  and  this  spirit  of  magna- 
nimity and  equity,  of  loving  kindness  and  charity  was  the  corner-stone  of  that  splendid 
temple  of  the  people's  confidence,  which  the  storuis  of  opposition  and  the  cankering, 

Biographical.  3 1 3 

sapping  current  of  near  forty  years  vicissitudes  of  the  public  service  could  not  over- 
throw. It  was  founded  not  on  the  sands  of  popular  applause,  but  rather  on  the  rock 
of  justice. 

Judge  Mudd  ijas  eminently  a  business  man.  Unlike  other  great  lawyers  he  did 
not  neglect  his  own  affairs  while  immersed  in  those  of  other  men.  For  many  years  he 
was  a  prosperous  merchant,  and  accumulated  a  good  round  fortune  in  the  mercantile 
pursuit,  with  J.  B.  Earle  as  partner.  W.  S.  Brown  and  William  Hood,  two  of  Bir- 
mingham's now  most  progressive,  active  and  live  merchants,  were  among  their  clerks, 
and  received  their  business  education  and  tutelage  under  his  direction. 

To  him  is  due  much  of  Birmingham's  material  development.  In  the  early  life  of 
the  city  he  was  a  shrewd  and  potent  factor.  To  him  the  city  owes  the  credit  of  build- 
ing her  first  public  inn,  the  Florence  House,  worthy  the  name  of  hotel.  In  this  act  he 
illustrated  his  abiding  faith  in  the  Magic  City,  where  he  had  ventured  much  of  his  life's 
hard-won  earnings.  When  the  fate  of  the  Magic  City  was  still  trembling  in  the  bal- 
ance, and  other  much  richer  men  than  he  would  not  venture  even  in  a  stock  company 
upon  such  a  cloudy  sea,  he  boldly  cast  the  die  of  his  own  fortune.  The  success  of  the 
venture  confirms  not  only  his  foresight  but  also  his  practical  common  sense. 

Judge  Mudd  married,  in  early  life,  Miss  Florence  Earle,  a  descendant  of  the  family  \/^ 
of  Earles,  who  were  pioneers  in  Jeffer.son  County  settlement.  They  reared  a  large 
family.  Their  imposing  residence,  resting  on  a  wooded  knoll  in  the  valley  on  the 
skirts  of  Elyton,  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  of  Southern  homes.  A  happy  domestic 
life,  where  sons  grew  to  manhood  in  the  nurture  of  honorable  example  and  sound  pre- 
cept, and  where  daughters,  "  polished  like  the  pillars  of  the  temple,"  spread  joy, 
reigned  there.  The  children  now  living  all  reside  in  Birmingham.  They  are  Mrs.  Dr. 
M.  H.  Jordan,  Mrs.  William  A.  Walker,  Jr.,  J.  P.  Mudd,  a  leading  man  of  business, 
and  a  maiden.  Miss  S.  E.  Mudd. 

Judge  Mudd  departed  this  life  September  22,  1884.  He  was  a  communicant  in  the 
Episcopal  Church.  His  remains  were  interred  in  the  family  lot  at  Elyton  by  the  side 
of  his  wife.  The  demonstrations  of  public  grief  on  the  occasion  were  becoming  to  the 
deep  and  sincere  hold  he  held  on  the  public  affections. 

Lines  on  the  Death  of  Judge  W.  S.  Mudd. 
Another  watchworn  sentinel 

Has  fallen  from  his  post, 
Where  through  long  years  he  guarded  well, 

Himself  and  Right  a  host. 

A  brave,  good  man,  who  dared  to  do 

What  he  thought  right  and  best, 
He  passed  each  dread  ordeal  through 

With  honor  on  his  crest. 

Unbought  by  bribing  friend  or  foe, 

Unswerved  by  frown  or  smile, 
To  justice  pledged,  for  weal  or  woe, 

He  nursed  and  wrought  no  guile. 

With  all  the  prophet's  hate  of  wrong. 

The  prophet's  love  of  right, 
Without  the  prophet's  gift  of  song. 

He  glimpsed  his  rare  foresight. 

3 1 4  Jefferson   County. 

Albeit  unsmit  of  genius'  gift, 

Like  inspiration  rose 
His  sphynx  of  common  sense,  and  swift 

Brought  argument  to  its^close, 

"  Mens  sibi  conscia  recti  "  was 
The  legend  of  his  life; 
It  bound  his  heart  like  triple  brass 
Alike  in  peace  and  strife. 

And  now  he  sleeps  ;  each  pain,  each  ache 

Of  heart  and  brain  no  more  ; 
But  faithful  mem'ry  keeps  awake 

His  precious  ashes  o'er. 

We  mourn  him — not  as  one  in  bloom 

Of  usefulness  returned — 
His  work  half  done — to  his  "  long  home," 

But  as  a  stay  is  mourned. 

Yes,  mourn  him  as  a  pillar  missed 

From  our  palladium,  while 
Most  needed — for  he  kept  his  tryst 

With  duty  without  guile. 

And  fell,  all  shattered  by  his  toil. 

Not  broke  by  "  folly's  vails  :  " 
Crushed  like  a  victor  by  hi.s  spoil ; 

Worn  out  by  labor's  ails. 

So  sleeps  the  noble  heart  in  dust ; 

But  what  he  did  lives  on. 
And  wins  for  him  this  greeting  :  "  Just 
And  faithful  one,  well  done." 
Leeds,  Ala.  Samuel  L.  Robertson. 

J_L_  T  lio-flin  is  a  native  of  Walton  County,  Georgia,  and  was  born  August 
*^VV     )•    /1\7"V    13,  ISL'O. 

He  is  a  son  of  Wyatt  and  Sarah  Stell  Heflin,  the  former  a  native  of  Orange  County, 
North  Carolina,  and  the  latter  of  Hancock  County,  Georgia.  On  the  paternal  side  he  is 
of  English  and  Scotch  descent,  and  his  early  ancestors  came  to  America  with  Lord 
Granville,  before  the  Revolution.  On  the  maternal  side  he  is  of  Huguenot  extraction, 
and  his  mother's  ancestors  were  early  settlers  of  Virginia. 

His  parents  were  married  in  Georgia,  and  lived  there  until  their  immigration  to 
Alabama  in  1833  and  their  setttlementin  Randolph  County.  They  resided  in  Randolph 
up  to  the  time  of  their  respective  deaths,  the  father  dying  in  ISdO  and  mother  in  1869. 
The  former  was  a  planter  and  merchant,  and  served  in  the  legislatures  of  both  Georgia 
and  Alabama. 

There  were  eight  children  in  the  family,  of  whom  John  T.  was  the  third  in  order 
of  birth.  He  received  an  academic  education  in  Georgia,  and  in  1839  began  the  study 
of  law  in  Chambers  County,  Alabama,  in  the  office  of  Steiner  &  Phillips,  and  after  a 

Biographical.  315 

faithful  course  of  two  years  application  to  study  was  admitted  to  the  practice  in  1841, 
and  has  had  a  continuous  and  active  professional  career  of  nearly  fifty  years,  and  in 
this  long  period  has  witnessed  great  changes  in  the  character  of  his  country.  For  the 
first  sixteen  years,  succeeding  the  time  of  his  admission  to  the  bar,  he  practiced  his 
profession,  alone,  in  Randolph  County,  and  served  as  a  member  of  the  State  Senate  dur- 
ing the  session  of  the  legislature  of  1851-52.  In  1857,  or  about  that  time,  he  moved  to 
Jacksonville,  the  county  seat  of  Calhoun  County,  and  was  associated  with  William  H. 
Forney,  now  a  member  of  Congress,  for  three  years.  In  18U0  he  moved  to  Talladega, 
and  in  the  second  year  thereafter  was  elected  circuit  judge,  and  remained  on  the  bench 
until  18(55.  During  the  war  he  was  in  active  service  and  belonged  to  the  Topographical 
Corps,  and  planned  the  route  for  many  marching  commands.  After  the  war  he 
resumed  the  practice  of  law  in  Talladega  and  continued  there  for  seventeen  years,  and 
in  the  year  1875  was  a  member  of  the  State  Constitutional  Convention,  called  for  the 
purpose  of  forming  a  new  constitution.  He  took  an  important  part  in  the  delibera- 
tions of  that  body.  He  first  came  to  Birmingham  in  April,  1882,  and  became  senior 
member  of  the  firm  of  Heflin,  Bowdon  &  Knox.  This  association  continued  until  the 
death  of  Mr.  Bowdon,  and  the  firm  is  now  known  as  Heflin  &  Knox,  the  latter  being 
one  of  the  leading  resident  attorneys  at  the  Talladega  bar.  Mr.  Heflin  has  devoted 
himself  almost  exclusively  to  his  profession,  and  has  won  some  distinguished  triumphs 
by  his  pleadings  in  behalf  of  clients.  In  1886  he  was  before  the  State  Convention  of 
the  Democratic  party  as  a  candidate  for  the  nomination  for  Chief  Justice  of  the 
Supreme  Court  of  the  State,  and  believes  he  received  more  votes  in  the  convention 
than  his  sole  competitor,  but  his  opponent  was,  nevertheless,  declared  the  successful 
candidate.  Mr.  Heflin  is  a  Bourbon  Democrat,  and  believes  most  fully  in  the  princi- 
ples of  that  party. 

He  was  married  in  1862  to  Mrs.  Bowdon,  of  Talladega.  Her  maiden  name  was 
Sarah  E.  Cliilton.     She  was  a  native  of  Kentucky,  and  died  June  1,  187^. 

Mr.  Heflin  is  a  Free  Mason.  He  feels  as  one  who  has  been  occupied  with  the 
highest  employment  of  which  his  mental  gifts  were  capable,  and  looks  back  over  his 
life  with  emotions  of  reasonable  satisfaction.  Being  yet  vigorous,  for  his  years,  he  con- 
tinues to  reap  the  rewards  of  his  eminent  ability. 

J-jUj.  n  rnrvrrrjui  belongs  to  one  of  the  oldest  and  best  known  families  of  Jef-  y 
^'/V  V  /'l'^'  '*-'«'  ferson  County.  He  was  born  on  December  31,  1838.  He 
was  born  at  the  residence  of  his  grandmother,  situated  about  two  and  one-half  miles 
north  of  the  Elyton  Court  House,  and  it  is  still  standing  on  Village  Creek.  Had  he  been 
born  at  his  home  in  Elyton  the  strange  co-incidence  of  the  birth  of  himself  and  his  wife 
in  the  same  house  would  have  occurred.  This  was  owing  to  the  fact  that  W.  A.  Walker, 
the  latter's  father,  bought  bis  father's  residence.  His  father,  Hugh  Morrow,  came  from 
South  Union,  Ky.,  and  settled  in  Elyton  September,  1825.  He  was,  however,  a  native 
of  Abbeville  District,  South  Carolina.  Hugh  Morrow's  mother  was  a  Calhoun,  and  a 
relative  of  John  C.  Calhoun. 

When  Hugh  Morrow  first  came  to  Jefierson  County  he  taught  school  at  Jonesboro, 
now  Bessemer.  There  are  still  pupils  living  in  this  immediate  locality  whom  he  taught. 
He  continued  to  teach  school  until  1S33,  and  in  that  year  was  appointed  circuit  clerk 
for  Jefferson  County  by  Judge  L.  L.  Perry,  and  was  an  officer  of  the  county  in  that 
capacity  up  to  1858,  an  unbroken  succession  of  twenty-five  years.  The  records  now  on 
file  at  the  courthouse  are  models  of  neatness,  beauty  of  handwriting  and  perfect  cor- 
rectness, as  kept  by  him.  Out  of  the  many  thousands  of  pages  of  writing  he  did,, 
during  all  this  time,  not  a  single  interlineation,  eifacement,  erasure,  or  blemish  can  be^ 

3 1 6  Jeffe)'S07i   County. 

discovered.  As  an  officer  of  integrity  and  honesty  he  was  irreproachable.  In  1858  he 
retired  to  his  farm,  near  Trussville,  in  this  county,  where  he  has  since  lived.  He  was 
born  in  February,  ISO.i,  and  has  now,  therefore,  passed  his  eighty-second  year,  and  ia 
still  vigorous  and  hearty.  He  has  reared  a  family  of  thirteen  children,  ten  of  whom 
are  now  living  in  this  county.  The  Morrows  have  taken  rank  among  its  most  influ- 
ential people  in  every  era  of  the  county's  history. 

His  mother,  Margaret  Holmes,  was  a  Tennesseean  by  birth  and  came  to  this  county, 
when  an  infant,  with  her  family.  She  was  married  here.  Her  father  and  mother, 
James  and  Sarah  Killough  Holmes,  subsequently  moved  to  Pontotoc  County,  Missis- 
sippi.   She  is  still  living,  and  has  passed  her  seventieth  year. 

The  children  were  Harriet  L.,  AViltiam  S.,  Mrs.  Julia  Praiter,  Dr.  George  M.,  Wool- 
8ey  P.,  Catherine  Frazier,  AlphonsoR.,  Josephine,  now  Mrs.  Dr.  J.  C.Jones,  and  Milton. 
Catherine  is  the  only  one  living  beyond  the  bounds  of  the  county. 

John  C.  Morrow  first  went  to  school  in  Elyton  to  the  Rev.  F.  M.  Grace,  and  also  to 
Jacob  H.  Baker,  one  of  the  most  thorough  educators  that  ever  lived  in  Jefferson 
County.  This  was  the  finishing  touch  to  his  scholastic  training,  and  was  concluded  in 
18.54.  At  this  time  he  began  reading  law  in  Tuscaloosa  under  Judge  Peck,  who  after- 
ward, in  the  year  1868,  was  Chief  Justice  of  this  State.  In  1856  he  went  to  the  Lebanon, 
Tennessee,  Law  School,  and  among  those  of  his  schoolmates  who  have  since  become 
distinguished,  are  Col.  G.  W.  Hewitt,  of  Birmingham  ;  Judge  Reuben  Gaines,  now  on 
the  Supreme  Bench  of  Texas;  L^nited  States  Judge  Jackson,  of  Tennessee,  and  Col. 
Enoch  Ensley,  President  of  the  Pratt  Coal  and  Iron  Company.  He  graduated  in  Feb- 
ruary, 1857,  and  on  his  way  home  passed  through  Montgomery,  where  he  obtained  hia 
license  to  practice  law.  Judge  Samuel  F.  Rice  was  then  Chief  Justice.  He  practiced 
in  Elyton  from  1857  to  1865,  and  was  a  partner  of  Col.  Hewitt  from  1859  to  1866.  In 
1862  he  went  from  JefTerson  County  as  First  Lieutenant  of  Company  G,  Twenty-eighth 
Alabama  Regiment  of  Infantry.  He  resigned  liis  office  in  September,  1862,  on  account 
of  failure  of  his  health.  He  was,  prior  to  this,  in  the  campaign  through  Kentucky. 
When  he  regained  his  health  he  rejoined  the  Confederate  Army,  February,  1863,  by 
enlisting  as  a  private  in  Major  Lewis'  Battalion  of  Cavalry.  In  August  of  that  year  he 
was  elected  to  the  State  Legislature  by  the  people  of  his  native  county,  and  served  dur- 
ing the  years  from  1863  to  1865  inclusive.  On  August  7,  1865,  several  months  after  the 
close  of  the  war,  he  was  appointed  Probate  Judge  of  Jefferson  County  by  Lewis  E. 
Parsons,  Provisional  Governor  of  this  State.  In  May,  1866,  he  was  elected  to  the  posi- 
tion by  the  people,  and  re-elected  from  1868  and  successively  thereafter  up  to  and 
including  1884.  In  the  last  named  year  he  resigned,  and  has  since  lived  the  life  of  a 
private  citizen.  Socially,  Judge  Morrow  is  beloved  by  all  his  friends  and  greatly 
esteemed  by  all  his  acquaintances.  He  is  noted  for  his  generosity  and  kindness  of 
nature.  As  a  lawyer  he  is  possessed  of  considerable  ability  ;  as  a  judge  he  was  just, 
and  gave  great  satisf.iction.  He  has  alwaj's  been  a  friend  of  the  people,  and  no  man 
has  ever  lived  in  the  county  who  has  enjoyed  greater  popularity. 

Judge  Morrow  has  had  much  happiness  in  his  domestic  relations.  He  was  married 
in  1859  to  Miss  Mary,  daughter  of  W.  A.  Walker,  of  Elyton.  He  has  seven  children 
living  and  two  dead.  The  names  of  the  former  are  Emma  C,  now  Mrs.  J.  J.  Cahalan  ; 
Nettie,  now  Mrs.  Dr.  Ledbetter ;  Fannie  S.,  Mamie,  Hugh,  Katie,  and  Willie,  all  of 
whom  are  living  in  Birmingham. 

Judge  Morrow  is  a  Knight  Templar  Mason.  Most  of  the  members  of  his  family 
belong  to  the  M.  E.  Church,  South. 

He  is  in  comfortable  circumstances,  and  is  one,  among  many,  who  have  profited  by  the 
great  development  which  has  taken  place  during  the  past  few  years  in  his  native  county. 

Biographical.  3 1 7 

Thn/nac  PnKKc  °'*®  '^^  "'®  most  eminent  law3'eiis  and  jurists  of  the  State  of 
I  r^U/lldb  V^UDDb,  ^ia},ajjja_  ig  a  native  of  Raleigh,  N.  C,  and  son  of  Thomas 
and  Sarah  Boone  Cobbs,  both  natives  of  the  same  State. 

The  father  of  our  subject  was  a  cultivated,  learned  gentleman,  and  also  a  manufac- 
turer and  planter.  He  was  a  man  of  marked  influence,  socially  and  politically;  a  dem- 
ocrat of  the  sttictest  sect,  he  was  elected  mayor  of  Raleigh  several  terms  over  his 
whig  competitor,  Hon.  Western  Gales,  and  that,  too,  when  the  whig  party  in  the  city 
was  overwhelmingly  in  the  majority.  Captain  Cobbs  removed  to  Alabama  in  the 
winter  of  1841  and  died  in  the  following  September. 

The  mother  of  our  subject  was  a  daughter  of  Colonel  Joseph  Boone,  of  Revolu- 
tionary fame,  whose  lineage  is  traced  to  the  early  colonists  of  Virginia. 

Chancellor  Cobbs  enjoyed  superior  educational  advantages  until  he  reached  his 
fourteenth  year,  when  the  loss  of  his  father  and  the  embarrassed  pecuniary  condition 
of  his  mother  precluded  the  possibility  of  a  college  or  university  course  of  training. 
Fortunately,  however,  his  father  had  left  him  an  excellent  library,  and  his  studious 
habits,  coupled  with  superior  attainments  of  his  early  youth  in  the  classics  and  math- 
ematics, enabled  him,  through  the  medium  of  books,  to  acquire  what  was  equivalent 
to  an  excellent  university  course  without  the  distinction  of  a  university  degree.  His 
early  environments,  as  well  as  his  taste  and  ambition,  naturally  inclined  him  to  the 
profession  of  law.  Under  the  tutelage  of  his  brother,  Hon.  James  Cobbs,  of  Mobile, 
he  was  prepared  for  his  chosen  profession,  and  in  1856  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  by 
Judge  John  D.  Moore.  The  period  usually  consumed  by  young  lawyers  in  waiting  for 
practice  and  acquiring  experience,  in  this  instance,  was  filled  with  a  succession  of 
brilliant  successes.  From  his  first  entrance  into  the  field  he  was  eminently  successful 
in  buililing  up  a  large  and  lucrative  practice.  In  1867,  at  the  fall  term  of  the  Choctaw 
County  Circuit  Court,  Hon.  James  Cobbs  presiding,  a  very  important  murder  case  was 
tried,  and,  as  one  of  the  attorneys  for  the  defense,  our  subject  made  the  leading  argu- 
ment, which  stamped  him  in  the  public  mind  as  one  of  the  most  capable  and  distin- 
guished criminal  lawyers  in  the  State. 

For  many  years  he  was  associated  with  that  distinguished  lawyer,  Robert  H.  Smith, 
attending  to  their  practice  in  Sumter  County,  which  relation  continued  until  the  death 
of  Colonel  Smith  in  1878.  In  1880  he  was  elected  to  the  office  of  Chancellor  of  the 
Western  Division  of  Alabama,  and  his  administration  of  the  duties  of  that  important 
trust  was  so  satisfactory  that  in  1886  he  was  re-elected  without  opposition.  The  follow- 
ing extract  from  the  Montgomery  Advertiser  is  a  fitting  tribute  to  his  talents,  and,  so 
far  from  being  one  of  those  highly-tinted  eulogies  with  which  the  press  is  too  apt  to 
abound,  it  is  only  a  modest  endorsement  of  rare  and  eminent  worth  : 

"  This  able,  faithful,  and  judicious  officer  was  nominated  for  a  second  term  by  the 
convention  of  the  Western  Chancery  Division.  He  has  established  himself  so 
thoroughly  by  his  fair  and  impartial  decisions,  and  by  his  uniform  courtesy  to  the  bar 
and  people,  as  to  prevent  any  thought  of  opposition,  and  he  receives,  as  he  deserves, 
the  unanimous  endorsement  of  the  convention.  The  chancellor  is  regarded  by  all  who 
know  him  as  a  fair  and  impartial  judge ;  laborious  and  painstaking  in  every  case,  and 
is  regarded  in  the  State  as  one  of  her  most  eminent  judges." 

Chancellor  Cobbs  was  united  in  marriage  in  1850,  with  Miss  Lucy  L.,  daughter  of 
George  and  Margaret  Thom,  of  Virginia.  This  union  has  been  blessed  with  thee  chil- 
dren ;  Thomas  D.  is  a  prominent  lawyer  in  Texas,  James  B.,  the  cashier  of  the  Berney 
National  Bank,  is  one  of  the  most  promising  young  financiers  in  the  South,  and  Nellie, 
the  wife  of  Prof.  J.  H.  Phillips,  who  is  an  accomplished  lady,  and  noted  for  her  superior 
musical  talents. 

3 1 8  Jefferson   County. 

Chancellor  Cobbs  became  a  resident  of  Birmingham  in  1883,  and  ranks  as  one  of 
the  "  Magic  City's"  most  cultivated  and  eminent  citizens.  He  is  a  member  of  the 
Episcopal  Church. 

rnlh^h^ll  T  Dort'^r  '^^^  bom  in  Shelby  County,  Alabama,  in  1825.  His 
'    '         /  \'    \  ancestry    is   traced    to    colonial    times   of    the   " Old 

Dominion"  State,  where  his  grandparents,  on  both  his  father's  and  mother's  side, 
were  born. 

His  father,  Mitchell  A.  Porter,  came  with  his  parents,  at  a  very  early  period,  to 
Tennessee,  where  he  studied  medicine  at  Knoxville,  subsequently  immigrating  to  Ala- 
bama during  the  Indian  period,  locating  at  Montevallo,  Shelby  County,  where  he 
practiced  his  profession  until  his  death. 

The  mother  of  our  subject,  Mary  Porter,  nee  Wade,  came  with  her  parents  to 
Shelby  County,  Alabama,  from  Virginia  in  the  early  days  of  the  State.  After  the 
death  of  her  husband  she  removed  with  her  family  to  Jefferson  County  (where  her 
parents  had  previously  removed),  and  located  near  the  present  site  of  Birmingham. 
Subsequently  she  married  Thomas  Adkins,  one  of  the  "  old  time  "  merchants  of  Elyton, 
and  resided  there  until  her  death  in  1856.  By  her  first  marriage  she  left  two  children, 
Mitchell  T.  and  Corrilla,  wife  of  William  A.  Walker. 

The  subject  of  this  biography  received  an  academic  education,  graduating  from  the 
University  of  Tennessee  at  Knoxville.  Deciding  upon  the  legal  profession,  he  entered 
the  office  of  the  late  Judge  William  S.  Mudd,  where  he  studied  diligently  until  he  was 
licensed  to  practice  in  1850.  His  practice  was  commenced  at  Elyton,  where,  for  some 
time,  he  was  associated  with  the  late  Hon.  Alburto  Martin. 

In  1861  he  entered  the  Confederate  service  as  Captain  of  Company  C,  Twentieth 
Alabama  Infantry,  and  remained  in  active  service  until  the  spring  of  1864,  when,  having 
attained  the  rank  of  lieutenaut-colonel  of  his  regiment,  he  was  forced,  by  failing  health, 
to  resign.  Judge  Porter  was  in  some  of  the  most  severe  engagements  of  the  war  ;  his 
regiment  participated  in  the  Kentucky  expedition,  until  reaching  Covington,  under 
General  Kirby  Smith,  and  also  in  the  battles  of  Port  Hudson,  Champion  Hills,  and 
for  two  months  was  besieged  in  Vicksburg,  his  company  never  being  released  from  the 
trenches,  and  lo.sing  heavily. 

After  the  fall  of  that  city  he  returned  home  on  parole  and  found  his  name  announced 
for  State  Senator  for  the  district  comprising  Shelby  and  Jeflferson  Counties.  He  was 
elected  and  served  one  term. 

Judge  Porter  continued  in  practice  in  Elyton  until  1881,  when,  upon  the  removal 
of  the  courthouse,  he  became  a  resident  of  Birmingham,  where  he  continued  to  prac- 
tice until  November,  1884,  when  he  was  appointed  Judge  of  Probate  by  Governor 
O'Neal,  to  fill  the  vacancy  occasioned  by  the  resignation  of  Judge  John  C.  Morrow. 
In  August,  1886,  he  was  elected  by  the  people  for  a  term  of  six  years. 

Although  over  sixty  years  old  his  age  sits  lightly  upon  him,  and  he  is  ever  busily 
engaged  with  the  important  and  arduous  duties  pertaining  to  his  trust.  The  ease  with 
which  he  dispatches  the  vast  amount  of  business  which  is  brought  before  him  seems  to 
indicate  that  he  has  many  more  years  of  usefulness  in  store. 

True  to  every  trust,  with  fine  legal  attainments,  a  recorci  as  an  honest  and  impar- 
tial judge,  and,  withal,  a  generous  and  true  Christian  gentleman,  he  is  sincerely  admired 
and  respected  by  the  whole  people. 

Judge  Porter  was  united  in  marriage  in  1853  with  Miss  J.  Catherine  Martin,  a 
daughter  of  Colonel   John   M.  Martin,  a  well-known  resident  of    JefTerson   County. 

Biographical.  321 

They  have  seven  children  now  living,  Mrs.  Sarah  E.  Hunley,  Mary  C,  Jennie,  John 
M.,  a  West  Point  graduate,  Mitchell  A.,  William  A.,  and  Thomas  W. 

Judge  Porter  is  a  member  of  the  Episcopal  Church  and  his  wife  of  the  Baptist 

11  Q  CharnO  is  a  .son  of  William  and  Lucy  G.  Sharpe,  the  latter's  maiden  name  ■ 
/  *  )  '  y  I  IN  being  Lucy  Reese,  The  former  was  a  native  of  Richmond,  Va., 
and  the  latter  of  Lynchburg.  After  marriage  they  remained  in  the  State  until  1832, 
and  then  came  to  Alabama,  and  settled  near  Decatur,  in  Morgan  County.  They  lived 
there  the  remainder  of  their  lives,  the  death  of  Mr.  Sharpe  occurring  in  1853,  and  that 
of  Mrs.  Sharpe  in  1876.  The  former  was  a  merchant,  contractor,  and  builder,  and  sjient 
many  successful  years  in  his  business  in  the  State  of  his  adoption.  There  were  hve 
children  born  to  them,  all  of  whom  are  now  living — B.  R.  Sharpe  resides  near  Memphis, 
Tenn.;  Mrs.  Sarah  E.,  wife  of  J.  W.  Herring,  of  Morgan  County;  Mrs.  Arabella  V., 
wife  of  J.  W.  Lipscomb,  of  Cullman;  Mrs.  Eliza  J.,  wife  of  William  D.  Orr,  of  New- 
nan,  Ga.;  H.  A.  Sharpe,  Birmingham,  Ala. 

The  subject  of  this  sketch  was  born  in  Morgan  County,  Alabama,  in  1848.  His 
early  educational  advantages  were  such  as  the  common  schools  of  his  county  afforded. 
After  availing  himself  of  these  to  the  fullest  extent,  he  attended  the  law  department 
of  Cumberland  University,  Lebanon,  Tenn.,  where  he  graduated  in  1870,  and  at  once 
began  the  practice  in  his  native  county,  where  he  continued  until  1881.  While  living 
in  the  county  he  was  elected  to  and  served  in  the  lower  branch  of  the  legislature  of 

In  1881  he  removed  to  Birmingham,  and  resumed  the  practice  of  his  profession, 
and  in  February  formed  a  copartnership  with  James  M.  Weatherly,  now  the  assistant 
general  counsel  for  the  Georgia  Pacific  Railway. 

This  association  proved  mutually  beneficial,  and  the  firm  had  large  and  important 
interests  intrusted  to  their  management,  which  proved  that  their  clients  were  not 
unwise.  The  dissolution  of  this  copartnership  was  brought  about  by  the  appointment 
of  Mr.  Sharpe  to  be  judge  of  the  city  court,  by  Governor  O'Neal,  in  December,  1884. 
The  appointment  was  universally  approved  by  the  bar,  and  the  creation  of  the  new 
court  was  admitted  by  all  to  be  a  pressing  necessity.  Business  had  accumulated  to 
such  an  extent  in  the  other  courts  that  this  court  became  absolutely  essential  to  relieve 
the  pressure  upon  them. 

Judge  Sharpe's  administration  of  his  office  gave  great  satisfaction,  and  at  the  gen- 
eral State  election  in  August,  1886,  he  was  elected  to  fill  the  office  forsix  years.  If  men 
are  judged  for  capacity  and  fitness  for  any  given  position  by  the  indorsement  they 
receive  at  the  hands  of  the  peopla.  then  surely  may  the  subject  before  us  be  adjudged 
an  exceedingly  suitable  person  for  the  oflice. 

The  city  court  is  one  of  general  common  law  and  chancery  jurisdiction  for  Jeffer- 
son County,  so  constituted  as  not  to  conflict  or  clash  with  the  circuit  and  chancery 

Judge  Sharpe  belongs  to  the  Knights  of  Honor  and  the  Legion  of  Honor. 

He  was  married  in  1875  to  Miss  Mae  Hansell,  of  Decatur,  Alabama.  He  is  the 
father  of  four  children,  who  are  living — Augusta,  Lucy,  Ethel,  and  Carrie. 

Judge  Sharpe  is  still  a  young  man,  and  if  one  were  allowed  to  predict  from  the 
present  standpoint,  it  is  safe  to  claim  for  him  higher  honor  and  greater  success  for  his 
future  career. 

32  2  Jefferson    Coiaiiy. 

Samuel  ^arl(?  (Jreene  :« -"-^^ve  of  Jefferson  county  where  he  was  born 
^  N        \N^^/\   in  1853.     He  is  a  descendant  of  some  of  the  oldest 

and  most  prominent  families  of  this  section,  a  sketch  of  whom  appears  elsewhere  in 
this  volume.  He  is  the  eldest  of  six  children,  now  living,  of  Robert  N.  and  Sarah  E. 
Greene.  His  father  is  a  son  of  George  L.  and  Jane  Y.  Greene,  who  were  among  the 
early  settlers  of  Jefferson  County  from  South  Carolina.  His  mother  is  a  daughter  of 
Dr.  Samuel  S.  Earle  and  Harriet  H.  Earle,  who  also  removed  here,  in  the  early  history 
■  of  the  county,  from  South  Carolina. 

He  received  a  collegiate  education  at  the  Washington  and  Lee  University,  Lexing- 
ton, Va.,  and  afterward  became  a  teacher  for  four  years  in  the  Elyton  and  Birming- 
ham schools.  During  this  period  he  was  also  a  law  student  in  the  ofhce  of  Porter  & 
Martin,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1880.  He  commenced  the  practice  of  his  pro- 
fession in  November,  1881,  at  Jasper,  Walker  County,  Ala.,  where  he  continued  for 
two  years.  In  January,  1883,  he  returned  to  Birmingham,  where  he  has  since  been 
engaged  in  active  and  successful  practice.  In  June,  1884,  he  was  nominated  by  the 
Democratic  Convention,  on  the  first  ballot,  to  represent  Jefferson  County  in  the  State 
legislature,  and  at  the  general  election,  in  August  following,  was  elected  by  a  large 
majority.  He  served  one  term  very  acceptably  to  his  constituents  and  with  much 
credit  to  himself ;  and,  although  strongly  solicited  by  his  many  friends  to  again  become 
a  candidate,  he  declined  to  do  so,  preferring  to  devote  his  time  exclusively  to  the  prac- 
tice of  law.  In  October,  1885,  he  formed  a  law  partnership  with  James  E.  Hawkins, 
under  the  firm  name  of  Hawkins  &  Greene. ' 

In  1887  Mr.  Greene  was  appointed  judge  of  the  Criminal  Courtof  Jefferson  County, 
a  high  honor  for  so  young  an  attorney. 

He  is  a  member  of  the  Episcopal  Church. 

THE    BAR. 

Q I K  J I  r  hr>  /T\3  rhi  n  Jefferson  County  is  the  mother  of  no  nobler  son  and  wears  on 
"  /    I  /•  her  escutcheon  no  fairer  name  than  that  of  Alburto  Martin. 

Into  her  mountain  fastnesses,  when  the  tide  of  civilization  had  just  begun  to  flow 
through  her  beautiful  valleys,  came  his  father,  a  man  of  distinguished  French  extrac- 
tion, and  here,  in  1830,  his  son  "  Burt "  was  born,  and  here  grew  to  manhood.  Educa- 
ted in  the  best  schools  of  that  day,  and  graduated  at  the  State  University  while  yet  in 
his  teens,  he  came  home,  as  fine  a  specimen  of  haughty,  graceful,  dashing,  young  man- 
hood as  ever  trod  royal  halls  or  bent  the  knee  to  fair  woman's  shrine.  Indeed,  he  was 
a  fiery  embodiment  of  chivalry.  To  be  a  "  gentleman,"  in  strict  accordance  with  the 
idea  of  the  true  knight,  was  inborn,  and  not  cultivated  ;  it  was  a  first,  not  a  second 
nature,  in  this  gallant  youth  of  the  mountains. 

Those  who  are  familiar  with  the  history  of  our  wealthy  and  talented  young  men  of 
the  "  forties  and  fifties,"  whose  fathers  were  masters  of  broad  domains  and  many  slaves  I 
whose  methods,  though  lavish  and  careless,  were  yet  lordly  ;  who  regarded  "  mean- 
ness "  as  the  greatest  stigma,  and  the  fame  of  hospitality  as  a  laurel  crown — those 
who  know  the  history  of  those  Flush  Times  of  Alabama  can  but  drop  a  tear  of  forgive- 
ness over  the  record  of  follies  and  "  wild  oats  "  sowing,  in  which  our  bravest,  purest, 
and  noblest  may  have  indulged,  without  malice.  For  a  few  years  young  Martin  drank 
every  cup  of  joy  which  the  goddess  held  up  to  his  lips.  But  at  the  age  of  twenty-six 
he  had  buckled  down  to  Blackstone,  Coke,  and  Chitty,  and  proclaimed  to  the  world, 

Biographical.  323. 

like  "  Prince  Hal,"  to  whom  he  bore  reBCDiblance  in  more  respects  than   in  wiM  esca- 
pades, to  use  his  quotation  : 

"  I  will  live 
To  mock  the  expectations  of  the  world, 
To  frustrate  prophecies,  and  to  raze  out 
Rotten  opinion,  who  hath  writ  me  down 
After  my  seeming.     The  tide  of  blood  in  me 
Hath  proudly  flowed  in  vanity  till  now. 
Now  doth  it  turn  and  ebb  back  to  the  sea, 
Where  it  shall  mingle  with  the  state  of  floods. 
And  flow  henceforth  in  formal  majesty." 

After  three  years  of  practice  in  his  chosen  profession  he  was  sent  to  the  legislature 
in  1859,  and  again  in  1861,  as  a  reward  for  political  services  worthy  of  the  citizen. 
Politics  had  a  strong  charm  for  him,  and  he  was  rapidly  developing  into  statesmanlike 
methods  when  that  higher  and  nobler  passion  of  patriotism  overcame  all  other  senti- 
ments in  him  and  swept  him,  not  unwillingly,  for  he  was  a  soldier  by  temperament,, 
into  the  tide  of  war. 

He  was  among  the  first  to  pledge  his  convictions  on  the  tented  field.  Forming  a 
company,  he  was  chosen  captain  of  it  early  in  1861.  Mustered  at  Montgomery  this 
company  became  a  part  of  the  celebrated  Tenth  Alabama  Infantrj-.  The  names  of  the 
captains  in  this  regiment  are  familiar  to  every  well-informed  Alabamian  :  John  H.  For- 
ney, John  H.  t!aldwell,  L.  F.  Box,  Alburto  Martin,  Rufus  W.  Cobb,  William  H.  For- 
ney, J.  M.  Renfro,  and  J.  J.  Woodward.  A  more  splendid  galaxy  of  gallant  young 
men  never  gathered  iirnuiid  a  camp  fire  or  led  a  charge. 

At  Drainsville,  at  Yorktown,  at  Williamsburg,  at  Seven  Pines,  at  Gaines'  Mills,  at 
Frazier's  Farm,  and  at  the  Second  Manassas,  Captain  Martin  led  his  gallant  company,. 
and  at  the  last-named  terrible  conflict  received  a  wound  which  terminated  his  military 
career  and  came  near  co.sting  him  his  life.  Doubtless  from  the  effects  of  this  wound 
his  days  were  shortened. 

Captain  Martin,  though  hanging  up  his  good  sword,  never  so  far  forgot  his  convic- 
tions as  to  be  silent  in  retirement.  He  did  yeoman's  service  in  the  rear.  He  stilL 
waved  the  banner  of  his  Southland  over  the  heads  of  ihe  shirking  or  disaffected.  He 
proclaimed  the  justice  of  the  cause  from  the  housetops  of  his  mountain  country,  and 
it  required  at  one  time  no  less  daring  to  do  this  than  it  did  to  lead  the  charge  in  which 
he  was  so  desperately  wounded. 

In  1863  he  was  elected  solicitor  of  his  judicial  circuit  and  ably  filled  this  ofiice  till 
displaced  by  political  policy.  He  was  afterward  replaced  by  the  legislature  and  was 
elected  for  a  term  of  tliree  years,  at  the  expiration  of  which  term  his  official  career 
ended  in  1868. 

These  were  the  dark  days  of  reconstruction.  All  the  calamities  which  the  con- 
quered know  seemed  to  sweep  over  us  then.  Public  and  private  distrust  ;  households 
divided  against  each  other  for  conscience  sake  ;  bitter  animosities,  social  and  public 
ostracism,  social  and  public  persecution  reigned  defiantly.  Added  to  these  evils  came 
sickness,  and  financial  ruin  throughout  the  whole  country.  We  may  inadequately 
comprehend  the  anguish  which  such  a  haughty  and  lofty  spirit  as  Martin's  had  to 
endure  in  this  crisis.  In  the  midst  of  his  political  activity  his  law  practice  became 
extensive  and  lucrative,  and  the  shrewd  elements  in  his  character  developed  to  meet 
the  pressure  and  emergency  of  the  times. 

324  Jefferson   County. 

No  man  had  a  stronger  and  more  active  faith  in  his  native  land  than  Captain  Mar- 
tin. The  Iron  Mountain,  whicli  loomed  up  in  front  of  his  cottage  door,  seemed  to  bear 
on  its  brow  the  name  and  legend  of  his  native  State — "  Alabama,  here  we  rest," — and 
to  say  to  the  conquering  invader,  with  his  attendant  evils,  "  Thus  far  shalt  thou  go  and 
no  further."  In  the  iron-ribbed  fastnesses  of  Red  Mountain  prosperity  shall  found  a 
refuge  and  progress  shall  start  here  a  new  era  of  civilization.  The  words  "  New  South  " 
and  "  material  development"  have  become  threadbare  phrases  now.  They  werealmost 
offensive  terms  in  1868,  when  Captain  Martin  resolved  to  throw  all  the  energy  of  his 
nature  and  conviction  into  the  utterance  of  them  and  into  the  promulgation  of  the  great 
ideas  which  they  then  but  feebly  expressed.  Indeed,  he  believed  in  the  Old  South, 
and  died  in  that  faith.  In  her  bosom  lay  all  the  elements  of  greatness  and  progress 
which  was  claimed  for  the  New  South.  In  the  daj's  past  she  had  simply  been  nursing 
in  silence  her  real  forces,  preparing  for  "  commencement  day,"  .so  to  speak.  The  New 
South  was  but  the  Old  South  divested  of  its  burdens,  but  not  of  its  vitality.  It  was 
Martin's  faith  in  the  South's  vitality  that  made  him  wise  in  his  labors  toward  her 
development  and  almost  prophetic  in  providing  for  his  own  material  prosperity.  None 
read  the  glorious  possibilities  of  Jefferson  and  the  surrounding  counties  with  a  shrewder 
ken  than  he.  His  action  and  faith  went  hand  in  hand.  His  familiar  maxim  was  to 
"  hedge  "  and  take  the  chances  on  all  sides.  The  wisdom  of  his  "  hedging  "  can  now 
be  seen  in  and  around  Birmingham,  where,  dying,  he  has  left  an  estate  of  great  value. 

It  will  be  impossible  for  the  future  historian  of  Alabama  to  write  of  her  greatness 
without  writing  a  true  history  of  Birmingham,  and  it  will  be  impossible  to  write  a  true 
history  of  Birmingham  without  writing  a  true  history  of  Alburto  Martin.  There  is  no 
gainsaying  the  fact  that  Peters  and  Powell,  Mudd  and  Morris,  all  men  of  great  force 
of  character  and  wonderful  energies  ;  that  a  thousand  other  natural  and  artificial  forces 
aided  and  assured  the  accomplishment  before  the  world.  Dr.  Caldwell  and  his  lieuten- 
ant, W.  J.  Milner,  have,  we  own,  proven  themselves  very  trusty  and  trustworthy  offi- 
cers. Linn,  Sloss,  and  DeBardeleben  each  has  held  up  "  his  end  of  the  log,"  to  use  a 
slang,  but  pertinent  phrase,  but  none  of  them  took  hold  with  more  vigor  than  Alburto 
Martin,  or  threw  themselves  and  their  fortunes  into  the  venture  with  more  oneness 
of  purpose  than  he. 

He  scarcely  lived,  however,  to  see  the  fruition  of  his  hopes  and  labor.  He  died  in 
Birmingham,  in  1879. 

Crvl/lcmlhh   \\(    H^\l/ihh      ^'^''  Hewitt  is  a  resident  of  Birmingham,  in  the 
Oiab/lllli;    VU.  jlKVUKI..    pj.;,j^g  gj  jjfg^  _^,jj  ^^  ^l^g  ^pjjj  ^f  ^,jg  principal  law 

firm  of  the  county,  Hewitt,  Walker  ct  Porter.  He  was  born  in  Jefferson  t'ounty  Feb- 
ruary 14,  1834,  and  is  the  son  of  James  H.  and  Eleanor  Hewitt,  nee  Tarrant,  early  set- 
tlers. The  paternal  grandfather  was  of  Irish  blood,  a  native  of  North  (Carolina,  and 
James  H.  Hewitt,  the  father,  was  a  Tennesseean  by  birth.  He  was  a  man  of  industry 
■  and  high  moral  character.  He  came  to  Jefferson  County  while  it  was  a  part  of  Blount, 
and  before  the  admission  of  the  State  into  the  Union.  The  Tarrants  were  of  Scotch 
origin.  The  maternal  grandfather  of  Mr.  Hewitt  was  one  of  the  earliest  preachers  of 
the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South,  who  ministered  in  the  county. 

James  H.  Hewitt  and  his  wife  Eleanor  reared  a  family  in  Jelferson  of  seven  chil- 
dren, four  sons  and  three  daughters.  The  mother  died  at  home  in  1853,  and  the  father 
five  years  later.    The  family  were  members  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South. 

Goldsmith  \V.  Hewitt  received  an  academic  education  in  Jefferson  County,  and 
began  to  study  law  in  the  office  of  Judge  W.  S.  Mudd  at  Elyton.  Subsequently  he 
entered  the  Lebanon  Law  School  of  Tennessee.     In  1856  he  was  licensed  to  practice 


Biographical.  327 

and  became  a  member  of  the  firm  of  Ernest  &  Earle.     Later  he  formed  a  co-partner- 
ship with  John  C.  Morrow. 

At  the  outbreak  of  the  war  between  the  States,  in  1861,  Mr.  Hewitt  promptly  laid 
aside  his  professional  work  to  enter  the  Confederate  army  as  a  private  in  Company  B, 
Tenth  Alabama  Infantry.  He  served  in  this  capacity  until  August,  1862,  when  he  was 
promoted  to  the  captaincy  of  Company  G,  Twenty-eighth  Alabama  Infantry. 

As  a  private  soldier  Mr.  Hewitt  participated  in  the  battle  of  Seven  Pines  and  the 
Seven  Days'  battles  around  Richmond.  As  captain  in  the  Twenty-eighth  Regiment  he 
fought  in  the  battle  of  Murfreesboro,  and  on  September  20th  was  disabled  by  a  wound 
on  the  field  of  Chickamauga. 

After  the  war  Mr.  Hewitt  resumed  the  practice  of  law.  In  1870,  in  a  period  of 
great  political  excitement,  he  was  elected  to  the  lower  house  of  the  Alabama  Legisla- 
ture. At  the  next  regular  election  he  was  sent  to  the  State  Senate.  While  holding 
this  office  he  was  elected  to  the  Federal  House  of  Representatives. 

Mr.  Hewitt  took  his  seat  on  the  organization  of  the  Forty-fourth  Congress,  and  was 
returned  for  four  successive  congresses,  practically  without  opposition.  He  became 
at  once  a  working  member.  Not  a  brilliant  orator,  he  proved  to  be  a  ready  debater, 
well  informed,  courageous,  and  incorruptible.  He  was  active  during  his  whole  service 
of  eight  years  as  a  reformer,  and,  in  ceaseless  pursuit  of  an  unostentatious  line  of  con- 
duct, accomplished  much  toward  reconciling  the  prejudices  against  his  State  and  sec- 
tion then  dominant  in  Congress. 

The  first  act  of  Congressman  Hewitt  was  to  introduce  "  a  bill  to  secure  an  impar- 
tial administration  of  justice  in  the  State  of  Alabama."  The  theory  of  the  reform 
consisted  in  the  removal  of  political  machinery  from  influence  in  the  courts. 

His  second  important  bill  was  to  put  a  stop  to  the  partisan  as.sessments  of  officials, 
clerks,  and  others  employed  in  the  departments  of  the  Federal  civil  service. 

Among  other  leading  measures  introduced  by  him  was  a  law  to  pension  survivors 
of  the  Indian  and  Mexican  wars,  and  to  repeal  the  act  forbidding  pensions  to  all  save 
those  who  had  taken  the  Union  side  in  the  war  of  1861-65  ;  to  remonetize  silver ;  to 
prohibit  the  retirement  of  greenbacks  and  to  prohibit  banks  of  issue  ;  to  suppress 
polygamy  in  Utah  ;  to  improve,  by  Federal  aid,  the  rivers  and  harbors  of  Alabama  ; 
to  secure  for  bona  fide  settlers  the  public  domain  of  the  Government.  In  the  last  days 
of  his  congressional  service  he  resisted,  in  the  lower  house,  the  senate  amendments  to 
the  Mexican  contingent  fund.  For  eighty  or  ninety  consecutive  hours,  day  and  night, 
Mr.  Hewitt  fought  these  amendments,  and  he  believes  that  his  resistance  saved  a  bil- 
lion of  dollars  to  the  Government. 

Mr.  Hewitt  opposed  the  Reagan  Interstate  Commerce  bill  in  all  stages  of  its 
progress.  He  opposed  the  policy  of  the  Government  in  selling  the  Alabama  min- 
eral lands  to  the  highest  bidder. 

Mr.  Hewitt  is  a  revenue  reformer,  from  the  standpoint  of  the  Chicago  Democratic 
platform  of  1884.  He  favors  the  continuation  of  the  custom-house  system  of  taxa- 
tion, with  protection  to  American  labor  and  capital  as  an  "  intentional  incident."  He 
favors  the  abolition  of  all  other  modes  of  Federal  taxation. 

In  188.5,  with  the  adjournment  of  the  Forty-seventh  Congress,  Mr.  Hewitt  volun- 
tarily retired  to  the  life  of  a  private  citizen.  Resuming  his  lucrative  practice  of  the 
law  in  Birmingham,  he  reluctantly  consented  to  be  elected  to  the  lower  house  of  the 
Alabama  Legislature  in  1886.  His  services  in  that  body  have  been  very  active  and 

In  December,  1858,  Mr.  Hewitt  was  married  to  Miss  Sarah  J.  Morrow,  a  daughter 
of  one  of  the  pioneer  settlers  of  JefTerson,  Hugh  Morrow.     Hugh  Morrow  was  clerk  of 


328  Jefferson    Counly. 

the  Circuit  Court  of  Jefferson  for  thirty  years,  and  reared  a  large  family  of  useful  and 
influential  citizens.  This  wife  died  in  1S63,  and  one  child  was  the  only  oflspring  of  the 
marriage.  In  1868  Mr.  Hewitt  married  Mrs.  H.  E.  Perkins,  the  daughter  of  Dr.  Sam- 
uel Earle,  also  one  of  the  early  settlers  of  Jefferson.  With  his  wife  and  their  two  chil- 
dren he  now  lives  in  comfortable  circumstances  in  Birminghiim.  No  man  of  the 
county  commands  a  larger  personal  following  than  Goldsmith  W.  Hewitt.  He  is  a 
communicant  in  the  Episcopal  Church. 

\li!ll!::im  Q  Wf^W/COr  Ir  it  is  a  grateful  duty  to  the  biographer  of  individ- 
U/lllld/l\  p.    Uydll\(|^[  ,  J\  .    jj^jg^  ^,^^  ^^^,g  g^gj  g^^.j^j  influences  for  them- 

selves  in  the  vigorous  life  of  Jeflferson  County,  to  assign  to  its  proper  place  one  so 
admirably  well  rounded  as  that  of  Mr.  Walker.  He  possesses  the  equipoise  of  intellec- 
tual faculties  of  a  high  grade,  the  grace  of  well-bred  manner,  and  a  handsome  person 
to  define  the  tout  ensemble  of  an  individuality  which  must  be  confessed  to  be  superior 
to  the  general  standard  of  manhood,  even  so  respectable  as  that  native  to  the  region  of 
his  origin. 

William  A.  Walker,  the  father,  as  we  have  seen,  was  one  of  the  earlier  settlers  of 
Jones  Valley.  On  his  estate,  in  the  vicinage  of  Elyton,  his  only  son,  William  A. 
Walker,  Jr.,  was  born  in  1846.  There  were  six  children  to  make  happy  a  well-ordered 
home,  maintained  by  prudence,  wisdom,  and  prosperity.  It  was  a  home  typical  of  the 
virtues,  enjoyments,  and  aspirations  of  Southern  society,  under  Southern  institutions, 
of  the  period  of  its  happy  existence.  The  head,  the  father,  was  industrious,  circum- 
spect, and  hospitable.  The  domestic  regime  moved  under  the  auspices  of  frugal  yet 
abundant  measures,  after  their  kind,  presided  over  by  his  helpmeet.  The  children 
were  taught  in  letters  as  the  country  permitted,  and  in  manners  and  morals  by  the 
daily  lives  of  those  who  had  given  them  life. 

William  A.  Walker,  Jr.,  was  sent  to  the  neighborhood  schools,  the  best  nurseries 
of  human  nature,  in  the  season  of  boyhood,  which  our  educational  methods  have  thus 
far  devised.  He  slept  under  his  father's  roof,  and  spent  his  hours  awake  in  continual 
contact  with  the  tempers,  intellects,  courage,  and  idiosyncracies  directed  by  the  motives 
of  boyhood.  Directed  by  the  motives  of  manhood,  he  now  daily  encounters  the  same 
human  nature,  and,  thus  early  made  familiar  with  its  scope  and  meaning,  has  been 
able  to  take,  in  its  aSiiirs,  a  commanding  position,  commensurate  with  his  natural 
instincts  and  high  capacity. 

William  A.  Walker,  Jr.,  entered  the  University  of  Alabama  at  Tuscaloosa  in  his 
sixteenth  year.  He  was  a  student  (or  cadet,  the  institution  being  under  military 
administration)  and  in  the  senior  class,  when,  in  September,  1863,  he  enlisted  in  a 
company  formed  from  the  University  corps,  and  commanded  by  Captain  C.  P.  Storrs, 
a  fellow  cadet,  to  join  the  Seventh  Alabama  Cavalry,  Confederate  States  Army.  He 
continued  in  the  service  until  the  final  surrender  and  disbaudment  of  the  military 
forces  of  the  Confederacy.  He  had  been  promoted  sergeant,  and  had  some  unpleasant 
experiences  as  a  prisoner  of  war  in  the  period  of  active  hostilities. 

Returning  to  Elyton,  young  Walker  entered  at  once  upon  work  as  a  school  teacher 
in  the  community  of  his  friends  and  neighbors.  After,  perhaps,  eight  months  service 
in  this  field,  he  entered  upon  the  study  of  the  law.  In  1867  he  was  admitted  to  the 
bar.  Entering  at  once  upon  the  practice  of  his  profession,  he  was  so  fortunate,  as  an 
example  of  the  usual  good  fortune  of  his  life,  to  be  taken  into  co-partnership  with 
Burwell  Boykin  Lewis,  a  gentleman  of  scholarly  attainments,  great  energy,  and  of  the 
highest  moral  character.     Mr.  Lewis  became  a  leader  of  the  new  era.     He  was  elected 


Biogi-aphical.  ■},},  i 

to  Congress,  and  resigned  to  take  the  presidency  of  tlie  State  University,  where  he  died 
in  the  prime  of  a  highly  useful  and  honorable  career,  regretted  by  the  whole  State. 

Mr.  Walker  became  the  junior  member  of  the  law  firm,  Cobb,  Lewis  &  Walker. 
The  senior  afterward  served  two  terms  as  Governor  of  Alabama. 

In  1870  he  formed  a  copartnership  with  Hon.  (j.  W.  Hewitt,  for  eight  years  a 
member  of  Congress. 

August  23,  1870,  in  his  twenty-fourth  year,  Mr.  Walker  was  happily  married  to 
Miss  Virginia  T.,  daughter  of  the  late  eminent  jurist,  W.  S.  Mudd,  a  near  neighbor. 
They  have  six  children,  two  daughters  and  four  sons. 

Mr,  Walker  held  the  responsible  and  laborious  office  of  County  Solicitor  from  1868 
to  1876,  and  distinguished  himself  as  an  honorable  and  .successful  prosecutor. 

He  is  a  large  stockholder  and  a  director  of  the  First  National  Bank  of  Birming- 
ham. He  was  elected,  in  1885,  president  of  that  prosperous  institution,  but  after  ten 
months  service  he  discovered  tlie  irreconcilable  nature  of  the  office  with  his  practice 
before  the  courts,  and  voluntarily  resigned  it. 

The  lirm,  Hewitt,  Walker  &  Porter,  commands  a  very  large  and  profitable  clientele. 
Corporation  practice  engages  its  labors  largely.  As  a  lawyer  Mr.  Walker  is  esteemed 
for  the  accuracy  of  liis  opinions  and  the  absolute  devotion  lie  brings  to  his  cause.  His 
investigations  of  autliorities  and  his  energj-  in  pursuit  of  e\-idence  to  sustain  bis  case 
are  so  marked  by  intelligence  and  natural  aptitude  to  assimilate  that  which  is  of  value 
to  him  that  he  seldom  loses  a  client  capable  of  appreciating  these  elements  in  a  law- 
yer's mind.  The  oratory  by  which  the  law  and  evidence  must  be  argued  and  explained 
to  court  and  jury  is  earnest  in  manner  and  fluent  in  diction,  dignified,  as  the  speaker 
always  is,  and  effective  to  sustain  the  reputation  of  a  successful  pleader  and  advocate. 

In  1878  he  was  elected  to  the  legislature,  but  has  not  sought  political  preferment. 

His  perfect  health,  elastic  constitution,  sound  judgment,  and  great  industrj'  bid 
fair  to  preserve  him  as  a  rising  influence  in,  tliis,  thepivotal  factor  of  Alabama's  revived 
civilization.  He  is  already  a  rich  man.  He  is  a  member  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
Church,  South. 

DnK^rh    U      DoarROn   ^'^'^  born  in  Barbour  County,  Alabama,  in  1848.     Hie 
V  /'In  '    parents,   Benjamin  F.  and    Harriet  M.  Pearson,  were 

both  natives  of  North  Carolina,  where  they  were  married.  They  came  to  Alabama  and 
settled  in  Barbour  County  in  1840.  There  were  six  children  born  to  them,  and  of  their 
three  sons  Robert  H.  was  the  youngest.  Two  of  his  sisters  and  one  brother,  Herbert, 
are  living  in  Texas;  the  others  are  dead. 

The  early  years  of  the  subject  of  this  sketch  were  passed  on  the  farm,  where  he 
assisted  his  fatlier  in  agriculture.  The  rudiments  of  his  education  were  obtained  at 
home,  and  under  the  instruction  of  his  competent  parents.  In  this  happy  environ- 
ment was  laid  the  elements  of  his  strong  character  and  fine  sense.  Influences  here 
imbibed  have,  no  doubt,  been  the  basis  of  his  phenomenal  success  in  life. 

He  taught  school  for  some  time  prior  to  his  attendance  at  the  University  of  Ten- 
nessee. He  thereafter  went  to  Lebanon,  Tenn.,  and  pursued  a  course  in  the  law 
department  there.  Upon  the  completion  of  his  course  tliere  lie  came  to  Birmingham, 
early  in  1872.  He  is  the  only  lawyer  remaining  of  those  who  were  here  when  he  came. 
Beginning  the  practice  of  law  upon  arrival,  in  Birmingham's  roughest  age,  there  was 
full  scope  for  the  exercise  of  his  positive  character  ;  and  the  inhabitants  of  that  time 
remaining  bear  glad  testimony  of  his  strong  influence  upon  the  character  of  the  city  in 
those  early  days.  Nor  has  this  influence  ceased.  Growing  up  with  the  growth  of  the 
place  his  professional  work  increased  with  it,  and  his  influence  lias  always  been  felt  for 


332  Jefferson   County. 

good.  He  has  amassed  a  considerable  amount  of  property,  and  is  now  enjoying  great 
prosperity,  to  which  his  pluck  and  energy  have  entitled  him.  He  is  the  legal  represen- 
tative of  many  of  the  strongest  corporations  in  Birmingham,  and  director  in  many  others. 

Mr.  Pearson  has  never  sought  political  preferment,  and  has  seldom  accepted  it, 
although  he  has  often  been  solicited  to  do  so.  The  nearest  approach  to  this  that  he 
has  permitted  himself  to  accept  has  been  the  position  of  Chairman  of  the  Democratic 
Executive  Committee  of  the  county,  which  he  held  for  two  terms;  and  he  was  for  four 
years  Assistant  Solicitor  of  the  Circuit  for  JefTerson  County.  He  has  always  been  one 
of  the  leaders  in  the  Democratic  councils  .since  his  residence  here,  and  has  presided 
over  some  of  the  most  important  conventions  ever  held  in  thecount)-.  He  has  labored 
for  the  interests  of  his  partj',  and  has  been  and  is  ever  ready  to  forward  them.  He  is 
devoted  to  his  profession,  and. his  practice  is  large  and  lucrative;  and  although  he  does 
not  now  need  it  as  a  support,' he  is  determined  to  pass  his  life  in  the  practice  of  law. 
He  has  a  very  large  circle  of  >strong  friends  ;  and  although  a  positive  man,  he  has  but 
few,  if  any,  enemies.     His  friends  rejoice  with  him  in  his  success  in  life. 

Mr.  Pearson  was  married,  in  the  latter  part  of  1875,  to  Miss  Sallie,  daughter  of 
L.  C.  Harrison,  of  Dallas  County,  Alabama.  They  have  one  child,  a  daughter,  Mamie, 
and  they  reside  in  a  beautiful  home  in  the  northern  portion  of  the  city.  They  are 
members  of  the  Episcopal  Church,  and  among  its  most  earnest  supporters. 

He  is  a  member  of  the  Knights  of  Pythias. 

Jot^i)   5alia|^(^rro  S^rry 

is  a  native  of  the  Chester  District,  South  Caro- 
lina, where  he  was  born  August  31,  1831.  His 
parents,  John  W.  and  Emily  (Taliaferro)  Terry,  were  of  English  and  Norman  extrac- 
tion, and  their  ancestors  settled  in  America  early  in  the  sixteenth  century.  His  father 
was  a  farmer,  and  in-lS.35  became  a  resident  of  Alabama,  locating  upon  a  farm  in  the 
vicinity  of  Pickensville.  Ujion  the  death  of  his  father,  in  1841,  the  subject  of  this 
sketch,  was  placed  under,  the  guardianship  of  Colonel  Robert  T.  Johnston,  a  most 
worthy  gentleman  and  accomplished  scholar,  and  by  him  he  was  placed  in  the  Univer- 
sity of  Alabama.  The  health  of  Mr.  Terry,  which  had  never  been  robust,  so  far  failed 
in  1848  as  to  make  it  necessary  for  him  to  quit  the  University  and  lead  a  more  active 
life.  In  1850  he  entered  the  law  class  in  the  University  at  Louisville,  Ivy.,  and  applied 
himself  to  the  study  of  law  with  great  zeal,  but  again  his  progress  was  checked  by  ill 
health,  and  he  was  forced  to  return  home. 

He  was  fortunate,  however,  in  having  an  accomplished  scholar  for  his  guardian, 
and  under  him  he  pursued  his  studies  as  assiduously  as  ill  health  would  permit  him  to 
do.  Mr.  Terry  taught  school  during  1852,  yet  he  continued  to  devote  every  leisure 
moment  to  study.  It  is  a  pleasing  sight  to  see  a  youth,  in  ill  health  and  poverty,  thus 
eager  to  acquire  knowledge. 

In  1852  Mr.  Terry  was  licensed  to  practice  law,  but,  under  the  advice  of  friends,  he 
prosecuted  his  legal  studies  for  another  year  before  opening  an  office. 

He  formed  a  partnership  with  R,  T.  Johnston,  Esq.,  and  opened  an  office  in  Car- 
rollton  in  1S53.  In  1854  Chancellor  Clark  appointed  Mr.  Terry  Register  in  Chancery 
for  Pickens,  but  he  resigned  this  office  during  the  following  year,  in  order  to  devote 
himself  more  entirely  to  his  professional  engagements. 

In  1856  Mr.  Terry  was  the  whig  candidate  for  the  legislature  in  Pickens,  but  was 
•defeated,  mainly  on  account  of  the  local  issues  introduced  into  the  canvass. 

In  1857  Mr.  Terry  formed  a  partnership  with  the  Hon.  Turner  Reavis  for  Pickens 
County,  and  applied  himself  with  assiduity  to  his  profession. 

In  18U2  he  entered  the  Confederate  Army,  as  first  lieutenant  of  an  infantry  com- 


Biographical.  335 

pany,  and  served  in  the  field  until  1S63,  when  he  was  honorably  discharged  on  account 
of  ill  health. 

The  termination  of  the  war,  in  1S65,  found  the  South  bankrupt  and  prostrate,  and 
many  men  were  filled  with  utter  despair.  Mr.  Terry  was  not  of  this  number.  He 
went  to  work  with  industry  and  energy,  at  any  business  that  promised  to  be  remuner- 
ative, and,  in  the  fall  of  1865,  he  resumed  the  practice  of  his  profession  in  Carrollton. 
Since  that  time  he  has  enjoyed  a  lucrative  and  constantly-increasing  practice,  and  ia 
now  blessed  with  a  competent  fortune  and  freedom  from  debt. 

Mr.  Terry's  judgment  is  sound  and  discriminating ;  his  industry  is  considerable; 
his  power  of  attention  is  great ;  his  habits  are  moral ;  his  temper  cheerful  and  equa- 
ble, and  his  manners  courteous  and  easy.  Mr.  Terry  is  a  ready  and  elTective  speaker, 
courteous  to  the  bench  and  bar,  and  free  from  the  vicious  habit  of  wantonly  assailing 
the  character  of  adverse  witnesses. 

The  benevolence  of  his  nature,  and  the  kindliness  of  his  disposition,  are  traits  for 
■which  he  is  honorably  distinguished.  But  he  is  benevolent  and  kind  from  principle 
and  a  sense  of  duty,  rather  than  from  love  of  notoriety  or  mere  personal  attachment; 
he  feels  that  it  is  his  duty  as  a  Christian  to  do  all  the  good  that  lies  in  his  power,  and 
his  kindness  is  as  a  steady  running  stream.  There  can  be  uo  impropriety  in  mentioning 
a  remark  which  he  made  last  summer,  while  traveling  with  a  friend  to  Fayette  Court- 
house :  "  When  I  come  to  die,  I  wish  people  to  say,  '  a  good  man  has  been  snatched  from 
among  us ' ;  I  had  rather  be  a  good  than  a  great  man.  I  often  examine  myself  to  see  if 
I  have  not  failed,  in  some  respect,  to  do  all  the  good  in  my  power  to  my  fellow  men." 
The  man  who  is  habitually  guided  by  such  feelings  is  not  apt  to  miss  the  benedictions 
of  his  fellow  men. 

Colonel  Terry  was  always  regarded  by  his  brother  lawyers  as  possessed  of  a  strong, 
vigorous,  and  discriminating  legal  mind,  ranking  among  the  best  lawyers  of  the  State 
of  Alabama.  His  form  of  speech  was  unusually  clear  and  forcible,  and  in  every  law 
suit  in  which  he  took  part,  or  consultation  in  which  he  was  engaged,  he  carried  with 
Mm  the  kindly  feelings  of  his  adversaries,  and  the  warm  approbation  of  his  associates 
and  clients. 

His  life  has  been  one  of  great  success,  as  the  result  of  honorable  methods  and  hard 
work,  and  his  retirement  from  his  profession,  while  yet  a  vigorous  man,  is  well  becom- 
ing a  career  so  laudable.  Beloved  by  his  brethren  in  the  profession,  honored  and 
respected  by  all  citizens  among  whom  he  ever  lived,  and  surrounded  by  a  happy  fam- 
ily and  prosperous  children,  his  wealth  enables  him  to  live  in  ease,  and  at  the  same 
time  extend  a  generous  and  charitable  hand  to  objects  he  thinks  deserving.  There  are 
iew  men  in  Alabama  who  are  more  interesting  in  conversation  then  Colonel  Terry. 
His  memory  of  past  events  is  accurate  and  grasping,  and  with  his  conversation  he  has 
the  happy  faculty  of  entering  into  each  detail  with  a  zest  and  dignity,  withal,  scarcely 
possessed  by  even  the  most  brilliant  conversationalists.  Had  Colonel  Terry  sought  the 
field  of  politics,  he  would  have  reached  any  goal  his  ambition  might  have  named. 

Colonel  Terry  became  a  resident  of  Birmingham  in  January,  1873,  and  engaged  in 
the  practice  of  his  profession,  which  he  earnestly  and  vigorously  prosecuted  until  his 
retirement  in  1885.  Soon  after  coming  to  this  city  he  was  appointed  city  attorney, 
serving  one  year,  during  which  term  of  service  he  originated  the  plan  now  known  as 
the  Powell  School  System,  and  raised  a  subscription  of  two  thousand  dollars  for  its 
inauguration,  being  himself  the  first  and  largest  individual  subscriber.  He  was  also 
Superintendent  of  Education. 

To  Colonel  Terry,  for  two  years,  more  than  any  other  one  citizen,  the  people  are 
indebted  for  the  building  and  establishment  of  the  first  public  school. 

336  Jefferson   County. 

He  was  united  in  marriage  in  March,  1858,  with  Miss  Elizabeth  Kerr,  daughter  of 
William  Kerr,  of  Sumter  County,  Alabama. 

During  the  cholera  epidemic,  in  1873,  Colonel  Terry  stood  bravely  at  his  post,  was 
prostrated  by  that  dread  scourge,  and  lost  his  faithful  and  devoted  wife,  who  died 
July  14,  1873,  leaving  six  children. 

Mr.  Terry  was  united  to  his  second  wife  in  June,  1874.  Her  maiden  name  was 
Mary  E.  Taylor. 

Mr.  Terry  is  a  member  of  the  M.  E.  Church,  South,  and  was  for  many  years  superin- 
tendent of  a  Sunday  school  of  that  church. 

(Wr^v-^TsAnv   Oeo-ar   I-ar\<r>   was   born   in    Macon  County,  Alabama,  October 

|iiexa9a(^r  usear  i^ape  09,  ^^^^_  ^^  ^^^^5^,^^  ^  j^j^^^^i  academic  and 

collegiate  education,  and  immediately  upon  completion  of  his  course  of  study, 
in  1868,  he  was  called  into  service  as  principal  of  a  high  school  for  boys,  at 
Clayton,  Alabama.  In  the  meantime,  Mr.  Lane  studied  law  under  Hon.  John  A. 
Foster,  now  Chancellor  of  the  Southern  Division  of  Alabama.  He  was  admitted  to 
the  bar  in  November,  1809,  and  was  highly  complimented  by  Chancellor  McCraw,  be- 
fore whom  the  examination  was  conducted,  and  in  whose  court  he  was  admitted.  The 
young  lawyer  "  hung  his  shingle  "  at  Ozark,  Ala.,  and  began  in  earnest  the  labors  of 
his  profession.  Just  after  his  dehut  as  a  dLsciple  of  Blackstone  occurred  the  birth  of 
Birmingham,  and  with  characteristic  wisdom  and  foresight  the  young  lawyer  at  Ozark 
saw  the  grand  possibilities  of  this  coming  city,  and  determined  to  cast  his  lot  with  her. 
In  the  Spring  of  1873  he  open  a  law  otlice  in  Birmingham.  In  1874  he  became  the  law 
partner  of  Col.  John  T.  Terry,  who  was  not  slow  to  find  that  there  was  "something  in 
the  vigorous  young  man."  The  firm  of  Teriy  &  Lane  did  a  lucrative  practice  till  1885, 
when  Col.  Terry  retired,  and  Mr.  Lane  formed  a  partnership  with  Col.  E.  T.  Taliaferro, 
under  the  firm  name  of  Lane  &  Taliaferro.  This  firm  enjoyed  a  large  and  growing 
practice,  and  in  March,  1886,  received  B.  H.  Tabor,  Esq.,  into  the  firm.  Lane,  Talia- 
ferro &  Tabor  continued  together  until  January,  1887,  when,  by  mutual  agreement,  the 
copartnership  was  dissolved. 

In  1880  Mr.  Lane  became  editor  of  the  Iron  Age,  and  led  a  most  vigorous  campaign 
in  behalf  of  Democracy.  His  editorials,  being  noted  for  their  boldness  and  .strength, 
won  for  him  a  State  reputation  during  his  brief  journalistic  career.  While  he  had 
always  been  an  ardent  Democrat,  he  never  had  asked  office,  preferring  to  work  with 
the  rank  and  file. 

In  1882  Mr.  Lane  was  urged  to  run  for  mayor  of  Birmingham.  He  became  a  can- 
didate, and  in  a  heated  contest  won  the  fight,  lacking  only  sixteen  votes  of  a  majority 
over  all  three  of  his  competitors.  He  entered  upon  the  duties  of  the  office  in  Decem- 
ber, 1882.  The  new  executive  at  once  saw  that  he  had  work  before  him.  The  city 
was  growing  rapidly,  and  its  municipal  government  was  of  \ast  importance.  He  was 
not  slow  to  find  that  changes  were  needed,  and  he  at  once  formulated  apian,  or  platform, 
Sind  put  it  in  execution,  and  the  result  was  a  new  era  in  Birmingham's  life.  So  satis- 
factory was  his  first  two  years'  administration,  that  in  1884,  when  his  name  was  placed 
for  re-election,  he  achieved  the  victory  over  a  popular  opponent  by  an  overwhelming 
majority,  many  of  his  bitterest  opponents  in  the  former  campaign  being  his  most 
ardent  supporters  in  the  latter  contest.  In  1886  he  was  petitioned  by  a  large  number 
of  voters  and  taxpayers,  white  and  colored,  to  allow  the  use  of  his  name  for  a  third 
term,  and,  in  a  contest  with  a  popular  gentleman,  won  by  a  majority  greater  than  his 
opponent's  entire  vote.  Mayor  Lane's  whole  administration  has  been  marked  by  the 
spirit  of  progress.     His  course  has  been  wise,  just,  and  entirely  successful.     His  most 

Biographical.  337 

excellent  executive  ability,  his  nipid  manner  of  dispatching  business,  his  dignified 
bearing  and  fluency  as  a  speaker,  and  his  impartiality  as  a  judge,  combined  with  his 
good  business  sense,  mark  him  as  a  leader,  and  his  services  will  be  sought  for  as  long 
as  he  has  strength  of  body  to  respond. 

In  188+,  to  his  surprise,  Mr.  Lane  was  elected  president  of  the  Sixth  District  Con- 
gressional Convention,  and  made  a  happy  extempore,  speech,  that  won  the  admiration  of 
his  audience.  In  1885  he  was  made  temporary  president  of  the  Kiver  and  Harbor 
Convention  at  Tuscaloosa,  and  his  address  on  that  occasion  met  with  an  ovation, 
and  received  the  most  flattering  comments  of  the  press. 

Besides  the  labors  of  the  mayor's  office,  and  the  extensive  law  practice  of  his  firm, 
Mr.  Lane  is  president  of  the  Smithfleld  Land  Company,  a  director  of  the  Alabama 
State  Bank,  also  of  the  Iron  and  Oak  Insurance  Company.  By  his  vigorous  activity 
and  splendid  financial  ability,  Mr.  Lane  has  accumulated  a  competency,  and  enjoys  the 
luxury  of  a  beautiful  home,  surrounded  by  all  the  comforts  of  life,  and  a  wife  and 
children  to  whom  he  is  fondly  attached. 

Mr.  Lane's  administration  of  the  city's  affairs  has  been  free  from  jobbery.  While 
he  enjoys  the  warm  friendship  of  a  great  number  of  men  high  in  position,  no  man  can 
claim  to  possess  the  power  of  persuading  him  against  a  strict  line  of  duty  to  his 
people,  as  he  understands  that  duty.  He  is  a  friend  to  his  friends,  and  uncompromis- 
ing toward  his  enemies ;  firm,  but  generous ;  dignified,  but  not  arrogant.  If  he  is  at 
all  a  politician,  his  policy  is  that  of  a  strict  constructionist  of  the  law  of  right ;  and  on 
this  line  he  will  win.  He  is  a  good  judge  of  men,  and  can  not  be  easil}'  deceived.  Be- 
fore his  power  sits  the  poor  with  equal  safety  as  the  rich,  for  he  knows  no  difTerence 
of  men  in  his  judgments.  In  point  of  charity  and  benevolence,  he  is  ever  ready  to 
respond,  and  in  him  the  poor  have  found  a  friend  indeed. 

If  there  is  one  trait  of  Mr.  Lane's  character  more  prominent  than  any  other,  it  is 
decision — that  quality  of  the  mind  which,  under  given  circumstances,  acts  with  a  math- 
ematical precision.  With  him  to  act  is  instantaneous  with  resolve.  He  precedes  the 
march  of  events,  and  seems  to  foresee  results  in  the  chrysalis  of  their  causes,  and  to 
seize  that  moment  for  exertion  which  others  use  in  deliberation.  Yet  his  actions  are 
based  on  a  well-ascertained  and  generous  condition — the  concomitants  of  which  are  a 
well-disciplined  intellect,  strong  character,  persuasiveness,  tranquility,  and  cheerfulness. 

There  is  no  greater  genius  than  the  genius  of  energy  and  industry,  and  the  sub- 
ject of  this  sketch  possesses  this  quality  in  an  eminent  degree.  The  men  who  have 
most  powerfully  influenced  the  world  are  men  of  this  class — those  of  strong  convic- 
tions and  enduring  capacity  for  work,  impelled  by  irresistible  energy  and  invincible 
determination.  "  Energy  of  will,  self-originating  force,"  says  a  writer,  "is  the  soul  of 
every  great  character.  Where  it  is,  there  is  life  ;  where  it  is  not,  there  is  fainting, 
helplessness,  and  despondency."  And  another — "The  intellect  is  but  the  half  of  a 
man;  the  will  is  the  driving  wheel,  the  spring  of  motive  power." 

Mr.  Lane's  dignity  ie  not  a  spirit  of  cold  hauteur  and  pride,  but  an  outward  walk 
and  conversation  which  become  one  who  has  a  just  appreciation  of  life  and  its  possi- 
bilities—a dignity  which  exists  independent  of  "  studied  gestures  or  well-practiced 

Young,  active,  full  of  health,  vigor,  and  worthy  ambition,  the  future  is  full  of 
promise  to  him,  and  by  whichever  path  duty  may  call  him.  A,  O.  Lane  is  a  man  of 
destiny.  By  F.  V.  Evans. 

338  Jefferson    County. 

P  T  T-jIi-i-frtf-rn  Prominent  among  the  noted  lawyers  of  this  State  etanda 
1*1  J  N  ■    the  subject  of  this  sketch,  who  is  a  descendant  of  some  of 

the  oldest  families  of  Virginia.  His  ancestors  are  traced  in  the  history  of  that  colony 
as  fai-  back  as  1774.  They  were  patriots,  and  participated  in  the  struggle  for  independ- 
ence, and  subsequently  some  of  them  were  engaged  in  the  war  of  1812. 

His  parents,  Dr.  Edwin  T.,  born  in  King  William  County,  Virginia,  and  Jane  B. 
(Pope)  Taliaferro,  born  in  Henry  County,  Tennessee,  resided  at  the  time  of  his  birth 
at  Paris,  Tennessee,  where,  for  over  twenty-five  years,  his  father  practiced  his  profes- 
sion. In  1866  he  removed  with  his  family  to  Madison  County,  Alabama,  where  he 
continued  his  profession.  He  is  an  esteemed  physician  and  citizen,  and  represented  that 
county  in  the  State  legislature  during  the  session  of  1884-85.  The  mother  of  our  sub- 
ject died  in  1873.  She  was  the  mother  of  five  children,  three  of  whom  are  now  living, 
and  all  residents  of  Alabama. 

Colonel  Taliaferro  was  born  in  Paris,  Henry  County,  Tennessee,  in  1849,  and 
received  a  common  school  education,  supplemented  by  a  course  of  study  for  two  years 
at  Manchester  College,  Tennessee.  He  began  the  study  of  law  in  1868  in  the  office  of 
John  C.  Brown,  of  Pulaski,  Tennessee,  who  was  twice  Governor  of  the  State,  remain- 
ing under  his  tutelage  for  two  years,  teaching  school  in  the  meantime,  which  occupa- 
tion he  followed  for  over  one  year  after  leaving  the  office  of  his  preceptor.  He  was 
admitted  to  the  bar  at  Pulaski  in  January,  1871,  and  immediately  began  practice  there, 
continuing  until  January,  1883,  during  which  period  he  was  associated  with  Major  B.  F. 
Matthews,  and  again  with  John  T.  Allen,  both  natives  of  Tennessee. 

Colonel  Taliaferro  rose  rapidly  in  his  profession,  and  was  a  prominent  factor  in  the 
political  affairs  of  the  State.  He  was  elected  to  the  State  legislature  in  1876  by  the 
largest  Democratic  majority  ever  cast  in  his  county,  and  was  elected  speaker  of  the 
house,  being  one  of  the  youngest  members  of  that  body.  He  made  great  character  as 
a  presiding  officer,  as  will  be  readily  attested  by  all  Tennesseans.  During  his  term  of 
oflBce  there  was  a  regular  and  three  extra  sessions  of  the  legislature,  and  excitement 
ran  high  on  the  question  of  the  State's  indebtedness ;  and,  although  he  was  with  the 
minority  in  the  house,  yet,  in  all  four  of  the  sessions,  never  for  a  single  time  were  his 
rulings  overruled,  and  seldom  appealed  from,  by  the  house. 

In  1878  he  was  elected  permanent  president  of  the  judicial  convention  called  to 
nominate  five  supreme  court  judges.  General  William  A.  Quarles,  of  Clarksville,  being 
temporary  chairman.  This  was  the  largest  and  perhaps  the  ablest  convention  ever 
assembled  in  that  State,  being  composed  almost  entirely  of  attorneys.  During  his  term 
in  the  legislature  the  State  debt  of  Tennessee  was  first  agitated.  Colonel  Taliaferro 
took  strong  grounds  for  State  credit,  which  he  warmly  maintained,  with  the  approval 
of  his  constituents. 

In  1880  he  was  an  elector  on  the  Hancock  and  English  Presidential  ticket,  and,  at 
the  close  of  that  campaign,  abandoned  political  life,  to  devote  his  entire  attention  to 
his  profession.  In  1881  he  was  employed,  as  one  of  twelve  of  the  leading  lawyers  from 
different  sections  of  the  State,  to  file  a  bill  in  the  chancery  court  of  Nashville  to  have 
declared  unconstitutional  a  bill  passed  by  the  legislature  to  settle  the  debt  of  the  State 
with  3  per  cent,  bonds,  the  debt  amounting  to  .l!27, 500,000  at  that  time.  Upon  appeal 
to  the  supreme  court  Colonel  Taliaferro  was  chosen  as  one  of  the  counsel  to  argue  the 
case,  orally  and  by  printed  brief,  and  they  carried  the  appeal  to  victory. 

In  January,  1S83,  he  sought  a  larger  field  for  the  practice  of  law,  and  removed  to 
Fort  Smith,  Arkansas,  where  he  was  in  practice  two  years,  all  of  that  period  in  con- 
nection with  B.  H.  Tabor.     In  Arkansas,  as  well  as  elsewhere,  he  took  foremost  rank 

!?-  lyZaWilliam^&Bro 




"x^.  (y'-  {^^/2^^  ^2^^^^^^ 

Biographical.  34 1 

among  lawyers,  and  was  engaged  in  nearly  every  important  case  at  Fort  Smith,  while 
living  there. 

In  1884  Birmingham  commenced  to  attract  and  command  the  attention  of  the  entire 
United  States  as  a  mining,  manufacturing,  railroad,  and  corporate  center.  Colonel 
Taliaferro  foresaw  the  great  future  of  the  city,  and  the  advantages  it  offered  in  the 
practice  of  law.  Having  a  strong  desire  to  practice  more  specially  that  branch  of  his 
profession  relating  to  corporations,  he  came  to  Birmingham  in  September,  1883,  pros- 
pecting, and  at  once  saw  the  immense  resources  of  Birmingham  and  vicinity,  and  its 
extraordinary  inducements  in  his  profession,  and  determined  at  once  to  make  it  hia 

Colonel  Taliaferro  became  a  citizen  of  Birmingham  in  January,  1885,  and  has  from 
that  date  been  a  power  in  what  is  now  termed  the  most  able  and  brilliant  bar  in  Ala- 
bama. In  December,  1885,  he  was  employed  to  return  to  his  old  home  in  Tennessee 
as  leading  counsel  in  one  of  the  most  important  and  exciting  cases  ever  tried  in  that 
section,  the  celebrated  "Jones  case."  Of  his  efforts  in  that  case  we  copy  a  single 
extract  from  the  Pulaski  Citizen,  of  date  December  3,  1885: 

"  Hon.  E.  T.  Taliaferro's  speech  yesterday  in  the  Jones  case  was  a  great  and  bril- 
liant eft'ort  of  an  able  man.  The  court  room  was  crowded  to  suffocation.  The  interest 
with  which  it  was  awaited  and  listened  to,  and  the  high  opinions  expressed  of  it  since 
its  delivery,  must  be  peculiarly  gratifying  to  him.  His  first  appearance  for  several 
years  before  his  old  clients,  constituents,  and  friends,  was  an  ovation,  and  an  expres- 
sion of  regard  and  trust  that  should  urge  him  to  even  nobler  efforts  and  purposes  in 
his  profession." 

Colonel  Taliaferro  in  person  presents  a  striking  figure.  Over  six  feet  tall,  erect  aa 
an  Indian,  and  with  a  high,  intellectual  cast  of  features,  he  commands  attention  at  a 
glance.  His  legal  attainments  are  of  an  excellent  order.  Added  to  them  are  great 
oratorical  powers,  and  superior  mental  attributes.  He  is  ever  dignified,  but,  withal,  one 
of  the  most  gentlemanly  and  genial  of  men ;  is  ever  generous  to  assist  the  needy,  and 
ever  ready  to  do  what  is  in  his  power  to  advance  progressive  civilization.  He  is  the 
attorney  for  the  Alabama  National  Bank,  the  Sloss  Furnace  Company,  the  Birmingham 
Iron  Works,  and  other  large  corporations,  and  has  large  real  estate  interests. 

Colonel  Taliaferro  has  been  connected,  aa  counsel,  with  some  of  the  most  import- 
ant cases  in  Jefferson  County.  His  first  legal  experience  in  the  State  was  in  1877-78, 
in  the  federal  court  at  Huntsville,  when  he  defended  some  prominent  citizens  of  Ten- 
nessee upon  a  charge  of  counterfeiting,  and  after  two  trials  of  five  weeks  each,  suc- 
ceeded in  securing  an  acquittal.  Associated  with  him  was  John  B.  Walker,  ex-Governor 
David  P.  Lewis,  ex-Governor  John  C.  Brown,  General  JosepTi  Wheeler,  William  M. 
Lowe,  ex-United  States  Senator  Luke  Prior,  Hon.  David  E.  Shelby,  Governor  E.  O. 
Nsal,  and  others.  Four  of  them  were  allowed  to  argue  the  defense,  and  Colonel  Talia- 
ferro was  one  of  tlie  number. 

Colonel  Taliaferro  is  a  Knight  Templar. 

He  was  united  in  marriage  October  13,  1874,  with  Miss  Eva,  daughter  of  Colonel 
J.  W.  Sloss,  of  Birmingham.  Four  children  have  been  born  to  them,  two  of  whom  are 
living — Edwin  T.  and  Mary. 

34^  Jefferson   County. 

U/illiam  meCinn  Brooks.  ;A'' Alabama  roads  lead  to  Birmingham/- 
'    '  '  '  »         The  most  distinguished  acquisition  to  the 

legal  profession  resident  in  the  city  has  been  recently  announced  in  the  arrival  of 
Judge  Brooks.  No  lawyer  now  living,  or  who  has  ever  lived,  in  this  State,  is  better  or 
more  honorably  known  at  its  supreme  court  bar  than  he. 

There  is  no  one  branch  of  the  legal  practice  in  which  Judge  Brooks  has  not 
acquired  en\'iable  fame.  His  mental  equipoise,  his  profound  study,  his  power  of  argu- 
ment, his  sound  observation,  and  his  personal  force,  qualify  him  to  take  up  cases  of  the 
greatest  magnitude  in  every  branch  of  the  profession,  and  to  stand  in  all  the  peer  of  the 
foremost  counselor  before  the  bar  of  judgment.  He  is  a  great  lawyer  in  civil  practice, 
because  he  has  mastered  the  philosophy  of  the  law  in  its  widest  ranges  and  its  pro- 
foundest  intricacies.  He  is  a  great  criminal  lawyer,  because,  added  to  the  most  thor- 
ough comprehension  of  the  spirit  andintentof  criminal  laws,  he  is  in  ardent  sympathy 
with  the  society  in  which  he  lives,  a  man  of  the  people,  and  a  judge  of  the  motives  of 
classes  of  people  and  of  individual  men,  par  excelknce. 

Judge  Brooks  probably  never  wrote  a  rhyme  among  the  millions  of  lines  he  has 
written  touching  every  phase  of  public  and  private  rights  and  social  reform.  The  great 
theme  of  life  has  been  his  studv  for  full  half  century.  He  has  given  utterance  to  opin- 
ions matured  amid  the  gravest  problems  of  politics  and  society.  No  thinker  with  less 
ardent  sympathy  with  the  life  of  the  whole  people  around  him  could  so  successfully 
have  commanded  attention  and  approbation  and  fame. 

William  M.  Brooks  was  born  in  181.5,  in  Sumter  District,  South  Carolina.  He  came 
of  Virginia  stock,  who  had  espoused  the  cause  of  the  colonies  in  the  war  for  American 
Independence.  The  parents,  AVilliam  ^Jliddleton  and  Elizabeth  Brooks,  nee  Watson, 
both  natives  of  Virginia,  immigrated  from  that  State  to  South  Carolina,  and  then  to 
Alabama,  in  18o3,  and  settled  in  the  rich  county  of  Marengo,  for  long  one  of  the  four 
richest  counties  in  the  State.  The  father  soon  died,  after  reaching  the  Alabama  home. 
William  M.  was  recalled  from  the  South  Carolina  College  at  Columbia,  then  the  most 
aristocratic  educational  institution  in  theCotton  States,  to  return  to  Alabama  to  assume 
charge  of  his  deceased  father's  estate,  and  to  care  for  a  large  family — the  widowed 
mother  and  6e.ven  daughters.  The  youth  proved  equal  to  the  emergency  of  his  strange 
situation.  He  found  time  to  continue  his  literary  studies  and  to  read  law  as  well.  In 
1838  he  was  licensed  to  practice,  being  then  in  his  twenty-third  year.  He  optned  a 
law  office  in  Linden,  the  Marengo  County  seat,  and  became  associated  in  the  practice 
with  William  Robinson,  a  wealthy  cotton  planter  of  the  vicinage,  who  had  lately  moved 
to  Marengo  from  Charleston,  South  Carolina.  Two  years  after  entering  the  practice 
Mr.  Brooks  was  elected  district  solicitor.  In  this  office  he  acquired  high  reputation. 
Some  cases  of  extraordinary  importance  were  prosecuted  by  him,  in  which  he  encoun- 
tered such  lawyers  as  Murphy,  John  Erwin,  Henley,  F,  S.  Lyon,  Manning,  and  others, 
whose  names  adorn  the  record  of  the  bench  and  bar  of  Alabama.  Solicitor  Brooks 
prosecuted  Gaines,  a  young  man,  for  the  murder  of  his  stepfather,  Curry,  on  the 
streets  of  Linden.  The  ablest  criminal  lawyer  then  in  the  circuit,  Murphy,  of  Eutaw, 
w^s  called  in  to  oppose  the  solicitor.  It  was  in  this  case  that  Murphy,  in  the  course  of 
his  address,  became  so  impassioned  and  aroused  by  his  theme  that,  stooping  to  the 
floor,  with  his  ear  down,  he  listened  to  hear  the  mutterings  of  Curry's  soul  in  Hades, 
and  told  the  jury  what  he  had  heard ! 

After  six  years  of  distinguished  success  as  State  prosecutor  in  the  circuit,  Mr. 
Brooks  resigned  his  office,  and  at  once  entered  upon  a  general  practice,  which  has 
never  been  surpassed  and  seldom  equaled  in  this  State,  in  the  essentials  of  great  causes 

Biographical.  343 

stoutly  fought,  great  principles  incorporated  in  tin-  niiiuuon  law,  ami  riih  [lecuniary 
rewards  to  the  practitioner. 

In  person,  Judge  Brooks  is  of  medium  height,  well  proportioned,  with  elastic  and 
easy  carriage.  A  massive  chin,  clear,  steel-gray  eye,  broad  brows,  always  a  clean  shaven 
face,  and  attire  scrupulously  neat,  make  the  tout  enscmhle  of  one  of  the  most  striking 
personnels  among  all  the  lawyers  at  any  of  the  courts  of  the  State. 

The  status  of  Judge  Brooks  at  the  bar  of  Alabama  is  disclosed  in  the  reports  of  the 
supreme  court  cases,  covering  some  forty-five  years.  His  legal  biography  is  there  writ- 
ten to  endure  forever.  The  reported  cases,  in  which  his  name  as  counsel  appears, 
cover,  as  we  have  said,  the  whole  range  of  the  practice.  The  most  decisive  special  cases 
going  to  develop  the  constitutional  protection  of  the  rights  of  the  people  to  the  enjoy- 
ment of  life,  liberty,  and  property,  there  appear.  The  briefs  in  these  cases  are  all  alike 
in  the  evidence  they  expose  of  the  legal  force  of  the  counsel.  They  are  thorough  state- 
ments of  each  case  in  its  bearing  upon  the  science  of  law  and  upon  the  facts  upon 
which  the  cause  'entered  the  court.  There  is  not  a  superfluous  word  injected,  nor  a 
cognate  theory  of  the  law  omitted.  Whatever  manuscript  in  the  counsel's  handwriting 
may  come  up  with  the  papers,  is  in  bold,  clear  characters,  the  pages  neatly  folded,  and 
all  the  accompanying  papers  arranged  with  that  method  which  a  merchant's  confiden- 
tial clerk  might  be  expected  to  practice.  The  clearness  of  the  mental  processes,  the 
vigor  of  the  logic,  the  forcefulness  of  the  language  used,  comprise  the  channels  through 
which  the  profound  knowledge  of  the  lawyer  reaches  the  court. 

As  a  jury  lawyer  Judge  Brooks  is  powerful,  impressive,  and  most  successful.  He 
seems  never  to  have  learned  any  of  the  platitudes  of  the  schools  of  rhetoric.  The  client  is 
his  friend  who  has  a  just  cause  to  be  advocated,  and  the  advocate  is  a  part  of  that  cause. 
It  has  become  a  personal  matter  with  him  to  explain  its  claims  to  the  jury's  undivided 
and  prompt  consent.  The  words  in  which  his  thoughts  flow  are  not  chosen — they 
belong  naturally  to  the  case.  With  vehemence  and  rapidity  they  flow  on  without  halt 
or  stammer.  The  manner  is  the  manner  of  the  speaker  absolutely  absorbed  by  his  sub- 
ject. There  is  no  posing  for  effect,  and  no  thought  that  a  moment  will  come  when  pos- 
ing for  effect  will  be  in  order.  Nervous  energy  of  manner,  which  comes  from  energy  of 
thought,  expresses  the  oratory.  This  enthusiastic  address  may  continue  for  a  half  hour, 
or  for  three  hours.  The  speaker  begins  where  his  subject  begins,  and  ends  where  that 
which  he  had  to  say  is  finished.  Judge,  jury,  nor  spectators  believe  that  he  has  even 
then  said  all  that  he  might,  if  disposed  to  proceed  with  his  argument. 

Politics  were  the  pastime  of  the  educated  Southern  gentry  in  the  old  regime.  The 
plantation  life  of  ease  in  the  country,  and  the  town  life  of  regularity  in  all  avocations, 
marked  the  entire  population.  The  changes  in  the  seasons  alone  disturbed  the  current 
of  rural  prosperity.  In  town,  the  lawyers  had  only  great  cases,  to  be  heard  in  a  few 
regular  courts,  months  apart,  while  the  merchants  bought  goods  in  New  York  in  spring 
and  autumn,  and  collected  their  o\\  n  open  accounts  but  once  a  year,  at  any  time  from 
January  1  to  March  or  April. 

Politics  agitated  the  entire  educated  class  of  whites,  but,  of  course,  never  entered 
the  ranks  of  the  blacks.  Whosoever  felt  himself  equal  to  a  stump  speech  was  certain 
to  experiment  with  his  gift.  Thus,  among  the  whole  number  of  experimenters,  the 
rule  of  the  survival  of  the  fittest  was  sure  to  take  effect  and  rule  the  constituency.  The 
writer,  then  a  mere  lad,  was  moved  to  attend  a  great  meeting  of  the  people  of  Marengo 
County  at  Linden.  The  question  to  be  discussed  was,  "The  Rights  of  the  South  in  the 

The  question  was  entangled  in  Mr.  Clay's  latest  compromise,  which  repealed  the 
next  previous  compromise.    There  was  very  strong  talk  in  South  Carolina  then  about 

344  Jefferson   County. 

"disrupting  every  tie  that  bound  her  to  the  Union."  Mr.  Calhoun  was  dead,  and  the 
brunt  of  the  secession  movement  fell  upon  the  Charleston  Mercury.  A  convention  of 
the  State  of  Georgia,  meanwhile,  had  deliberated  on  the  situation,  and  decided  to  wait 
forthe  "next  aggressive  movement."  Thereupon,  South  Carolinaresolved  "to  acquiesce 
under  existing  circumstances."  Pending  all  this,  the  Governor  of  Alabama,  Collier,, 
was  roundly  abused  by  pretty  much  everybody  because  he  did  not  know  exactly  what 
ought  to  be  done  with  the  Alabama  militia,  if  the  Federal  army  should  be  sent  down 
to  South  Carolina  to  take  possession. 

Of  course,  as  naturally  as  water  would  seek  its  level,  Mr.  Brooks  entered  vigorously 
into  the  discussion  of  all  these  great  questions.  He  was  a  South  Carolinian,  and  must 
needs  stand  squarely  up  for  his  State  in  a  trouble  of  that  kind.  The  Linden  meeting 
filled  the  capacious  courthouse  to  the  utmost.  The  planters  from  all  parts  of  the  coun- 
try were  the  audience.  The  county  had  long  been  well  known  as  Whig,  for  Clay,  and 
the  Union.  The  violent  agitation  of  the  slavery  question  in  Congress  had  begun  to  tell 
upon  public  sentiment.  When  the  meeting  organized,  so  precarious  was  the  polit- 
ical complexion  that  it  elected  F.  S.  Lyon,  ex-member  of  Congress,  and  a  conservative 
Democrat,  Chairman,  and  Joel  C.  DuBose,  a  Whig  and  Union  man  of  much  personal 
popularity.  Secretary.  Discussion  began,  and  a  committee  was  appointed,  with  Andrew 
P.  Calhoun,  son  of  the  dead  statesman,  Chairman.  The  committee  retired  to  a  sepa- 
rate room  and  deliberated  until  dark,  and  being  composed  of  the  friends  of  both  polit- 
ical views,  could  make  no  united  report.  Meanwhile,  Mr.  Alston,  member  of  Congress, 
and  Mr.  Shields,  a  very  handsome  man  and  able  speaker,  made  long  speeches  to  the 
meeting.  The  Congressman  was  a  Union  Democrat,  and  compromise  man.  Mr.  Shields 
had  been  to  Congress  and  been  in  the  diplomatic  service,  and  was  a  Union  man. 
Toward  the  close  of  this  great  day  of  discussion  and  excitement,  the  young  lawyer,  Mr. 
Brooks,  took  the  stand  to  speak.  He  at  once  arrested  attention.  Plaudits  began, 
shouts  and  hurrahs  followed.  The  audience  was  growing  wild  with  enthusiasm — at 
least,  that  part  which  agreed  with  the  orator.  Impelled  by  their  sympathy,  he  mounted 
a  chair,  and  then  got  firmly  upon  the  judge's  desk,  above  the  heads  of  all,  and  plead 
for  South  Carolina  and  "the  rights  of  the  South  in  the  Territories."  After  Mr.  Brooks 
left  his  elevated  position,  and  sufficient  quiet  had  taken  possession,  a  division  of  the 
house  showed  the  "  Southern  Rights  "  men  to  be  in  the  majority.  Mr.  Brooks'  speech 
was  the  only  pronounced  argument  of  the  day.  The  Democratic  orators  were  com- 
promise meu  ;  the  Whigs  were  for  waiting  an  "  overt  act "  to  assert  the  right  of  seces- 
sion. Brooks  had  settled  opinions  upon  current  events,  and  spoke  them  out  with  no 
uncertain  sound. 

The  year  following  Mr.  Brooks  moved  to  Mobile,  to  a  broader  field  for  the  exercise 
of  his  talents.  He  entered  there  into  copartnership  with  Mr.  A.  R.  Manning,  a  law- 
yer of  high  ability,  and  especially  in  the  equity  branch  of  the  practice.  Mr.  Manning 
afterward  became  a  member  of  the  Alabama  Supreme  Court.  Mr.  Brooks  rose  at 
once  to  the  front  rank  at  the  Mobile  bar.  The  yellow-feyer  scourge  of  1853,  unequaled 
in  virulence  and  duration,  drove  him  from  his  new  home.     He  then  settled  in  Marion. 

Previous  to  Mr.  Brooks'  removal  to  RIobile  he  had  been  a  partner  with  William  M. 
Byrd,  a  famous  equity  lawyer,  who  afterward  sat  on  the  State  Supreme  Court  Bench, 

In  the  midst  of  a  very  lucrative  practice  at  the  courts  of  several  of  the  richest 
counties  of  the  State,  Mr.  Brooks  was  appointed  |by  Governor  John  Anthony  Winston, 
the  "  Old  Hickory  of  Alabama,"  to  the  circuit  judgeship.  In  a  few  months  he  was 
elected  to  a  full  term  by  the  people,  without  opposition.  He  did  not  want  the  office, 
but  he  wanted  to  study  more  of  the  books  of  his  profession  than  he  could  do  in  active 
practice,  and  accepted  it,  not  altogether  contentedly.     In  the  period  of  Judge  Brooks*' 

Biographical.  345- 

service  on  the  bench,  the  celebrated  case  of  the  State  versai  Dorman  was  tried.  The 
decision  fixed  finally  in  Alabama  the  difference  between  the  powers  of  the  State  Con- 
stitution over  the  people,  and  the  functions  of  the  Federal  Constitution. 

In  1856  Mr.  Brooks  made  many  able  political  speeches  before  large  audiences  in 
favor  of  Buchanan  and  Breckinridge.  One  of  these  was  delivered  at  a  grand 
protracted  political  meeting  at  Union  Town.  Among  the  orators  was  the  famous  Wil- 
liam L.  Yancey.  It  fell  to  Mr.  Brooks'  part  to  follow  Mr.  Yancey,  and  that  he  was  able 
to  interest  the  audience,  under  the  circumstances,  is  evidence  that  he  had  remarkable 
capacity  as  a  stump  speaker. 

Judge  Brooks  soon  retired  from  the  bench,  and  resumed  his  practice.  It  was  at 
this  period  that  he  formed  a  partnership  with  Mr.  I.  W.  Garrott,  of  Marion.  Mr.  Gar- 
rott,  then  Brigadier  General  in  the  Confederate  Army,  was  killed  in  the  siege  of  Vicks- 

Judge  Brooks  had  never  sought  political  office.  He  did  not  desire  office  of  any  kind. 
His  political  views,  as  pronounced  at  the  Linden  meeting  of  1850,  had  been  consistently 
adhered  to.  He  had  quietly  studied  the  questions  involved,  and  on  all  proper  occa- 
sions discussed  them  fearlessly  and  ably  before  the  people.  He  held  his  audiences  as 
long  as  he  chose  to  speak.  He  was  in  no  sense  a  demagogue.  His  addresses  were 
intended  to  enlighten  public  opinion,  and  they  invariably  had  that  effect.  He  was  not: 
of  the  mental  or  moral  nature  of  a  "  compromise  man." 

When  the  Democrats,  then  virtually  the  people  of  Alabama,  held  their  convention 
in  January,  1860,  to  appoint  delegates  to  the  forthcoming  Charleston  convention,  called 
to  nominate  a  candidate  of  the  party  for  the  Presidency,  Mr.  Brooks  was  made  one  of 
the  delegates  to  Charleston,  and  withdrew  from  that  convention  with  the  Alabama  del- 
egation. He  took  a  very  active  and  influential  part  in  the  canvass  for  Breckinridge  and 
Lane  in  Alabama,  delivering,  among  many  other  speeches,  a  very  able  one  at  Selma, 
along  with  Judge  S.  F.  Rice,  John  T.  Morgan,  C.  C.  Pegues,  and  others  of  the  chief 
speakers  of  that  section  of  the  State. 

When  the  Alabama  convention  was  called  to  formally  secede  from  the  Union,  Judge 
Brooks  was  honored  with  election  to  the  presidency  of  that  august  assemblage.  There 
sat  W.  L.  Yancey,  John  T.  Morgan,  John  Cochran,  E.  C.  Bullock,  and  scores  of  the 
ablest  men  in  the  State. 

During  the  war  Judge  Brooks  was  chairman  of  a  committee  to  provide  sustenance 
for  the  support  of  the  families  of  Confederate  soldiers,  non-slaveholders  of  the  hill 
country  in  the  vicinage  of  Birmingham  and  Jefferson  County.  Toward  the  latter 
months  of  the  war  he  was  appointed  Colonel  of  a  regiment  of  reserve  troops.  ^ 

In  1860  Judge  Brooks  moved  to  Selma,  and  at  once  became  absorbed  in  a  very  v 
heavy  and   lucrative  practice,  involving  many  questions  arising  in  one  phase  of  civil- 
ization and  relegated  to  another  for  adjustment.     His  profound  study  of  the  problems 
brought  forward  has  increased  his  fame  as  a  lawyer. 

Of  late  years  Judge  and  Mrs.  Brooks,  in  beautiful  co-operation,  have  labored  in  the 
cause  of  "prohibition." 

Early  in  life  Judge  Brooks  married  Miss  Terrell,  a  daughter  of  a  Marengo  County 
cotton  planter.     William,  Richard,  and  Ida — two  sons  and  a  daughter — were  born  to  this   y^ 
union.     At  the  age  of  seventeen  William  entered  the  Confederate  army,  and  rose  to- 
the  rank  of  Captain. 

The  first  wife  having  died.  Judge  Brooks  married  a  very  accomplished  Virginia, 
lady.  Miss  Annie  E.  Thomas. 

After  twenty  years  residence  in  Selma,  Judge  Brooks  is  now  an  esteemed  resident 

346  Jefferson    Cojcnty. 

of  the  city  of  Birmingham.  Coming  here,  he  took  into  copartnership  with  him  John 
Vary,  a  nephew,  and  a  young  lawyer  of  ahiiity  and  high  promise.  The  tirm  is  now 
Broolis,  Bush  &  Vary. 

Jan\OR  F  W;^tl/HnS  present  Solicitor  for  Jeflferson  County,  was  born  at  Ely- 
\  ■    /  \    I     '    ton,  in  the  residence  now  owned  and  occupied  by  Dr.  A. 

Eubank,  near  the  "  Big  Spring,"  April  10, 1851,  the  third  son  of  Dr.  Nathaniel  Hawkins. 

He  comes  from  an  ancestry,  on  both  sides,  of  honest,  sturdy,  and  industrious  stock, 
making  no  pretension  to  nor  coveting  any  of  the  glitter  and  show  of  life,  but  resting 
deservedly  upon  genuine  worth.  His  grand  father,  Williamson  Hawkins,  was  one  of  the 
first  white  men  to  invade  the  forest  of  Jones  Valley  with  his  gun  and  axe,  and  share 
its  primitive  fastnesses  with  the  Indian,  the  bear,  and  the  panther,  having  settled  in 
the  valley  from  South  Carolina,  about  where  Woods  Station  or  Woodlawn  now  is,  in 
the  year  1813,  soon  afterward  moving  over  to  Village  Creek,  on  what  has,  for  three- 
quarters  of  a  century,  been  known  as  the  Hawkins  plantation,  the  property  now 
embracing  Pratt  Mines  and  the  Thomas  plant,  where  he  lived  until  his  death,  in  1876, 
leaving  a  large  number  of  children,  grandchildren,  great  grandchildren,  and  great 
great  grandchildren.  Out  of  five  sons,  his  third  son,  Nathaniel,  alone  showed  any  taste 
or  disposition  for  acquiring  more  than  an  ordinary  education,  and  he  became  a  ripe 
scholar,  and  after  his  marriage,  attended  a  medical  college  in  New  York,  and  made  rep- 
utation, during  a  long  and  useful  life,  as  a  physician  of  extraordinary  judgment  and 
skill,  and,  dying  in  1877,  left  his  family  comfortable  in  worldly  goods  and  rich  in  the 
heritage  of  a  good  name. 

The  wife  of  Dr.  Nathaniel  Hawkins  was  Miss  Maria  Welton,  daughter  of  a  farmer 
in  New  England,  whose  familj-  comprised  the  original  proprietors  of  the  towns  of 
Farmington,  Mattatuck,  Waterbury,  and  other  New  England  colonial  towns,  all  of 
whom  held,  with  sacred  fidelity,  to  the  articles  signed  in  1674.  Miss  Welton  proved  a 
strong  and  congenial  helpmate,  with  her  energy,  nerve,  and  fine  accomplishments,  to 
her  young  Southern  husband,  and  much  of  his  success  is  justly  accredited  to  her  influ- 
ence and  ambition.  She  was  practically  the  founder  of  the  Episcopal  Church  in  Jef- 
ferson County,  and,  without  a  pastor  or  a  joint  communicant  for  forty  years,  held  to 
the  faith  and  labored  for  her  church  until  she  lived  to  see  a  new  generation  grow  up  to 
support  her  cherished  cause  as  she  declined  down  the  hill  of  life.  She  died  in  1883,  at 
the  age  of  seventy-six  years,  at  the  old  homestead  at  Elyton. 

As  all  Southern  fortunes  were  swept  away  by  the  war,  the  training  young  James' 
father  had  given  him  as  a  farmer  boy  stood  him  in  good  turn  now,  for  he  and  his 
younger  brothers  took  up  the  plow  and  finished  out  the  rows,  where  the  negroes  had 
left  them  when  Wilson's  raid  stopped  farming  operations  here  in  the  spring  of  1865. 
For  four  years  he  continued  to  make  a  good  hand,  when  needed,  on  the  farm.  In  1869 
the  University  of  Alabama  was  in  the  hands  of  a  radical  board,  who  were  little  better 
than  the  vandals  who  destroyed  the  buildings.  Mr.  Hawkins  therefore  decided  to 
enter  the  University  of  the  South  at  Sewanee,  Tenn.  He  was  the  seventeenth  student 
who  matriculated  in  that  institution.  He  remained  at  college  three  years  and  finished 
his  course  as  then  prepared  there,  but  took  no  degrees,  as  the  University  had  not  then 
arranged  degrees.  He  was  admitted  to  the  bar  before  Judge  Mudd,  in  September, 
1872,  after  six  months  hard  study  in  a  law  office.  In  November,  of  the  same  year,  he 
married  Miss  Tempe  Fitts,  of  Tuscaloosa,  and  has  since  practiced  law  in  this  county. 
He  inherits,  in  a  large  degree,  the  combined  virtues  of  his  parents,  having  the  activity, 
push,  sagacity,  and  ambition  of  the  Yankee,  and  the  courage,  judgment,  common 
sense,  and  genial  afiability  of  his  paternal  Southern  ancestry.     Unlike  his  relatives 



Biographical.  349 

here,  he  soon  showed  a  decided  taste  for  public  lite,  and  his  profession  gave  hiiu  full 
opportunities  to  cultivate  this  taste.  He  became  at  once  prominent  as  a  worker  and 
writer  in  the  hard-fought  political  contests  waged  after  he  attained  majority. 

In  December,  1874,  he  moved  to  Shelby  County,  to  take  a  law  partnership  with 
Senator  John  T.  Morgan,  who  was  then  overloaded  with  practice  in  that  county,  and 
just  entering  into  politics.  He  remained  there  for  only  two  years,  the  only  period  of 
his  life  spent  in  residence  outside  of  Jefferson  County.  While  in  Shelby  County  with 
Mr.  William  McMath,  now  deceased,  Mr.  Hawkins  founded  and  edited  the  Shelby 
Sentinel,  now  owned  and  published  by  Mr.  MeCall,  at  Calera,  and  did  strong  work 
for  the  cause  of  good  government  and  white  supremacy  in  that  part  of  the  State. 
After  returning  home,  he  bought  an  interest  in  the  Jefl'erson  Independent,  and  for 
four  years  was  the  political  editor  of  that  influential  paper.  For  some  time  he  was 
general  guardian  of  the  county,  and  resigned  this  position  in  1881.  In  1880  he  was  the 
Democratic  nominee  for  representative  in  the  lower  house  of  the  legislature,  and  was 
defeated,  after  a  hot  contest  on  the  stump,  by  a  majority  of  seven.  Again,  in  1SS2,  he 
was  the  Democratic  candidate  for  representative,  and  defeated  his  former  opponent, 
and  served  for  that  term  with  great  credit  to  himself  and  benefit  to  his  constituents,  being 
on  the  judiciary  committee,  chairman  of  committee  on  mining  and  manufacturing, 
and  one  of  the  leading  debaters  on  the  floor  of  the  house.  In  December,  1880,  he  was 
appointed  assistant  solicitor  for  this  county,  and  served  in  that  capacity  for  six  years, 
proving  an  able  prosecuting  officer.  In  December,  1884,  he  was  elected  by  the  legisla- 
ture solicitor  for  Jeflferson  County,  and  again  re-elected  to  that  office  by  the  legislature 
in  December,  1886.  He  has  a  wife  and  six  children,  and  is  proud  of  his  native  country, 
and  enjoys  its  progress  and  prosperity.  He  had  three  brothers  and  two  sisters.  His 
eldest  brother.  Captain  Williamson  M.,  was  a  brilliant  young  doctor,  and  gave  up  his 
life  for  the  Southern,  being  killed  in  the  battle  of  Murfreesboro,  while  leading 
his  company  in  a  charge. 

His  next  oldest  brother,  Richard  N.,  is  also  a  doctor,  and  now  living  at  Elyton, 
while  Hobart  W.,  the  youngest,  is  a  successful  and  progressive  farmer,  and  also  lives  at 
Elyton.  His  eldest  sister,  Sarah,  is  the  wife  of  French  Nabers,  and  lives  at  Monte- 
vallo.  The  other  sister,  Amy,  who  was  the  wife  of  Ellis  Phelan,  died  at  Birmingham, 
in  1881. 

Mr.  Hawkins  was  one  of  the  few  native  Jefferson  County  young  men  who  appre- 
ciated the  grand  advantages  possessed  by  this  county,  and  has  kept  apace  with  its 
rapid  progress,  and  enjoys  the  fruits  of  its  development,  and  has  been  amply  able  to 
hold  his  own  with  the  splendid  intellect  and  energy  that  has  crowded  his  profession 
from  nearly  every  State  of  the  Union.  His  high  sense  of  justice,  even-tempered  judg- 
ment, and  firm  discretion,  backed  by  a  thorough  knowledge  of  law  and  long  experi- 
ence in  criminal  prosecution,  makes  him  an  officer  that  the  courts  and  attorneys 
respect  and  admire,  and  his  genial  humor,  kind  heart,  and  affable  nature,  has  won 
friends  of  all  his  county  people,  and  very  many  throughout  the  State. 

Jnhn  rn^Rnn  rHarUn  Representative  from  the  Sixth  Congressional  Dis- 
*-"/'/  /'l«^0^7  /H«l'»-"/»  trict  of  Alabama,  is  a  descendant  of  distinguished 
ancestors.  His  father's  lineage  traces  to  the  Huguenots,  who  sought  America 
before  the  llevolution.  They  became  settlers  of  South  Carolina,  and  subse- 
quently removed  to  Virginia,  but  his  father  was  born  in  Tennessee.  His  mother  was 
a  member  of  the  historic  Mason  family  of  Virginia,  and  cousin  of  John  Y.  Mason,  who 
descended  from  Colonel  John  Mason,  a  British  subject,  and  soldier  in  the  army  of 
Charles  I.     l'jK)n  the  execution  of  that  monarch,  Colonel   Jfason  fled  to  America,  and 

35°  Jefferson   County. 

from  him  descended  the  Mason  family,  one  of  the  most  celebrated  in  Virginia.  Joshua 
Lanier  Martin,  the  father  of  our  subject,  was  a  stalwart  figure  in  the  history  of  Ala- 
bama. Born  in  Blount  County,  Tennessee,  December  5,  1799,  and  receiving  but  a  plain 
English  education,  by  native  and  inherent  attributes  he  rose  to  become  the  Governor 
of  a  great  State,  and  only  his  untimely  death,  in  the  full  meridian  of  life  and  useful- 
ness, prevented  him  from  achieving  still  greater  honors.  Joshua  L.  Martin  began  the 
study  of  law  in  Elizabeth  City,  North  Carolina,  where  he  was  licensed,  and  in  1819 
came  to  Alabama,  and  finished  his  law  studies  with  his  brother  in  Franklin  County. 
He  began  practice  in  Athens,  in  Limestone  County,  where  he  continued  until  1839, 
when  he  removed  to  Tuscaloosa,  where  he  continued  in  active  life  until  his  death. 

Governor  Martin's  political  life  began  in  1822,  when  he  was  chosen  to  represent 
his  district  in  the  State  legislature,  where  he  was  continued  until  1827,  excepting  the 
session  of  1826. 

In  1829  he  was  elected  solicitor  of  the  (then)  fourth  judicial  circuit,  and  subse- 
quently judge  of  the  circuit  court. 

In  1835  he  was  elected  to  C!ongress,  and  re-elected  in  1837.  In  1841  he  was  chosen 
one  of  the  State  chancellors,  and  in  1845  elected  Governor  of  the  State,  serving  one 
term.  In  1853  he  was  elected  to  the  lower  house  for  the  purpose  of  aiding  legislation 
in  securing  the  passage  of  the  charter  for  the  Alabama  Great  Southern  Railroad  Com- 
pany. This  was  his  last  appearance  in  public  life,  as  he  died  in  1856,  deeply  deplored 
throughout  the  State.  Seldom,  in  the  history  of  a  public  man,  have  honors  been  thrust 
BO  quickly  upon  him,  and  seldom,  indeed,  have  they  been  so  fairly  and  honorably 

Governor  Martin  was  never  defeated  for  a  public  office,  owing  his  success  to  the 
unfaltering  devotion  of  the  young  men  of  the  State,  whom  he  endeared  to  him  by  the 
great  kindness  of  his  heart,  and  the  great  interest  he  ever  displayed  for  their  material 
progress  and  advancement.  He  was  twice  married,  each  time  to  a  sister  of  Hon.  Wil- 
liam J.  Mason,  and  left  four  sons. 

John  Mason  Martin  was  born  January  20,  1837,  and  received  the  best  education 
the  schools  of  the  country  aflbrded.  He  entered  the  State  University,  and  was  a  stu- 
dent there  for  over  two  years.  Resigning,  he  was  admitted  to  Centre  College,  Danville, 
Ky.,  and  was  graduated  from  that  institution  in  1856.  Deciding  upon  the  profession  of 
law,  he  became  a  student  under  Hon.  E.  W.  Peck,  who  was  subsequently  chief  justice 
of  the  State,  and  in  August,  1858,  was  admitted  to  practice  by  the  supreme  court. 

Commencing  practice  in  Tuscaloosa,  he  continued  until  April,  1861,  when  he 
enlisted  in  the  first  company  organized  there,  and  was  assigned  to  the  Fifth  Alabama 
Infantry.  He  remained  with  that  regiment  for  over  one  year,  when,  on  account  of 
disability,  he  was  discharged.  Unwilling  to  remain  out  of  the  service,  he  accepted  an 
appointment  as  captainandassistant  quartermaster  of  the  Forty-first  Alabama  Infantry, 
remaining  with  that  regiment  for  a  period  of  twenty  months.  His  health  unfitting  him 
for  the  duties  of  that  position,  he  was  transferred  to  Montgomery,  and  appointed  post 
quartermaster.  In  this  important  position  his  genius  for  business  asserted  itself,  and 
with  one  auditor  and  twelve  chief  clerks  he  dispatched  the  business  which  had  pre- 
viously demanded  the  services  of  a  number  of  officers.  He  found  the  office  in  disorder, 
and  the  service  being  inefficiently  administered,  but  in  a  short  period  he  brought  order 
from  chaos,  and  until  the  of  the  war  conducted  the  business  of  this  important 
branch  of  the  service  in  a  masterly  manner.  In  this  position  he  was  called  upon  to 
collect,  manufacture,  receive,  and  ship  the  stores,  clothing,  and  all  supplies  for  a  large 
army,  having  also  in  charge  the  Alabama  penitentiary,  which  he  had  converted  into  a 

Biographical.  351 

manufactory  for  army  supplies,  having  in  charge  never  less  than  400  men.  That  his 
work  was  well  performed  the  records  well  attest. 

Finding  liimself  at  the  close  of  the  war  in  destitute  circumstances,  he  entered  pro- 
fessional life  with  great  ardor,  but  was  soon  prostrated  by  paralysis.  Upon  regaining 
health  he  entered  political  life,  and  in  August,  1871,  was  elected  State  Senator  to  fill  a 
vacancy,  and,  in  1872,  was  chosen  for  a  full  term.  During  the  five  years  of  this  service 
he  was  for  three  years  the  president  p^o  tempore  of  that  body.  Refusing  re-election  he 
prosecuted  vigorously  his  profession  for  eight  years. 

In  1875  he  was  elected  professor  of  equity  jurisprudence  in  the  State  University, 
and  at  the  same  time  the  board  of  trustees,  at  the  request  of  the  faculty,  graduated 
him  with  the  degree  of  A.M.,  and  directed  that  his  name  should  be  enrolled  with  his 
original  class. 

In  1884,  yielding  to  the  wishes  of  the  Democracy  of  his  district,  he  was  nominated 
and  elected  to  the  Forty-ninth  Congress.  In  the  first  session  of  his  service  he  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  committees  of  elections  and  patents,  and  was  one  of  the  six  Democrats  who 
voted  against  the  consideration  of  the  "  Morrison  tariff  bill."  This  act  giving  ofiense 
to  the  agricultural  portion  of  his  district,,  he  was  defeated  for  renomination,  to  the  great 
regret  of  a  large  class,  who  admired  his  devotion  to  principle,  his  superior  ability,  and 
the  thorough  business  methods  with  which  he  dispatched  the  laborious  duties  of  this 
•important  position.  It  is  deeply  to  be  dejjlored  that  Captain  Martin  should  be  retired 
at  the  period  when  Alabama,  just  starting  upon  an  era  of  prosperity,  needs  in  the  Con- 
gress of  the  United  States  men  whose  grasi>  of  thought  is  equal  to  the  debate  of  the  great 
problems  of  the  day.  Suffice  it  to  say,  that  in  the  brief  period  of  his  service  he  is 
lecognized  as  one  of  the  leaders  of  his  party. 

September  11,  1886,  Captain  Martin  formed  an  association  with  Captain  A.  B. 
McEachin,  of  Tuscaloosa,  and  in  October,  1886,  they  removed  to  Birmingham,  where 
they  are  now  in  practice. 

It  is  wonderful,  considering  his  delicate  physical  organization,  that  he  has  contin- 
ued so  long  in  active  life.  Never  po.ssessing  good  health,  it  is  only  an  indomitable 
will,  and  a  resolution  to  do  or  die,  has  enabled  him  to  accomplish  the  amount  of  labor 
which  he  has  accomplished.  An  able  lawyer  and  a  thorough  business  man,  and  pos- 
eessing  the  varied  experiences  of  a  busy  professional  and  political  life,  he  will  always 
be  a  prominent  factor  in  the  history  of  Alabama,  and  add  much  to  the  bench  and  bar 
of  JefTerson  County. 

He  was  married  November  24,  1857,  to  Miss  Lucy  C.  Peck,  daughter  of  his  pre- 
ceptor, Hon.  E.  W.  Peck,  of  Tuscaloosa.  To  them  have  been  born  nine  children,  four 
of  whom  are  now  living — AVolsey  R.,  a  lawyer  of  Fort  Smith,  Arkansas ;  Lucy  G.  A., 
Sarah  M.,  and  Lydia  P. 

Captain  Martin  is  a  member  of  the  Knights  of  Honor,  Knights  of  Pythias,  and  a 
Knight  Templar. 

RobSrt    HCDrV     StSrrStt      P'""""'"^"''  among  the  lawyers  of    Jefferson 
V  /        '    /  *     County,  and  the  present  representative  of  the 

county  in  the  State  senate,  is  the  gentleman  whose  biography  follows.  He  is  a  native 
of  the  State,  born  in  Shelby  County  April  22d,  1846.  His  ancestors  were  all  emigrants 
from  the  British  Isles,  and  settled  in  the  "  Old  Dominion  "  State  during  the  early  colo- 
nial period.  His  paternal  grandfather  and  wife  emigrated  from  Virginia,  where  he  waa 
born,  and  settled  near  Bowling  Green,  Ky.,  subsequently  removing  to  Alabama,  where 
they  resided  until  their  death,  near  Montevallo. 

The  father  of  Mr.  Sterrett,  Alphonso  A.  Sterrett,  wae  born  in  Kentucky,  and  came, 

35-2  Jejfersoii    County. 

wlien  a  youth,  ti)  Alabama,  where  he  rewded  until  bis  deatli  in  l^T(i.  He  occupied  a 
I'onspicuous  place  in  the  history  of  the  State.  He  was  a  law  student  under  Chancellor 
Clark,  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1831,  and  before  the  age  of  22  was  elected  Judge  of  Shelby 
County  Court.  He  was  thrice  a  representative  in  the  legislature,  and  also  a  member  of 
the  convention  which  framed  the  present  State  constitution.  He  was  twice  married. 
The  mother  of  Robert  Henry  was  a  native  of  South  Carolina — her  maiden  name  was 
Elizabeth  M.  Gooch.  She  died  in  1849.  Her  ancestry  is  traced  to  Scotland,  subse- 
quently to  Virginia,  and  thence  to  the  Carolinas.  Her  father,  Henry  Gooch,  came  to 
Alabama  in  1822,  where  he  remained  until  his  death,  which  occurredin  Shelby  County. 

Some  portions  of  the  following  sketch  are  from  an  article  which  appeared  in  the 
New  South : 

"  Robert  H.  Sterrett  entered  the  University  of  Alabama  as  a  cadet,  remaining  until 
July,  1864,  when  he  was  commissioned  as  a  lieutenant  in  Company  C,  62d  Regiment 
Alabama  Volunteers,  C.  S.  A.  As  a  Confederate  soldier  he  actively  participated  in  the 
defense  of  Spanish  Fort  and  Blakely,  near  the  city  of  Mobile,  where  he  was  captured 
and  imi^risoned,  first  on  Ship  Island  and  afterward  in  New  Orleans.  On  his  liberation, 
in  186.5,  he  returned  home,  and,  finding  his  favorite  university  closed  on  account  of  the 
destruction  of  its  buildings  by  the  Federal  troops,  he  at  once  set  out  in  search  of  an 
educatinn.  He  first  applied  for  admisssion  to  the  University  of  North  Carolina,  but, 
finding  the  term  near  its  close,  concluded  to  return  home.  On  his  way  he  found  the 
University  of  Georgia  just  opening,  and  January  1,  1866,  he  entered  that  institution 
and  remained  until  the  close  of  the  .session.  In  October,  1866,  lie  entered  the  Univer- 
sity of  Virginia,  taking  a  special  classical  and  literary  course,  and  remained  in  that 
famous  school  until  June,  1807.  Returning  home,  he  entered  the  law  office  of  his 
father.  Judge  A.  A.  Sterrett,  under  whose  valuable  instruction  he  remained  one  year; 
then  entering  the  law  school  of  Lebanon  University,  Tennessee,  he  graduated  with 
high  honor  in  June,  1869.  Commencing  the  practice  of  his  profession  in  Selma,  Ala- 
bama, he  rapidly  grew  in  public  and  profe.ssional  reputation,  and  remained  in  that  city 
for  ten  vears,  during  which  time  he  labored  zealou.sly  in  erecting  the  beautiful  monu- 
ment to  the  memory  of  the  Confederate  soldiers,  and  in  freeing  his  beloved  State  from 
the  misrule  of  the  adventurers,  who,  with  the  aid  of  ignorant  negroes,  had  seized  upon 
its  government.  His  ability  and  earnestness  contributed  largely  to  the  election  of  the 
lamented  Houston,  in  1S74,  as  Governor  of  the  State,  and  to  the  adoption  of  the  present 
constitution  in  1875.  In  September,  1879,  he  removed  to  Birmingham,  where  he  now 
resides,  and  where  he  has,  solely  on  his  own  merits,  built  up  a  lucrative  and  extensive 
practice.  For  several  years  he  was  superintendent  of  the  Sabbath  school  connected 
with  the  First  Baptist  Church  of  Birmini;ham,  and  also  one  of  the  trustees  and 
deacons  of  the  same  church.  At  present  he  is  one  of  the  officers  of  the  Baptist 
church  on  the  South  Side,  in  Birmingham,  and  chairman  of  the  committee  raised  by 
the  Baptist  State  convention,  looking  to  the  location  of  a  Baptist  college  at  Birmingham 
or  some  other  desirable  point  in  Alabama.  In  1884,  the  people  of  the  Thirteenth  Sena- 
torial District,  recognizing  his  peculiar  fitness  for  the  position,  elected  him  to  the  State 
senate.  At  the  last  session  of  the  legislature,  his  superb  qualities  as  a  lawyer  and  legis- 
lator shone  conspicuously  in  the  passage  of  many  measures  of  vital  interest  to  his  dis- 
trict and  his  State.  The  bill  prohibiting  the  employment  of  convicts  in  the  mines,  or 
on  railroads,  except  in  cases  involving  moral  turpitude,  the  bill  for  improving  the  mode 
of  summoning  juries,  the  bill  permitting  employes  to  sue  and  recover  damages  for  inju- 
ries inflicted  by  employers  the  same  as  other  persons,  the  bill  repealing  the  levy  of 
two  per  cent,  tax  on  capital,  the  bill  creating  the  city  court  of  Birmingham,  and  one, 
requiring  the  public  roads  of  Jeflerson  County  to  be  worked  by  contract,  the  joint  mem- 

Biographical.  353 

orial  to  Congress  asking  for  Federal  aid  to  education  on  the  basis  of  illiteracy,  and  that 
aid  so  granted  be  disbursed  by  the  State  authorities.  All  these  important  measures 
were  actively  and  earnestly  pressed  by  Mr.  Sterrett.  He  also  labored  earnestly  to  secure 
the  passage  of  the  bill,  introduced  by  himself,  to  secure  better  accommodations  for  pas- 
sengers at  the  railroad  depots  in  Alabama,  and  was  largely  instrumental  in  the  defeat 
of  the  bill  conferring  extraordinary  powers  on  the  railroad  commission.  He  also  favored 
and  passed,  through  the  senate,  the  bill  requiring  convicts  to  be  returned  to  their  homes 
before  their  term  of  service  expired,  the  bill  extending  street  railways  beyond  the 
limits  of  towns  and  cities,  the  bills  greatly  changing  the  laws  of  descent  and  of  mar- 
ried women,  the  criminal  court  of  Jefferson  County,  the  State  school  of  technology,  and 
a  number  of  other  measures  looking  to  the  interest  of  his  city,  county,  and  State." 

While  in  the  senate,  Mr.  Sterrett  served  on  the  following  committees:  Judiciary, 
internal  improvements — of  which  he  was  chairman,  revision  of  the  journal,  and  priv- 
ileges and^jlections.  He  also  served  upon  several  important  joint  committees  of  con- 
ference of  the  two  houses. 

Mr.  Sterrett  was  married  in  1878  to  Miss  Carrie  Bell  Cleveland,  of  Selma,  a  daughter 
of  Morgan  S.  Cleveland,  who  was  a  prominent  citizen  there.  They  are  the  parents  of 
two  children — William  C.  and  Roberta.  He  lives  very  comfortably  in  his  own  house 
in  Birmingham,  and  has  prospered  here. 

"  The  life  of  Robert  H  Sterrett  has  been  most  marked  in  respect  to  its  activity  and 
usefulness.  He  is  one  of  those  rare  cliaracters  of  whom  it  can  be  justly  said:  'The 
world  is  better  for  bis  having  lived  in  it.'  Possessing  rare  mental  endowments,  a  power 
of  analysis  and  perceptions  of  the  keenest  character,  he  rarely,  if  ever,  makes  mistakes, 
either  in  men  or  measures.  As  a  worker,  he  is  indefatigable  ;  as  a  debater,  wonder- 
fully clear  and  forcible,  and  being  scrupulously  fair  and  unwaveringly  honest,  he  has 
attained  to  a  position,  in  the  public  estimation,  second  to  none  of  his  age  in  this  great 
State.  His  character,  for  purity  and  personal  goodness,  coupled  with  his  singular  fit- 
ness for  positions  of  responsibility,  will  make  him  a  prominent  figure  in  his  State  for 
many  years  to  come.  While  he  has  no  taste  for  a  political  career,  and  would  far  rather 
devote  himself  exclusively  to  his  profession,  yet  his  stern  sense  of  the  duties  of  Ameri- 
can citizenship  will  not  permit  him  to  decline  public  service  when  the  people  shall,  in 
the  future,  as  they  have  in  the  past,  require  it  of  him." 

JamOK  I  C  '?^TroV^  was  born  in  North  Carolina,  in  1837.  His  father,  a  native 
'  '\      J'   ^  North  Carolinian,  was  of  Scotch-Irish  and  English  extrac- 

tion. His  mother,  whose  maiden  name  was  Sarah  Sasnette,  was  of  French  descent, 
and  also  a  native  of  North  Carolina.  They  were  married  in  that  State,  and  emigrated 
to  Alabama  about  the  year  1838.  They  lived  for  a  time  in  Sumter  County,  subse- 
quently in  Pickens,  and  finally  in  Greene  County,  where  they  resided  until  their 
deaths.  His  mother  died  in  1875,  and  his  father  the  following  year.  His  father  was  a 
mechanic  and  farmer. 

There  were  twelve  children  in  the  family,  he  being  the  fifth.  Seven  of  this  num- 
ber attained  their  majority,  of  whom  five  are  still  living.  Their  places  of  residence 
are:  Mrs.  Eliza  Johnson,  Carrollton,  Mississippi;  Mrs.  Bettie  Latimer,  Greensboro,. 
Alabama ;  L.,  Springviile  Alabama ;  W.  C.  Garrett,  now  special  examiner  of  the 
Pension  Bureau,  of  the  Department  of  the  Interior,  with  oflBceat  Nashville,  Tennessee. 

The  subject  of  this  sketch  was  reared  mostly  in  Greene  County,  Alabama,  and 
received  his  early  educational  advantages  in  Forkland,  where  his  father  lived,  and  sub- 
sequently went  to  the  University  of  Alabama,  then  among  the  most  renowned  institu- 
tions of  learning  in  the  South.  He  graduated  in  the  year  1856.  In  the  same  year  he 

554  Jefferso7i    Co2i7ity. 

began  the  study  of  law  in  the  office  of  James  D.  Webb,  of  Greensboro,  Alabama,  \^  ho  was 
then  one  of  the  foremost  lawyers  of  the  State.  He  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1857,  and 
began  practice  in  Livingston,  Sumter  County,  Alabama,  and  lived  there  until  1860,  edit- 
ing the  Livingston  Messenger  during  two  years  of  the  time.  He  entered  the  Confed- 
erate Army  as  a  private  in  Company  G,  44th  Alabama  regiment,  and  remained  with  it 
eighteen  months,  and  was  then  appointed  to  a  position  in  the  Ordnance  Department 
of  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia  as  sergeant.  He  was  in  the  struggle  from  the  be- 
ginning to  the  end,  and  was  in  nearly  all  the  battles  of  the  above  army,  and  in  many 
of  those  of  the  Western  army.  After  the  battle  of  Sharpsburg  he  was  in  Law's  brigade, 
of  Hood's  division,  Longstreet's  corps,  until  early  in  1865,  when,  after  a  competitive 
examination,  at  Petersburg,  he  was  commissioned  in  the  artillery  and  ordnance,  and. 
ordered  to  duty  at  the  headquarters  of  the  Army  of  Northern  Virginia.  He  passed 
through  all  this  bloodshed  unharmed. 

Shortly  after  the  close  of  the  war,  he  went  to  Greensboro,  and  resumed  the  practice 
of  his  profession.  He  was  engaged  continually  there  for  nearly  fifteen  years,  and 
thoroughly  established  himself  as  one  of  its  most  successful  and  ablest  lawyers.  His 
reputation  was  not  bounded  by  local  lines,  but  extended  throughout  his  portion  of  the 
State,  which  had,  during  all  this  period,  some  of  the  brightest  legal  minds  before  the 
Alabama  bar.  In  the  year  1880  he  went  to  Gallatin,  Tennessee,  and  remained  there 
one  year.  Early  in  1882  he  came  to  Birmingham,  and  was  associated  with  the  Hon. 
Ellis  Phelan,  afterward  Secretary  of  State  under  Gov.  E.  A.  O'Neal,  and  upon  the  re- 
moval of  the  latter  to  the  State  of  Connecticut,  formed  a  new  copartnership  with  Oscar 
W.  Underwood,  which  still  continues. 

Reared  in  the  political  faith  of  the  old  Whig  party,  since  the  war  Mr.  Garrett  has 
always  been  an  ardent  supporter  of  the  Democratic  party,  and  has  rendered  that  party 
most  valuable  services.  He  has  held  no  political  position,  as  the  demands  of  his  prac- 
tice engrossed  most  of  his  time,  and  has  never  been  an  office  seeker.  He  is,  how- 
ever, one  of  those  characters  whom  his  political  associates  would  delight  to  honor,  and 
his  name  has  frequently  been  mentioned  in  connection  with  high  official  positions. 

Mr.  Garrett  was  married  in  1875,  to  Miss  Celia  L.  Walton,  a  native  of  Greene 
County,  Alabama,  but  at  that  time  a  resident  of  Gallatin,  Tennessee.  Both  himself  and 
wife  are  members  of  the  iL  E.  Church,  South. 

Since  his  residence  in  Birmingham,  he  has  devoted  himself  exclusively  to  the  prac- 
tice of  his  profession,  and  has  an  experience  highly  gratifying.  He  is  the  legal  counsel, 
and  a  stockholder,  in  some  of  the  staunchest  corporations  of  Birmingham. 

CHrtar  C  (Plarl^Cnn  was  born  in  Charleston,  South  Carolina,  in  1848.  His 
N    5  '  "-^      '    lineage  has  been   well  known  and  respected  since  the 

fifteenth  century,  and  is  of  both  English  and  Scotch  origin.  The  parents  of  Edgar  L. 
were.  Thomas  B.  and  S.  Caroline  Clarkson,  nee  Heriot.  They  moved  from  Charleston 
to  Columbia,  S.  C,  when  their  son  Edgar  was  quite  young,  and  lived  there  until  just 
before  the  close  of  the  "  War  between  the  States,"  when  their  handsome  residence 
was  destroyed  at  the  capture  and  burning  of  Columbia,  in  February,  1865.  After  the 
war  they  spent  much  time  in  Alabama,  with  their  daughter,  Mrs.  Peter  Brj'ce,  at  Tus- 
caloosa, and,  becoming  attached  to  this  State,  by  their  request,  they  were  buried  at 

Edgar  L.  Clarkson  was  living  with  his  father's  family  during  the  last  year  of  the 
great  war  of  1861-65.  Although  only  fifteen  years  old,  he  then  enlisted  as  a  private 
.soldier  of  the  Confederacy  in  Company  K,  7th  South  Carolina  Infantry.     In  this  capac- 

Biographical.  355 

it)'  he  served  as  a  soldier  until  the  termination  of  the  struggle.  He  was  the  youngest 
of  his  parents'  eight  sons,  who  all  served  in  tlie  Confederate  Army. 

Three  years  later,  Mr.  Clarkson  graduated  as  Valedictorian  from  the  University  of 
South  Carolina,  taking  the  degree  of  A.  B.  The  year  following,  he  took  a  diploma  in 
the  School  of  Civil  and  Military  Engineering,  from  the  same  institution,  and  immedi- 
ately thereafter  came  to  Alaharaa  to  live. 

In  1870  Mr.  Clarkson  entered  upon  the  study  of  the  law,  under  the  instruction  of 
that  accomplished  jurist  and  most  polished  gentleman,  H.  M.  Somerville,  of  Tusca- 
loosa, who  is  now  Associate  Justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Alabama.  In  1871,  he 
was  admitted  to  the  bar.  He  then  went  to  Mobile,  and  remained  a  few  months  in  the 
office  of  Hon.  Thomas  H.  Herndon,  afterward  member  of  Congress  from  that  district. 

In  1872  he  came  to  reside  in  Birmingham,  as  local  law  partner  with  his  learned 
instructor,  Mr.  Somerville.  This  copartnership  terminated  after  three  years  dura- 
tion, and  then  Mr.  Clarkson  formed  a  copartnership  in  the  law  with  Ellis  Phelan, 
who  later  became  Secretary  of  State  for  Alabama.  In  1876  he  was  appointed  to  codify 
the  city  ordinances  of  Birmingham.  In  January,  1885,  he  was  appointed  Register  in 
Chancery  for  JefTerson  County,  and  in  November,  1886,  declined  reappointment  to 
the  same  office. 

Mr.  Clarkson  is  a  careful  and  learned  lawyer,  and  devotes  himself  assiduously  to 
his  profession.  He  is  a  student  of  social  science,  and  has  written  and  lectured  on  that 

In  1875  Mr.  Clarkson  married  Jliss  Augusta,  daughter  of  Col.  John  J.  Jolly,  of 
Greene  County,  Ala.,  a  soldier,  lawyer,  and  statesman  well  known  to  Alabama  history. 
They  have  five  children.     Mr.  Clarkson  belongs  to  the  Episcopal  Church. 

ll/illi^/n  C  ll/^rM  is  a  native  of  Bibb  County,  Alabama,  and  was  born  April 
V  5th,  1835.     He  is  a  son  of  David  AVard,  and  his  ancestral 

history,  on  the  paternal  side,  is  an  exceedingly  interesting  one.  His  father  was  a  native 
of  Edgefield  County,  South  Carolina.  His  father's  father  was  a  Virginian,  of  direct  Eng- 
lish descent,  the  subject's  great  grandfather  condng  over  with  a  party  of  farmers,  who 
landed  on  Virginia  soil  about  the  year  1700.  He  subsequently  went  to  the  State  of 
South  Carolina.  The  grandfather  and  great  grandfather  were  both  soldiers  in  the  rev- 
olutionary war,  the  latter  losing  his  life,  and  the  former  an  eye,  and  a  great  uncle 
dying  in  the  trenches  at  the  siege  of  Savannah. 

The  maternal  side  of  his  history  is  no  less  interesting.  The  subject's  mother  was 
a  Georgian  by  birth,  and  her  ancestry  of  Virginia  origin,  who,  in  turn,  were  of  direct 
English  descendants.  Some  of  them  also  figured  in  the  revolutionary  war  for  inde- 
pendence. Her  immediate  ancestors  immigrated  to  Georgia  some  time  about  the 
beginning  of  the  present  century.  Her  maiden  name  was  A.  C.  E.  Carleton.  The  sub- 
ject's father  and  mother  were  married  iu  Bibb  County,  Alabama,  some  time  after  their 
immigration  to  the  State,  which  runs  back  to  an  early  period  in  its  history.  His 
mother  died  in  the  year  1859,  and  his  father  survived  her  only  one  year.  The  latter 
was  a  farmer  of  large  means.  There  were  twelve  children  in  the  family,  several  of 
whom  attained  maturity. 

The  subject  of  this  sketch  was  reared  in  Bibb  County,  and  received  his  first  school 
training  there.  After  attaining  a  sufticient  age  he  entered  the  University  of  Alabama, 
and  graduated,  as  the  first-honor  man,  in  the  class  of  1858.  This  was  no  mean  distinc- 
tion. For  three  years  after  this  he  was  professor  of  Pure  Mathematics,  Rhetoric,  and 
Logic,  in  Howard  College,  Marion,  Alabama,  one  of  the  leading  and  best  known  insti- 
tutions, noted  for  the  high  standard  of  education  attained  by  its  students. 

356  Jefferso7i    Cojinty. 

In  April,  1861,  he  entered  tlie  service  of  the  Confederacy  as  a  private  in 
Company  G  of  the  Fourth  Alabama  Infantry,  and  was  in  Lee's  army  of  Northern 
"Virginia.  He  was  in  the  first  battle  of  Manassas,  and  all  the  principal  battles  of  Vir- 
ginia up  to  tlie  bloody  engagement  of  Gettysburg,  where  he  was  wounded,  in  the 
charge  on  Little  Kound  Top,  made  by  General  Hood.  He  was  left  on  the  field  of  battle 
for  six  weeks  because  the  condition  of  his  wound  would  not  permit  his  removal.  Here 
he  endured  all  that  is  conceivable  of  suffering  and  hardship.  He  was  exchanged,  and 
in  the  winter  of  18()3-6-i  was  transferred  to  the  Sixty-second  Alabama  Regiment,  and 
became  Captain  of  Company  A  of  that  regiment.  He  remained  with  this  regiment 
until  its  capture  at  Blakely,  and  prior  to  this  was  wounded  twice  at  Spanish  Fort. 
For  some  weeks  he  was  a  prisoner  at  Ship  Island,  where  he  was  guarded  by  negro  soldiers. 
After  the  close  of  the  war  he  returned  home,  and  prepared  himself  for  the  bar  by 
private  study.  On  being  admitted  he  began  the  practice  at  Selma,  Alabama,  in  1866, 
and  has  always  been  found,  in  this  field  of  action,  taking  a  prominent  stand  before  the 
people.  He  always  took  a  prominent  part  in  politics,  except  offering  for  office,  and  was 
of  the  "  Simon  pure  "  democratic  way  of  thinking.  He  stood  by  the  people,  and 
labored  earnestly  for  their  interests  in  one  of  the  darkest  periods  of  the  State's  history — 
we  refer  to  the  trying  times  of  reconstruction.  He  did  not  hesitate  to  close  his  office, 
and,  at  his  own  expense,  traveled  through  several  counties,  speaking  wherever  a  crowd 
could  be  gathered  to  hear  him.  He  was  especially  active  in  the  political  campaigns  of 
1874,  1876,  and  1878.  At  one  time  he  was  a  member  of  the  city  government  of  Selma, 
and  interested  himself,  to  a  great  extent,  in  organizing  the  public  schools  of  the  city, 
now  one  of  the  most  admirable  school  systems  of  the  State. 

He  was  defeated  for  the  Mayoralty  of  Selma  in  the  election  of  1877.  While  never 
holding  an  office  he  has  frequently  acted  as  special  judge,  and  is  now  judge  in  the 
case  of  the  mortgage  bondholders  against  the  Selma  &  New  Orleans  Railroad  and  Emi- 
gration Association,  and  was  at  one  time  one  of  three  judges  of  a  special  court  of  the 
Supreme  Court  of  the  State,  in  the  case  of  Baldwin,  receiver,  against  the  Liverpool  and 
London  and  Globe  Insurance  Company,  and  delivered  an  opinion  in  the  case. 

In  December,  1885,  he  came  to  Birmingham  and  took  up  his  residence,  and 
since  then  has  devoted  himself  entirely  to  professional  labors.  He  owns  considerable 
property  here  and  elsewhere,  and,  among  other  things,  is  the  possessor  of  one  of  the 
handsomest  houses,  which  is  picturesquely  situated  on  the  South  Highlands,  in  the  city 
of  Birmingham. 

He  was  married,  in  1868,  to  Miss  Alice  Goodhue,  a  daughter  of  Professor  A.  B.  Good- 
hue, of  Howard  College,  Marion,  Alabama,  in  the  month  of  February,  1868  His  wife's 
father  is  now  a  resident  of  Gadsden,  Alabama.  Captain  Ward  is  the  father  of 
four  living  children,  whose  names  are  Alice  Lillian,  Julia,  May  Carleton,  and  an 
infant.  Both  the  Captain  and  Mrs.  Ward  are  members  of  the  South  Side  Baptist 
Church,  of  Birmingham.  Thus,  we  have,  in  Captain  Ward,  the  life  of  a  citizen,  well 
rounded  with  the  performance  of  high  and  honorable  duties. 

Dr>Kc>rh  0  /T\pfl(Hnr\/  ^  native  of  Jefferson  County,  Alabama,  was  born 
I'^UDKI  I.  j-1.  /m^j^aui  y,  October,  1845,  and  is  the  son  of  James  and  Nancy 
T.  McAdory.  He  lived  on  the  farm  until  he  was  seventeen  years  of  age,  and  then 
entered  the  University  of  Tuscaloosa.  He  left  the  university  in  1863  to  enter  the  army, 
enlisting  as  private  in  Company  F,  Seventh  Alabama  Cavalry,  from  which  com- 
mand he  was  transferred  to  Company  H,  Twenty-eighth  Alabama,  having  been  elected 
second  lieutenant  in  that  command. 

Biograpliical.  357 

At  the  close  of  the  war  he  entered  the  University  of  Mississippi,  and  graduated  in 
the  law  department,  in  18(58,  under  the  tutorship  of  L.  Q.  C.  Lamar.  He  commenced 
the  practice  of  law  at  Elyton  in  the  fall  of  1868.  Colonel  Ellis  Phelan  was  associated 
with  him  in  the  practice  three  years. 

In  1877  Mr.  McAdory  moved  to  Birmingham,  and  is  now  senior  member  of  the  firm 
of  McAdory  &  Gillespie.     He  served  six  years  as  justice  of  the  peace  in  Jefi'erson  County. 

In  December,  18G9,  he  was  married  to  Miss  Hattie  E.  Dupuy,  the  accomplished 
daughter  of  Alfred  and  Julia  Dupuy,  of  Jefferson  County. 

Our  subject  is  a  member  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South,  and,  also,  a 
Free  and  Accepted  Mason. 

T:>KnQC  Vf  \A7Qhh  '**  ^  descemlant  of  Henry  Y.  Webb,  one  of  the  early  jurists 
JdrrjLu  Li.  YY  LUU  of  Greene  County.  He  was  a  native  of  North  Carolina,  and 
represented  Lincoln  County  in  that  State's  legislature  in  1817.  He  was  appointed  Ter- 
ritorial Judge  of  Alabama  in  1818,  and  settled  in  Perry  County,  but  soon  afterward 
came  to  Greene.  In  1819  he  was  elected  judge  of  the  circuit  and  supreme  court,  and 
was  holding  the  distinguished  position  at  the  time  of  his  death,  in  1823.  His  wife  was 
Eliza,  a  daughter  of  Hon.  Daniel  M.  Forney,  of  Lincoln  County,  North  Carolina,  one  of 
the  prominent  families  of  that  section.  One  of  his  sons,  James  Daniel  Webb,  also  stood 
in  the  front  rank  in  his  profession.  He  represented  Greene  County  in  the  lower  house 
in  1843,  and  again  in  1851.  In  1860  he  was  one  of  the  electors  on  the  Bell  Presidential 
ticket,  and  made  an  active  canvass.  He  entered  the  cause  of  the  Confederacy  with 
zeal,  and  in  1862  he  assisted  to  raise  the  Fifty-first  Alabama  Cavalry,  of  which  he  was 
appointed  lieutenant  colonel,  and  subsequently  had  command  of  the  regiment.  While 
at  the  head  of  the  regiment,  sent  to  guard  the  retreat  of  General  Bragg's  forces,  at 
Shelbyville,  July  2,  1863,  he  was  mortally  wounded,  taken  prisoner,  and  died  July  19, 
after  rendering  gallant  service. 

His  brother,  Hon.  William  P.  Webb,  a  prominent  attorney  of  Greene,  now  the 
oldest  practicing  member  of  that  bar,  is  the  father  of  James  E.  The  mother  of  our  subject 
comes  from  old  Virginia  stock.  Her  maiden  name  was  Martha  Bell,  a  daughter  of  Captain 
John  Bell,  who  came  from  Jamestown,  Va.,  to  Greene  County,  Alabama,  at  an  early  date. 

The  parents  of  Mr.  Webb  married  in  Greensboro,  Ala.,  in  1839 ;  the  mother  died 
in  1875.  Seven  children  are  now  living — William  H.,  an  attorney,  living  in  California, 
where  he  has  served  as  judge;  Rev.  F.  B.  Webb,  a  Presbyterian  minister  of  Union 
Springs,  Ala.;  Wirt  Webb,  a  manufacturer;  Mrs.  Fannie  Crawford,  of  Tuscaloosa; 
Belle  an<l  Mattie. 

James  E.  Webb  was  born  in  Greene  County  in  1840,  and  graduated,  with  the  first 
honor  of  his  class,  at  the  University  of  Alabama,  in  the  year  1859.  He  began  the 
study  of  law  in  the  office  of  his  father,  and  sub.sequently  with  Thomas  H.  Herndon,  of 
Eutaw,  finishing  his  legal  studies  in  1860. 

He  was  one  of  the  first  to  enter  the  Confederate  service  in  1861,  and  was  in  contin- 
uous service  for  four  years.  He  entered  the  Fifth  Alabama  Infantry  as  a  private,  serv- 
ing in  that  capacity  for  one  year,  and  was  then  promoted  to  the  rank  of  lieutenant,  and 
detailed  upon  the  staff  of  General  R.  E.  Rhodes,  and  subsequently  was  promoted  to  the 
rank  of  captain,  and  assigned' to  duty  upon  the  staff  of  General  Stuart,  as  assistant 
ordnance  officer.  After  the  death  of  Stuart  he  was  transferred  to  the  command  of 
General  James  Dearing,  serving  as  captain  of  his  staff  until  the  fall  of  Petersburg.  He 
■was  severely  wounded  at  the  battle  of  Bellfield,  being  shot  through  the  neck.  He, 
however,  afterward  rejoined  his  command,  and  continued  in  the  service  until  he  saw 
the  final  surrender  at  Appomattox. 

;58  Jefferson    Coujity. 

Nothing  iJaunteJ  by  the  desolation  following,  he  immediately  counuenced  his  prac- 
tice at  Greensboro,  Ala.,  where  he  became  noted  as  a  brilliant  and  successful  member 
of  that  bar.  In  1885  he  removed  to  Birmingham,  having  commenced  in  1884  in  that 
city.  Since  removing  to  Birmingham,  he  has  been  in  copartnership  with  John  P.  Till- 
man, who  is  also  a  tine  lawyer. 

Jlr.  Webb  is  dignified,  but  cordial,  and  has  established  a  strong  reputation  in  the 
State.     He  has  a  large  clientage,  and  is  worthy  of  his  distinguished  ancestors. 

Jlr.  Webb  has  been  twice  married.  In  18C6  he  was  united  to  Miss  Zemula  Cress- 
well,  a  native  of  Alabama.  She  departed  this  life  in  May,  1874,  leaving  four  children — 
Louisa  C,  Mattie  B.,  James  E.,  Jr.,  and  Zemula.  His  second  wife  was  from  Greens- 
boro.    Her  maiden  name  was  Lucilla  Webb. 

Jlr.  Webb  has  long  been  a  member  of  the  Presbyterian  Church,  and  is  now  one  of 
the  elders  of  the  First  Presbyterian  Church  of  Birmingham,  Ala. 

Jamoc  rn  \/pn  Wnnco  ^^^  native  of  Fayette  County,  Alabama;  was  born 
"/  *\P   \    V  I  \  ^\    in  the  year  1824,  and  is  a  son  of  Judge  Jesse  and  Ann 

Van  Iloose.  His  father's  ancestors  were  of  Dutch  extraction,  and  early  settlers  of  New 
York, prior  to  the  Revolution,  in  which  they  were  participants,  the  original  name  being 
Van  Hooscn.  Descendants  of  this  family  removed  to  North  Carolina,  where  the  father 
of  our  subject  was  born.  In  1815  he  removed  to  Franklin  County,  Alabama,  where  he 
was  a  pioneer  merchant,  in  connection  with  William  B.  Wilson,  and  was  the  first  clerk  of 
the  circuit  court.  They  established  a  large  and  flourishing  trade,  among  the  early  set- 
tlers and  Indians.  In  1821  he  became  the  second  or  third  settler,  in  what  is  now  Fay- 
ette County,  then  part  of  Pickens,  and  resumed  his  mercantile  operations.  He  was 
soon  forced  into  politics,  and,  in  1 820,  was  elected  to  the  State  Senate.  He  served  nearly 
two  terms  and  then  resigned.  Elected  judge  of  the  county  court  he  served  until 
Fayette  was  fully  organized,  when  he  also  resigned  that  position,  having  a  distaste  for 
politics.  He  was  one  of  the  original  board  of  trustees  to  locate  the  University  of  Ala- 
bama. Continuing  business  in  Fayette  County  until  1841  he  became  a  merchant  of 
Tuscaloosa,  where  he  lived  until  his  death,  at  Northport,  in  1852.     He  married  in  1822. 

His  wife's  ancestors  were  early  settlers  of  Virginia,  belonging  to  the  Eggleston, 
Cary,  and  Archer  families.  She  died  in  1857,  in  Tuscaloosa.  Two  of  their  children  are 
now  living — the  subject  of  this  sketch,  aud  Valentine  C,  a  merchant  of  Birmingham. 

James  M.  commenced  the  study  of  law,  in  1847,  with  Judge  E.  W.  Peck  ;  was 
admitted  to  the  bar  in  1848,  and  immedi.itely  thereafter  formed  an  alliance  with  his 
preceptor,  which  copartnership  was  not  dissolved  until  1854.  He  was  alsoi  associated 
with  Hon.  E.  W.  Powell,  in  copartnership,  continuing  until  Colonel  Van  Iloose  became 
a  citizen  of  Birmingham,  in  188-5. 

He  has  never  entered  the  devious  paths  of  politics,  but  has  achieved  a  high  stand- 
ing in  his  profession,  and  added  not  only  luster  to  the  bar  of  Jefferson  County  but 
dignity,  through  personal  attributes  and  high  moral  worth. 

Colonel  Van  Hoose  has  been  twice  married.  His  first  wife  was  Miss  Susan  Alex- 
ander, of  an  old  Virginia  family.  She  died  in  1864,  leaving  two  children,  both  of 
whom  have  attained  prominent  positions  in  professional  and  business  life.  The  eldest, 
George  Wolsey,  is  an  attorney,  and  is  holding  the  office  of  Register  in  Chancery  at  Tus- 
caloosa, and  James  Alexander,  one  of  the  best  known  business  men  of  Birmingham. 

The  second  mai-riage  of  Colonel  Van  Iloose  occurred  in  1870,  with  Mrs.  Annie  H. 
Sorsby.  Her  maiden  name  was  Hill,  and  she  was  a  native  of  Greene  County,  Ala- 
bama.   Two  children  have  been  bora  to  this  union,  Susie  and  ilary  Lee. 

The  family  are  members  of  the  Episcopal  Church. 



BiograpJiical.  361 

D      U      J^aKnr     in  a  residence  of  less  tlian  one  year  in  Birmingham,  achieved  a 
'    /   *  '    commanding  position  among  the  attornej'S  of  Jefferson  County. 

His  parents,  Aquila  and  Francis  Tabor,  nee  Ware,  were  natives  of  Georgia,  where 
they  resided  until  their  marriage,  and,  in  18:56,  immigrated  to  Lafayette  County,  Missis- 
sippi, where  they  resided  the  remainder  of  their  days.  The  father  departed  this  life 
in  1878,  and  the  mother  in  1881. 

Our  subject  was  the  fourth  of  a  family  of  seven  children,  and  was  reared  upon 
a  farm,  which  was  his  father's  occupation,  and  received  limited  early  educational 
advantages.  Possessing  an  ambitious  spirit,  and  endowed  with  high  natural  abilities, 
he  early  decide'd  ujion  the  profession  of  law,  and,  at  the  age  of  twenty,  entered  the 
University  of  Georgia,  located  at  Athens,  and,  in  the  fall  of  1871,  was  admitted  to  the, 
bar  at  AVater  Valley,  Jlississippi,  where  he  established  an  extensive  practice,  which 
extended  also  to  Lafayette  County.  In  1878  he  removed  to  Oxford,  Lafayette 
County,  where  he  remained  for  three  years,  and  then  joined  his  brother,  K.  A.  Tabor, 
at  Fort  Smith,  Arkansas,  with  whom  he  was  associated  for  a  period  of  one  year,  the 
firm  subsequently  becoming  Taliaferro,  Tabor  &  Tabor.  This  alliance  continued  for 
two  years,  when  Colonel  Taliaferro  removed  to  Birmingham. 

In  the  spring  of  1886  ilr.  Tabor  decided,  upon  the  solicitations  of  Colonel  Talia- 
ferro, to  become  a  resident  of  the  JIagic  City,  and  thus  was  formed  the  lirm  of  Lane, 
Taliaferro  &  Tabor,  one  of  the  strongest  legal  associations  in  Alabama. 

Mr.  Tabor  labored  assiduously  and  faithfully,  devoting  his  entire  attention  to 
the  vast  and  increasing  practice  which  was  entrusted  to  them,  and,  in  many  of  the 
most  important  cases  tried  in  the  county,  he  took  a  leading  part  in  conducting 
them,  and  was  foremost  in  the  arguments,  in  which  he  ranks  as  one  of  the  best 
speakers  in  the  country.     As  a  criminal  lawyer  his  rank  is  especially  high. 

Mr.  Tabor  is  endowed  with  what  may  be  termed  a  natural  legal  intellect.  He 
grasps  quickly  and  accurately  legal  principles,  and  discriminates  correctly.  His  mem- 
ory is  remarkable,  retaining  not  only  principles  but  the  names  of  codes  and  books. 
He  is  an  untiring  worker,  and  aggressive  in  any  case  he  undertakes,  from  the  smallest 
to  the  greatest.  He  never  looks  upon  the  opposite  side,  and,  determining  to  win, 
never  prepares  for  defeat.  He  is  personally  exceedingly  agreeable  and  prepossessing  ; 
his  form  is  tall,  erect,  and  stalwart,  denoting  a  magnificent  constitution  and  perfect 
health  ;  his  nature  is  frank,  genial,  and  generous  ;  his  hand  is  as  liberal  as  his  heart  is 
sympathetic,  and  his  popularity  extends  to  all  professions  and  classes. 

Mr.  Tabor  has  also  interested  himself  in  real  estate  transactions,  in  which  he  has 
also  been  remarkably  successful.  He  is  one  of  the  incorporators  of  the  Smithfield 
Land  Company,  and  one  of  its  officers.     He  is  a  member  of  the  Knights  of  Pythias. 

Jlr.  Tabor  was  married  October  9,  1875,  to  Bliss  L.  E.  Oliver,  of  Eureka,  Panola 
County,  Mississippi.  Four  children  bless  this  union,  Oliver  K.,  Loise  E.,  Bee,  and 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Tabor  are  members  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South. 

John  D  Tillman  is  an  attorney  at  law,  well  and  favorably  known  throughout 
O'/V  Y'  1 '""'*^V  Alabama.  He  is  a  native  of  Perry  County,  Alabama,  and  was 
born  in  1849.  His  parents  were  John  M.  and  Mary  E.  Tillman,  nee  Plummer,  who 
were  natives  of  South  and  North  Carolina,  respectively. 

Reared  in  Selma  and  Marion,  in  this  i^tate,  he  received  the  benefits  of  good  private 
schools,  and  was  also  favored  with  the  superior  educational  advantages  of  Howard  Col- 
lege, at  Marion,  and  of  the  Univer.sity  of  Kentucky.  Upon  leaving  the  university,  he 
became  a  student  in  the  law  office  of  Pettus  &  Dawson,  of  Selma,  and  in  June,  1871, 

362  Jeffe7-so?i    County. 

was  admitted  to  the  practice,  opening  an  otiice  in  Selma.  In  1872  he  became  a  partner 
witli  John  White — this  association  continuing  until  January,  1S74,  when  he  became  the 
junior  partner  of  his  old  preceptors,  under  the  firm  name  of  Pettus,  Dawson  &  Tillman. 
He  continued  this  alliance  until  January,  1881,  when,  by  mutual  consent,  the  partner- 
ship was  dissolved,  and,  in  October  of  the  same  year,  he  became  a  partner  of  Joseph  F. 
Johnston,  continuing  with  Mr.  Johnston  until  January  1,  1883,  when  he  removed  to 
Montgomery,  and  commenced  reporting  the  decisions  of  the  supreme  court,  in  which 
position  he  acquired  an  extensive  acquaintance  with  the  legal  profession  of  the  State, 
and  rendered  efiicient  service. 

To  enter  upon  a  larger  professional  field  he  adopted  Birmingham  as  his  home  in 
October,  1884,  and  soon  afterward  the  law  firm  of  Webb  &  Tillman  was  formed,  now 
one  of  the  most  active  and  able  in  Jefferson  County. 

Mr.  Tillman,  while  a  resident  of  Selma,  was  a  member  of  the  city  council,  and  for 
two  terms  served  as  city  attorney. 

In  1885  he  was  appointed  by  Hon.  R.  C.  Brickell  as  one  of  the  two  assistant  com- 
missioners to  codify  the  laws  of  the  State,  according  to  the  act  of  the  legislature  of 
1884-85,  and  he  labored  assiduously  and  earnestly  at  this  work  until  its  completion  in 
November,  1866. 

He  is  now  in  earnest  and  active  practice  in  Birmingham. 

Mr.  Tillman  was  united  in  marriage  in  January,  1876,  with  Miss  Sallie  B.,  daughter 
of  II.  H.  Hurt,  Esq.,  of  Marion,  Ala. 

Td  n-TQC  \tJ cxzi  \hor\\T  ^^^  °'  Birmingham's  most  progressive  young  men,  was 
danlLb  W  Ldlr|Ll  l)^,    born  in  Coweta  County,  Georgia,  July  5,  1856. 

His  father,  Dr.  J.  S.  Weatherly,  was  a  native  of  Marlborough  District,  South  Caro- 
lina His  mother,  nee  Taliaferro,  was  a  native  Georgian,  and,  as  the  name  signifies, 
was  connected  with  one  of  the  most  noted  families  of  that  State.  His  parents  came  to 
Alabama  and  settled  in  Montgomery  when  he  was  about  two  years  old.  His  father  has 
maintained  a  standing  for  years  in  that  city,  both  socially  and  professionally,  as  one  of 
the  leading  citizens  of  this,  one  of  the  most  cultured  and  refined  communities  in  the 
South.  It  is  very  natural  that  the  subject  of  this  sketch  should  be  possessed  of  many 
qualities  which  have  ever  distinguished  him  as  tlie  true  gentleman,  and  have  given 
him  ready  entree  into  the  best  classes  of  social  life  wherever  he  has  lived. 

He  went  to  school  in  Montgomery  until  he  was  fourteen  years  old,  and  then 
attended  the  University  of  the  South  at  Sewanee,  Tenn.,  one  session.  When  he 
returned  home  he  was  engaged  in  commercial  pursuits  for  several  years  and  then  taught 
in  the  public  schools  of  that  city  four  years.  He  entered  the  law  department  of  the 
University  of  Alabama  and  maintained  a  standing  as  one  of  the  brightest  minds  of  the 
class.  In  June,  1879,  he  took  the  diploma  as  full  graduate  of  the  law  school.  On  his 
return  to  Montgomery  be  had  an  oflice  with  Clopton,  Herbert  &  Chambers,  and  gave 
special  attention  to  familiarizing  himself  with  the  practice  for  a  year,  and  then  entered 
the  arena  of  active  practice  with  a  preparation  that  few  young  men  could  claim.  He 
practiced  until  November,  1882,  and,  becoming  convinced  that  Birmingham  held  out 
unusual  opportunities  to  the  ambitious  and  deserving,  he  came  here  in  that  month,  and 
has  ever  since  devoted  himself  to  the  practice,  and  has  risen  as  rapidly  as  those  only 
do  who  succeed.  He  was  a  member  of  the  law  firm  of  Sharpe  &  Weatherly  until  the 
former's  elevation  to  the  city  judgeship  of  the  City  Court  of  Birmingham.  This  firm 
were  the  local  attorneys  for  St.  Clair  and  Jefferson  Counties  of  the  Georgia  Pacific 
Railroad.  After  the  latter  date  Mr.  Weatherly  became  a  member  of  the  firm  of  Weath- 
erly &  Putman,  and  to  the  latter  firm  has  succeeded,  in  a  largely  increased  ratio,  the 

Biographical.  363 

•practice  which  the  former  did.  They  have  grown  with  the  strength  and  growth  of 
Birmingham,  and  are  classed  among  its  most  reliable  and  successful  firms. 

On  December  23,  1885,  Mr.  Weatherly  received  the  appointment  of  Assistant  Gen- 
eral Counsel  of  the  Georgia  Pacific  Railroad,  and  has  filled  it  with  that  ability  which 
has  characterized  his  course  ever  since  he  became  a  member  of  his  learned  profession, 
and,  what  is  of  greater  importance,  has  won  the  confidence  and  esteem  of  the  officers 
of  this  corporation. 

Mr.  Weatherly  was  married  December  23,  1882,  to  Miss  Florence,  daughter  of  Col. 
John  T.  Milner,  of  New  Castle,  Ala.  The  name  of  Milner  is  too  well  identified  with 
the  marvelous  development  and  growth  of  Alabama  to  need  special  introduction  liere. 
To  this  union  two  children  have  been  born. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Weatherly  are  both  members  of  the  Episcopal  Church. 

Their  handsome  home  on  the  South  Highlands  is  one  of  the  happiest  and  most 
pleasant  in  Birmingham. 

rnih/ohc>ll  OlKjirhn  Dnrhor  was  born  at  Elyton,  Jefferson  Countv,  Alabama, 
\\\\\^\)^\\  jniDUILU  yKJlK^K  August  17,  1859,  and  is  another  of"  the  young 
men  who  has  seen  a  transformation  take  place  around  him,  as  if  by  magic.  He  has  seen 
developed,  from  a  few  struggling  habitations,  the  splendid  young  city  of  Birmingham, 
almost  under  the  eaves  of  his  own  home,  and  now  almost  on  the  point  of  ab.sorbing  his 
native  village  in  its  great  growth.  His  father,  the  Hon.  M.  T.  Porter,  is  now  judge  of 
probate  court,  and  for  full  accounts  of  his  ancestral  history  see  the  latter's  sketch  in 
this  volume. 

Young  Porter  received  his  early  education  at  the  old  field  schools,  in  his  native  vil- 
lage, and  went  to  no  other  until  he  attended  the  public  schools  of  Birmingham  in  1876 
and  1877.  Prof.  S.  L.  Robertson,  a  well  known  educator  in  Jeflerson  County  for  many 
years,  was  then  superintendent  of  schools. 

In  1881  he  attended  the  law  department  of  the  University  of  Alabama,  and,  on  his 
return  to  Birmingham,  engaged  in  the  practice  of  law  with  his  father,  the  Hon.  M.  T. 
Porter,  under  the  firm  name  of  Porter  &  Porter.  This  copartnership  lasted  until  the  fall 
of  1884,  when  his  father  was  appointed  Probate  Judge  of  Jeflerson  County.  He  then 
bacame  associated  with  Messrs.  Hewitt  &  Walker,  under  the  firm  name  of  Hewitt, 
Walker  &  Porter.  The  firm  stands  in  the  very  first  rank,  and  does,  perhaps,  the  most 
lucrative  practice  at  the  Birmingham  bar.  Few  of  our  younger  lawyers  have  as  bright 
and  inviting  a  future  as  Mr.  Porter. 

He  was  married  December  21,  1886,  to  Miss  Hattie  Earle,  of  Tyler,  Texas,  and  both 
are  members  of  the  Episcopal  Church. 

■ID  n  PvP't'r-rirm  "•is  born  in  Sumter  County.  Alabama,  near  Livings- 
(gjO^I^   (§)•    iSrVn  maa   ton,  the  county  seat,  August  17,  ISSl. 

This  county  is  one  of  the  wealthiest  in  the  State.  Its  people  are  among  the  most 
cultured  and  refined  in  the  Southern  country.  His  surroundings  were  all  highly  favor- 
able. He  was  born  on  the  farm  and  spent  his  early  life  as  all  farmers'  boys  do— that  is, 
sometimes  between  the  plow  handles,  or  at  other  rural  occupations,  and  then  in  the 
various  ways  known  only  to  the  inventive  boy,  in  a  multiplicity  of  diversions. 

His  father,  John  W.  Altman,  came  from  South  Carolina,  and  settled  in  Sumter 
County  in  1836,  and  was  afterward  married  to  his  mother,  Miss  Sarah  Hitt,  who  came 
from  North  Carolina  at  an  early  date. 

Young  Altman's  educational  advantages  were  good,  and  that  he  made  the  proper 
use  of  them  his  future  career  has  given  abundant  proof.     He  obtained  the  rudiments 


364  Jefferson    Coiaify. 

of  an  education  at  the  country  schools  in  his  own  neighborhood.  At  the  age  of  sixteen 
he  is  found  engaged  in  teaching  in  his  native  county,  with  the  laudable  purpose  of 
gaining  money  with  which  further  to  enable  him  to  prosecute  his  studies.  After  accu- 
mulating sufficient  money  he  went  to  Cooper's  In.stitute,  in  East  Mississippi.  It  was, 
at  that  time,  and  still  is  a  noted  school,  and  especially  characteristic  for  the  thorough 
training  it  gives  all  of  its  pupils.  After  an  attendance  here  of  some  months  he  took  a 
course  of  law  lectures  at  the  University  of  Virginia.  It  may  also  be  stated  to  his  credit 
that  he  was  enabled  to  take  these  lectures  with  money  he  made  while  teaching. 

After  his  return,  in  1871,  from  Virginia,  he  opened  a  law  office  in  Butler,  Ala- 
bama, the  county  seat  of  Choctaw  County.  He  was  then  twenty  years  old.  He  was 
associated  in  the  practice  with  Chancellor  Cobbs,  now  Chancellor  of  the  Western  Chan- 
cery Division  of  Alabama.  After  practicing  with  success  there  for  four  years  he  came 
to  Birmingham,  and  was  a  partner  of  Captain  Sprott  until  1883,  when  the  latter  was 
made  Judge  of  the  Sixth  Judicial  Circuit  of  Alabama.  He  was  Mayor  of  Livingston 
seven  years.  lie  was  Democratic  Elector  from  the  Sixth  Congressional  District  in  1SS4, 
when  Cleveland  was  elected  President.  From  the  beginning  he  has  had  a  gratifying 
experience  as  a  lawyer  in  Birmingham.  He  is  a  thorough  believer  in  the  bright  promise 
of  the  town. 

C\      YS^     oTfiP'f'on    "''^  born  in  Greene  County,  Alabama,   January  30,   1839. 

*       ^'  t    His  father,   William  F.  Fulton,  came  from  Maury  County, 

Tennessee,  and  settled  in  this  State  in  1819.  His  mother,  Elizabeth  Dial,  was  a  native  of 
the  same  county.  When  he  was  two  years  old  his  parents  moved  to  Sumter  County, 
Alabama,  where  his  mother  died  when  he  was  in  his  third  year.  His  father  died  Octo- 
ber 4,  1886,  at  the  extreme  age  of  eighty-six.  Thete  were  eight  children  born  to  the 
parents,  E.  K.  being  next  to  the  youngest.  He  went  to  school  for  some  years  in  Sum- 
ter and  Greene  Counties,  and  then  attended  Oglethorpe  University,  Georgia,  until  his 
graduation  in  1859.  He  taught  school  until  the  war  came  on,  and  was  in  the  commis- 
sary department  of  the  Confederate  Army  until  the  war  closed. 

After  the  close  of  the  war  he  farmed  in  Sumter  County  until  1873,  and  in  that  year 
came  to  Birmingham.  Prior  to  this  he  had  studied  law  under  Charles  Cook,  one  of  the 
leading  lawyers  of  Sumter,  and  when  he  arrived  in  Birmingham  he  at  once  began  the 
practice  of  his  profession,  in  which  he  has  since  been  engaged. 

Mr.  Fulton  has  been  a  successful  dealer  in  real  estate,  and  is  interested  in  several 
corporations,  the  most  important  of  these  being  the  Clifton  Land  Company,  which  owns 
some  beautifully  located  and  valuable  property  beyond  Red  Mountain. 

Mr.  Fulton  was  married  the  first  time  November  23, 1863,  to  Laura  G.  Montgomery, 
of  Pleasant  Ridge,  Greene  County,  Alabama.  To  this  union  throe  children  were  born — 
William  IMilton,  Laura  Edwina,  and  Laura  Montgomery. 

He  was  married  the  second  time  to  Miss  Nena  Montgomery,  of  Starkville,  Missis- 
sippi, in  May,  1876. 

Mr.  Fulton  is  an  Odd  Fellow,  and  he  and  his  family  are  all  members  of  the  Presby- 
terian Church. 

)no.  3*  @)e.mix^ori 

father,  William  H.  Jemison,  was  born  in  Georgia,  and 
is  now  living  in  Birmingham,  but  lived  in  Tuscaloosa  as  one  of  the  most  successful  and 
extensive  planters  for  many  years  in  the  rich  alluvial  bottoms  in  Tuscaloosa  County. 
His  mother  is  a  native  Alabamian.  His  grandparents,  on  both  sides,  were  Virginians. 
Young  Jemison  was  particularly  fortunate  in  his  educational  advantages,  as  his  birth- 

Biographical.  ,^65 

place  was  not  only  the  seat  of  the  State  University,  but  also  noted  lor  its  many  line 
schools,  and  the  high  degree  of  culture  that  its  people  attained.  He  took  a  select 
course  in  the  collegiate  department  at  the  University  of  Alabama,  and  graduated  in 
the  class  of  1S76.  He  acted  as  quartermaster  of  the  University  from  the  fall  of  1876  to 
the  close  of  June,  1879,  and  became  commandant  of  the  corps.  In  the  meantime  he 
devoted  himself  to  the  study  of  law,  and  graduated  from  the  law  department  of  the 
University  in  June  of  the  latter  year.  He  began  the  practice  in  Montgomery,  Ala.,  in 
the  following  fall,  and  edited  the  Alabama  Law  Journal  from  1881  to  1885  inclusive. 
He  maintained  his  standing,  both  as  a  writer  and  lawyer,  with  credit  during  this 

On  November  7,  1883,  he  was  married  to  Miss  Margie  Allen,  of  Lafayette,  Ala., 
and  in  January,  1884,  went  there  to  live,  and  practiced  law  until  he  came  to  Birming- 
ham, on  September  1,  1886,  and  accepted  the  position  of  secretary  and  attorney  of  the 
Birmingham  Land  and  Loan  Company,  which  is  one  of  the  prosperous  and  most  deserv- 
ing corporations  in  this  truly  progressive  center. 

^Ir.  Jemison  has  always  been  noted  for  his  practical  and  business  qualifications, 
and  to  these  are  due  the  comfortalde  circumstances  by  which  he  finds  himself  sur- 
rounded. His  domestic  relations  are  felicitous.  He  is  the  father  of  two  children,  Eliz- 
abeth Virginia  and  Allen  Bryce. 

He  and  his  wife  are  both  members  of  the  Episcopal  Church. 

/fJNft/'PP*      M       0.„4--fi„^     was  boru  in   Smith   Countv,   jMiss.,   June    IG, 

©yifl^iaa)  n.  it^emea  ^,5-  j,un  B.  Bethea,  his  kher,  a  lieutenant 
in  the  Confederate  Army,  was  killed  at  the  siege  of  Vicksburg. 

His  mother,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  A.  Bethea,  like  his  father,  was  a  native  of  South  Caro- 
lina, and  both  were  descendants  of  the  French  Huguenots,  and  moved  to  the  State  of 
his  birth  shortly  after  their  marriage.  On  the  death  of  his  father  she  returned  to  South 
Carolina.  There  were  six  chil<lren  in  the  family,  of  whom  four  are  living,  and  all  in 

William  lived  in  Marion  County,  South  Carolina,  until  he  was  nineteen  years  old, 
and| obtained  a  considerable  part  of  his  literary  education  in  the  academies  of  that 
county,  and  spent  two  and  one  half  years  in  the  collegiate  department  of  the  Vander- 
bilt  University,  in  Nashville,  Tenn.  He  then  came  to  Talladega,  Ala.,  where  he  taught 
school  for  six  years,  and  in  his  leisure  studied  law.  In  188-1  he  was  admitted  to  the 
bar,  and  on  the  9th  of  August  of  that  year  came  to  Birmingham,  where  he  has  .since 
practiced  with  great  success.  Among  the  trials  in  which  he  has  won  especial  notice 
was  the  Ellis  trial.  In  this  his  client,  Ellis,  was  held  to  answer  for  murder,  and  he 
was  successful  in  his  defense.  His  associate  in  this  trial  was  B.  H,  Tabor,  now  a 
prominent  citizen  of  Arkansas. 

Jlr.  Bethea  has  made  considerable  money  in  real  estate  transactions.  He  is  asso- 
ciated in  the  practice  with  Mr.  Charles  A.  Senn.  This  is  .one  of  the  able  young  firms 
of  Birmingham. 

(T^'Rni'pDA  P^  ^onn  "'^®  born  in  Edgefield,  now  Aiken  County,  South 
V«)riariex9  erV.  ^eni^  Carolina,  November  17,  ISoS.  His  father,  Thomas 
J.  Senn,  and  his  mother,  Nancy  E.  Marohant,  were  both  natives  of  South  Carolina. 
Young  Senn  went  to  the  common  schools  of  his  native  county  until  he  completed 
his  preliminary  course,  and  then  entered  Furman  University,  of  which  Dr.  James  C. 
Furman,  a  noted  educator,  was  president.  He  left  there  in  his  senior  year,  without 
completing  his  course,  to  take  the  office  of  commissioner  of  schools  of  his  native  county. 

366  Jefferson    County. 

He  held  the  position  for  two  years,  and  discharged  the  duties  of  it  with  signal  suc- 
■cess  and  considerable  ability.  He  had,  in  the  meantime,  read  law  in  the  otiice  of 
Major  W.  T.  Gary,  one  of  the  most  distinguished  lawyers  in  Soutli  Carolina,  and  now 
one  of  the  ablest  at  the  Augusta  bar,  in  Georgia.  At  the  end  of  the  two  years  that  he 
was  commissioner  of  public  schools,  he  entered  the  law  department  of  Georgetown 
University,  in  the  District  of  Columbia,  and  graduated  as  the  first-honor  man  of  his 
class  in  June,  1883,  and  received  the'faculty  prize  accorded  to  all  those  achieving  this 
distinction.  Immediately  after  his  graduation,  he  traveled  extensively  in  the  West, 
on  a  prospecting  tour,  with  the  intention  of  locating,  but,  as  he  saw  no  places  that 
suited  him,  he  came  to  Birmingham,  and  arrived  here  on  January  9,  1884,  and  since 
then  has  confined  himself  to  the  practice  of  his  profession.  He  is  recognized  as  one  of 
the  leading  younger  members  of  the  bar  of  this  cit)'.  As  a  gentleman  and  a  lawyer 
he  po.ssesses  many  of  those  qualities  that  make  the  successful  man  of  the  world,  and 
being  yet  a  very  young  man  he  has  a  bright  future  ahead  of  him,  if  one  is  permitted 
to  base  a  prediction  on  the  indications  of  the  present. 

Mr.  Senn  was  appointed  Register  in  Chancer)-  on  November  2,  1886,  and  fills  the 
position  with  great  satisfaction  to  the  members  of  his  profession. 

(iamex«>  Moaroe  P(^x^efF  :r%^°:';i,V  h'Th^TY' fS'"^^^^ 

vs  March  3, 18.31.    His  father,  Robert  Russell, 

came  to  Alabama  from  the  State  of  Georgia,  in  1832,  with  his  father,  Hiram  Russell, 
-who  settled  in  the  old  Carrollton  neighborhood.  The  latter  died  only  a  few  years  ago, 
at  the  extreme  age  of  eighty-six.  His  mother's  maiden  name  was  Martha  Dardon,  who 
was  a  native  of  Tuscaloosa  County.  There  were  eleven  children  in  the  family,  six 
of  whom  were  boys  and  five  girls.     Kine  of  this  number  are  now  living 

James  worked  on  his  father's  farm,  and,  when  he  was  nine  years  old,  commenced 
going  to  school.  His  educational  opportunities  were  very  meager,  and  his  whgle  school 
life  can  be  summed  up  in  about  nine  months.  The  first  work  he  ever  did  for  himself 
was  to  assist  in  clearing  ofl"  the  right-of-way  of  the  South  and  North  Division  of  the 
Louisville  &  Nashville  Railroad,  between  Village  and  Five-Mile  Creeks,  and  the  Alabama 
•  Great  Southern  Railroad  and  Hillman,  at  one  dollar  per  day.  Immediately  after  this  he 
went  to  Union  County,  Mississippi,  where  he  spent  three  years,  and  returned  to  Jefferson 
"County  in  April,  1874,  and,  after  teaching  school  for  three  months,  engaged  in  farming 
north  of  Birmingham,  and  read  law  at  spare  times.  In  October,  1876,  he  came  to  Bir- 
mingham, and  read  law  in  the  office  of  Porter  &  Martin,  and  in  January,  1877,  entered 
the  law  department  of  the  University  of  Alabama,  and  remained  there  until  May  25 
of  that  year,  when  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  Jefferson  County,  before  Judge  W.  S. 
Mudd.  He  began  the  practice  under  very  discouraging  circumstances,  and  borrowed 
twenty  dollars  from  Colonel  Alburto  Martin  with  which  to  supply  his  family  with  food, 
and  was,  besides,  considerably  in  debt.  Since  June,  1877,  he  has  been  actively  engaged 
in  practicing  law  in  Birmingham.  His  real  estate  transactions  have  been  pecuniarily 
successful,  and  the  valuation  of  his  city  property  will  amount  to  nearly  $100,000. 
Besides  this,  he  owns  sevenil  thousand  dollars  wortli  of  property  a  short  distance  from 
the  city. 

Mr.  Russell,  among  other  good  things,  contributed  almost  the  entire  amount  to 
build  the  Second  Baptist  Church,  of  Birmingham,  and  has  been  a  member  of  the  Bap- 
tist Church  ever  since  he  was  thirteen  years  of  age. 

He  was  married  November  10,  1874,  to  Sarah  Isabella  EUard,  daughter  of  W.  W. 
EUard.  They  have  five  children — Augusta,  John  Martin,  Isabella,  Annie,  deceased,  and 
James  M.     Mrs.  Russell,  like  her  husband,  belongs  to  the  Baptist  Church. 

m  ^M  •  y^t^x^ 

Biographical.  369 

0«,^;^    Otx,^ @ '.\'&.    was  born  in  Randolph  County,  Alabama,  in  1852. 

i©)a^^lSL  i®)l^Ot2  ^miHn  He  is  the  eWest  son  of  ex-Oovemor  WilUam  H. 
Smith,  Sr.,  with  whom  he  is  associated  in  the  practice  of  law.  A  part  of  his  education 
was  obtained  in  common  schools,  partly  in  Chattanooga,  Tenn.,  and  at  the  University  of 

His  acquirement  of  the  profession  of  law  was  obtained  in  his  father's  law  office. 
He  was  admitted  to  the  bar  at  Montgomery,  Alabama,  before  the  supreme  court,  in 
1874.  Mr.  Smith  possesses  a  high  order  of  legal  mind,  and,  since  his  practice  at  the 
bar,  he  has  been  uniformly  successful.  He  has  attracted  the  closest  attention  in  all  the 
courts  where  his  forensic  abilities  were  called  in  play.  He  has  drawn  the  unusual 
assertion  for  one  so  young,  from  one  of  the  ablest  supreme  judges  the  State  has  ever 
had,  of  "  making  one  of  the  closest  arguments  ever  listened  to  in  all  of  his  experience 
before  that  tribunal."  Mr.  Smith's  manner  as  a  speaker  is  close,  cogent,  logical,  and 
easy.  He  possesses  the  rare  faculty  of  never  becoming  frustrated,  even  under  the  most 
trying  circumstances,  a  quality  the  possession  of  which  is  far  from  ordinary,  and  which 
goes  a  great  ways  in  securing  the  ear  of  both  the  judge  and  jury,  and  in  insuring  suc- 
cess to  the  cause  of  his  clients.  These  tangible  qualities  in  any  speaker  are  exceed- 
ingly fortunate,  and  cannot  but  weigh  with  great  force  before  any  body.  Mr.  Smith  has. 
paid  little  or  no  attention  to  politics,  preferring  to  remain  in  his  chosen  field,  and  reap 
the  rewards  that  lie  in  store  for  him,  and,  from  what  has  just  been  said,  there  can  be  no- 
question  of  his  attaining  to  a  high  rank,  even  among  the  foremostat  the  bar.  His  man- 
ner as  a  gentleman  is  quiet,  affable,  and  unpretentious,  and  to  none  is  he  more  welcome 
than  his  nearest  friends,  who  know  his  worth  best. 

O  r\^of''C  ^  Isinri^o  ^^®  '-"^"^  '"  Huntsville,  Ala.,  in  the  month  of  January,. 
J'^O'-'®"'  (§)•  l-'0'-i-'&  ^gg^  ,j,|jg  gjtyof  his  birth  has  been  noted